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M.A.. Litt. D., Hon. LL.D. (Aberdeen), 

Lecturer on Persian in the University of Cambridge, 
Formerly Fellow of Trinity College. 








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This Volume is one 

of a Series 
published by the Trustees of the 


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sophy and Religion of the Turks, Persians, and Arabs to which, from 
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i, > 

11 The worker pays his debt to Death; 
His work lives on, nay, quickeneth." 

The following memorial verse is contributed by ^Abdrfl-Haqq Hdmid 
Bey of the Imperial Ottoman Embassy in London, one of the Founders 
of the New School of Turkish Literature, and for many years an 
intimate friend of the deceased. 



[JANE GIBB, died November 26, 1904], 








appointed 1905. 



yj, Sidney Street^ 




(Translations of the three Inscriptions 
on the Cover.) 

/. Arabic. 

"These are our works which prove 

what we have done; 
Look, therefore, at our works 
when we are gone." 

2. Turkish. 

"His genius cast its shadow o er the world, 
And in brief time he much achieved and 

wrought : 

The Age s Sun was he, and ageing suns 
Cast lengthy shadows, though their time be 


(Kemdl Pdshd-zdde.) 

3. Persian. 

" When we are dead, seek for our 


Not in the earth, bat in the 
hearts of men." 

(Jaldlu d-Din Bumi.) 




(All communications respecting this volume should be ad 
dressed to R. A. Nicholson, 12 Harvey Road, Cambridge, who 
is the Trustee specially responsible for its production). 



Introduction i XLIV 

Addenda et Corrigenda. XLV L 

Abstract of Contents of the Kitab al-Luma c . . . 1121 

Index of subjects and technical terms .... 122130 

Glossary 131-154 


Text of the Kitab al-Luma c . , fH I 

Index of Persons fTt fl*V 

Index of Places, Tribes, Books, etc. ..... fvV flv 


This volume marks a further step in the tedious but in 
dispensable task, on which I have long been engaged, of 
providing materials for a history of Sufism, and more espe 
cially for the study of its development in the oldest period, 
beginning with the second and ending with the fourth 
century of Islam (approximately 700 1000 A. D.). A list 
of the titles known to us of mystical books written during 
these three hundred years would occupy several pages, but 
the books themselves have mostly perished, although- the 
surviving remnant includes some important works on various 
branches of Sufistic theory and practice by leaders of the 
movement, for example, Harith al-Muhasibi, Husayn b. Mansur 
al-Hallaj, Muhammad b. c Ali al-Tirmidhi, and others whom 
I need not mention now. M. Louis Massignon, by his recent 
edition of the Kitdb al-Tawdsin of Hallaj,, has shown what 
valuable results might be expected from a critical examina 
tion of the early literature. It is certain that a series of 
such monographs would form the best possible foundation 
for a general survey, but in the meanwhile we have mainly 
to rely on more or less systematic and comprehensive treat 
ises dealing with the lives, legends, and doctrines of the 
ancient Sufis. I am preparing and hope, as soon as may be, 
to publish a work on this subject derived, to a large extent, 
from the following sources: 

1. The Kitdb al-Luma c by Abu Nasr al-Sarraj (f 378 A. H.). 

2. The Kitdb al-Tcfarruf li-madhhab ahl al-Tasaw^v^tf by 
Abu Bakr al-Kalabadhi (f 380 or 390 A. H.). 


3. The Q&t al-Qulib by Abu Talib al-Makki (f 386 A. H.). 

4. The Tabaqdt al-Sufiyya by Abu c Abd al-Rahman al-Sulami 
(t 412 A. H.). 

5. The Hilyat al-Aivliyd by Abu Nu c aym al-Isbahani (f 
430 A. H.). 

6. The Risdlat al-Qushayriyya by Abu 1-Qasim al-Qushayri 
(t 465 A. H.). 

7. The Kashf al-Mahjub by c Ali b. c Uthman al-Hujwirf (f 
circa 470 A. H.). 

8. The Tadhkirat al-Awliyd by Fariduddin c Attar (f circa 
620 A. H.). 

NOS. i, 3, 6, 7, 8 of the above list are now accessible in 
European or Oriental editions, and N. 7 also in an English 
translation. NOS. 2, 4 and 5 are still unedited and therefore 
comparatively useless for purposes of reference. May I suggest 
that some of our younger scholars should turn their atten 
tion to the manuscript copies of these texts in London, 
Leyden, Vienna, Constantinople and elsewhere? 

Little material exists for the biography of Sarraj. The 
authors of the oldest Sufi Lives pass him over in silence. ) 
The first separate notice of him that is known to me occurs 
in the Supplement to the Tadhkirat al-Awliyd (II, 182), 
from which the article in Jami s Nafahdt al-Uns (N. 353) 
is chiefly compiled. Shorter notices are given by Abu 1- 
Mahasin (Nujum, ed. by Popper, II, part 2, N. I, p. 42), 
Dhahabi, Ta rikh al-Isldm (British Museum, Or. 48, 1560), 
Abu 1-Falah c Abd al-Hayy al- c Akari (Shadhardt al-Dhahab, 
MS. in my possession, I, iS$a), 2 ) and Dara Shikuh, 

i) Abii c Abd al-Rahman al-Sulami, who does not notice Sarraj in his Tabaqdt 
al-Sufiyya (British Museum, Add. 18520), appears to have supplied the omission 
in his Ta rikh al-Sufiyya See the extract from Dhahabi cited below. 
^ 2) See JKAS for 1899, p. 911, and for 1906, p. 797. The article on 
Sarraj copies Dhahabi and concludes with a short quotation from Sakhawi : 


Safinat al-Awliyd (Ethe, Catalogue of Persian manuscripts 
in the Library of the India office, col. 301, N. 271). Since 
the passage in the Tarikh al- Islam has not been published 
before, I will transcribe it. 


, J < 

The few facts contained in this notice may be summarised 
as follows. 

Abu Nasr Abdallah b. c Ali b. Muhammad b. Yahya al- 
Sarraj, the author of the Kitdb al-Lumcf was a native of Tus. 
His teachers were Ja c far al-Khuldi, Abu Bakr Muhammad b. 
Dawud al-Duqqi, and Ahmad b. Muhammad al-Sa ih. ! ) The 
family to which he belonged was noted for asceticism. Abu 
Nasr was a zealous Sunni, but although he based himself 
on knowledge of the religious law, 2 ) he was learned in mys 
tical theology and was regarded by the Sufis as an author 
itative exponent of their doctrines. Amongst his countrymen 

1) No person of this name is mentioned in the Luma c . It seems to me 
certain that ^VJ\ is a mistake for i O\, in which case the reference will be to 
Abu 1-Hasan Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Salim. See under Ibn Salim in the 
List of Authorities. 

2) ii jj\ Lc ,Uaw.V\ is literally "to use the knowledge of the religious 
law as a support or guard." 


he was celebrated for his nobility of soul. ) He died in 
the month of Rajab, 378 A. H. = October November, 
988 A. D. 2 ) 

From the Persian biographies we learn that Sarraj was 
surnamed "the Peacock of the Poor" (to* us al-fuqara}. The 
statement that he had seen Sari al-Saqati (ob. 253) and Sahl 
b. c Abdallah al-Tustari (ob. 283) is manifestly false, nor does 
the Kitdb al-Lumc bear out the assertion that he was a 
pupil of Abu Muhammad al-Murta c ish of Naysabur (ob. 328). 
It may be that, as the Nafahdt says, he composed many 
works on Sufism in addition to the Lumtf, but if so, every 
trace of them has vanished. The following anecdote, which 
first occurs in the Kashf al-Mahjub of Hujwiri, 3 ) is related 
by both the Persian biographers. "Abu Nasr al-Sarraj came 
to Baghdad in the month of Ramadan and was given a 
private chamber in the Shuniziyya mosque and was appointed 
to preside over the dervishes until the Feast. During the 
nightly prayers of, Ramadan (tardwih) he recited the whole 
Koran five times. Every night a servant brought a loaf of 
bread to his room. On the day of the Feast, when Sarraj 
departed, the servant found all the thirty loaves untouched." 
Another story describes how, in the course of a theosophical 
discussion, he was seized with ecstasy, and threw himself in 

1) Futuwwat (altruism), the quality which was displayed by Iblis when he 
chose to incur damnation rather than deny the Unity of God by worshipping 
Adam. Cf. Massignon, al-Hallaj^ in Reviie de Fhistoire des religions* 1911. The 
meaning of the word is discussed by Thorning in his Beitrdge zur Kenntniss 
des islamischen Vereinsiuesens Tiirkische Bibliothek, vol. 16, pp. 184 221 
and by R. Hartmann, Das Suflttim nach al-Kuschairi^ p. 44 foil. 

2) According to the Nujiim, his death took place at Naysabur while he 
was engaged in prayer (cf. the final words of Dhahabi s notice); but the Nafahdt 
states that he was buried at Tus. Before his death he said, "Every one whose 
bier is carried past my tomb will be forgiven." Consequently the people of 
Tus used to bring their dead to his tomb and halt beside it for a time and 
then move on. 

3) P. 323 of my translation. 


the attitude of prayer upon a blazing fire, which had no 
power to burn his face. ! ) 

He must have travelled extensively. The Kitdb al-Lumc 
records his meetings and conversations with Sufis in many 
parts of the Muhammadan empire, e.g., Basra, Baghdad, 
Damascus, Ramla, Antioch, Tyre, Atrabulus, Rahbat Malik b. 
Tawq, Cairo, Dimyat, Bistam, Tustar, and Tabriz. Probably 
the duties of a spiritual director were not congenial to him. 
It is interesting, however, to observe that the only one of 
his pupils who attained to eminence, Abu 1-Fadl b. al-Hasan 
of Sarakhs, afterwards became the Sheykh of the famous 
Persian mystic, Abu Sa c id b. Abi 1-Khayr. 2 ) 

Sarraj explains (p. f, 1. A foil.) that he wrote the Kitdb 
al-Lumcf at the request of a friend, whose name he does 
not mention. His purpose in writing it was to set forth the 
true principles of Sufism and to show by argument that they 
agree with, and are confirmed by, the doctrines of the Koran 
and the Apostolic Traditions; that they involve imitation 
of the Prophet and his Companions as well as conformity 
with the religious practice of pious Moslems. The work, 
therefore, is avowedly apologetic and controversial in character. 
Its contents are fully detailed in the Abstract, but a brief 
analysis will not be out of place here. 

1) Tadh. al-Awliyd, II, 183, 3; Nafahdt^ 320, 2. 

2) Nafahat^ 320, 18. 



t I Names of the persons by whom the Kitdb al- 

Lumcf was transmitted to the anonymous editor. 
Doxology. The author s preface. 

r. i CHAPTERS I IX. The relation of Sufism to Islam. 
Traditionists, jurists, and Sufis. Peculiar charac 
teristics of the Sufis. Their doctrine derived from 
the Koran and the Traditions of the Prophet. 

rr-r. CHAPTERS X XL Origin of the name Sufi . 

TA r^ CHAPTERS XII XIV. Sufism the esoteric science 
of Islam. Its nature, meaning, and derivation. 

U-TA CHAPTERS XV XVIII. Unification (taw/nd)a.n& 
Gnosis (mcfrifat). 

Vr-i \ CHAPTERS XIX XXXVII. The mystical stations 
(maqdmdt) and states (ahwdl). 

tr-Yr CHAPTERS XXXVIII XLVI. The hidden mean 
ings of the Koran and how they are interpreted 
by the Sufis. 

\-i 1^ CHAPTERS XL VII L. Imitation of the Prophet. 
His character and virtues. 

Mt-\.o CHAPTERS LI LV. The Sufistic method of in 
terpretation of the Koran and the Traditions, 
with examples. 

\i\-\U CHAPTERS LVI LXII. The Companions of the 
Prophet regarded as patterns of the mystic life. 
Abu Bakr, c Umar, c Uthman, c Ali, the Ahl al-Suffat 
and the other Companions. 

r \\-\i\ CHAPTERS LXIII LXXXVIII. The manners 
(dddb) of the Sufis : in their ablutions, in prayer, 
almsgiving, fasting, pilgrimage, social intercourse, 
mystical discussions, meals and entertainments, 


ecstasy, dress, travelling, begging, earning a live 
lihood, marriage, sitting alone or in company, 
hunger, and sickness; the manners of Sheykhs, 
disciples, and hermits ; their manners in friend 
ship and in the hour of death. 

\ CHAPTER LXXXIX. The different answers given 
by Sufis on many points of mystical doctrine. 

CHAPTER XC. Letters, or parts of letters, written 
by Sufis to one another. 

fit CHAPTER XCI. Specimens of the introductions 
(sudur) of Sufistic epistles. 

Toy fil CHAPTER XCII. Specimens of Sufistic poetry. 

CHAPTER XCIII. Prayers and invocations to God. 

CHAPTER XCIV. The precepts (wasdyd) given 
by Sufis to one another. 

.. r"\Y CHAPTERS XCV CVI. Audition (samd c ). 
CHAPTERS CVII CXII. Ecstasy (wajd). 
CHAPTERS CXIII CXVIII. Miracles (kardmdt). 

CHAPTERS CXIX CXX. Explanation of Sufistic 
technical terms. 

CHAPTERS CXXI CXXXII. Explanation of the 
ecstatic expressions (shathiyydt) used by Sufis. 

erroneous doctrines held by certain Sufis. 


The Kitdb al-Lumc can hardly be called an original work 
in the sense that it deals with the author s theories and 
speculations on the subject of Sufism. In the main he con 
fines himself to recording and interpreting the spoken or 
written words of his predecessors, and he rebukes contem 
porary writers for the ostentatious discussions in which they 
indulged. From the historical point of view, his reserve is 
welcome. It throws into sharp relief the invaluable collection 
of documents which he has brought together and arranged, 
documents that are in many instances nowhere else to be 
found, illustrating the early development of Islamic mys 
ticism and enabling us to study its language, ideas, and 
methods during the critical time of adolescence. Considering 
the variety of topics which the author has managed to in 
clude in a comparatively short treatise, we can easily forgive 
him for having often suppressed the isndds and abbreviated 
the text of traditions and anecdotes; but if he had allowed 
himself a freer hand in exposition, his book would be even 
more instructive than it is. There are many passages which 
only a Sufi could explain adequately. 

Its compendious style, the wide range of its subject-matter, 
and the writer s close adherence to his authorities do not 
permit such a systematic and exhaustive analysis of mystical 
doctrines as we find, for example, in the Qut al-qulub of Abu 
Talib al-Makki. The nineteen chapters on states (ahwdl) and 
stations (maqdmdt) occupy a little over thirty pages in the pre 
sent edition about half the space which Abu Talib devotes to 
the single maqdm of trust in God (tawakkul}. Here as well 
as in other sections of his work Sarraj adopts an artificial 
scheme of classification by triads, which is characteristic of 
this kind of Sufi literature. On the whole, however, it may 
be claimed for him that his readers will obtain a clear notion, 
uncomplicated by elaborate details, of what is most import 
ant for them to understand. Without attempting a complete 


review, I would mention as especially novel or noteworthy 
the chapters on Sufistic interpretation (istinbdt) of the Koran 
and the Hadith; those on audition and ecstasy, which em 
body excerpts from the lost Kitdb al-wajd of Abu Sa c id b. 
al-A c rabi and have been utilised by Ghazzali in the Ihyd\ 
the seventy pages on manners , treating of the ritual and 
social aspects of Sufism; the interesting selection of poems 
and epistles; the large vocabulary of technical terms; the 
specimens of shathiyydt with explanations partly derived 
from Junayd s commentary on the ecstatic sayings that were 
attributed to Abu Yazid al-Bistami; and the final chapters 
on errors of mystical doctrine. I have already published the 
text and translation of certain passages relating to the con 
ception of fand in an article entitled "The Goal of Mu- 
hammadan Mysticism" (J.R.A.S. for 1913, p. 55 foil.) 

As regards the word Sufi , it is remarkable that Sarraj 
favours (not on linguistic grounds, however) the now accepted 
derivation from suf. He tells us that, according to some, 
Sufi was a modern designation invented by the people of 
Baghdad. This statement, though he naturally rejects it, does 
in all probability give a true account of the origin of the name. 

Notwithstanding that Sarraj takes for granted the reality 
of the higher mystical experiences and is eager to justify 
the apparent blasphemies uttered by many Sufis at such 
moments, he constantly appeals to the Koran and the Apo 
stolic Traditions as the supreme arbiters which every Sufi 
must recognise. If we admit his principles of interpretation, 
we cannot deny his orthodoxy. Fand itself, as defined by 
him, means nothing more than realisation of the Divine 
Unity (taw kid) and is in logical harmony with Islamic mo 
notheism. Whether this view indicates that the fand theory, 
as Professor Margoliouth has contended, *) was simply evolved 

t) The Early Development of Mohammedanism^ p. 199. 


from tawhidj or whether it represents the result of impreg 
nation of the monotheistic idea by foreign influences, is a 
difficult question. We cannot yet decide with certainty, but 
the evidence, so far as it goes, seems to me to render the 
latter hypothesis more probable. 1 ) Sarraj denounces hulul 
and other heretical forms of the fand doctrine. While dis 
approving of excessive asceticism, he enjoins the strictest 
obedience to the sacred law. The Sufi (he says) differs from 
the ordinary Moslem only in laying greater stress upon the 
inward religious life of which the formal acts of worship 
are an outward expression. 

Sarraj was closely associated with Ibn Salim (Abu 1-Hasan 
Ahmad b. Muhammad) 2 ) of Basra, who, "though extremely 
orthodox in some respects, was opposed to certain funda 
mental articles of the Sunna". 3 ) This Ibn Salim was the son 
of Abu c Abdallah b. Salim ; and their followers, a group of 
theologians known as the Salimfs, occupied an advanced 
position on the left wing of the mystical movement, as ap 
pears from the fact that they sympathised with Hallaj and 
defended his orthodoxy. 4 ) From the account of their tenets 
given by c Abd-al-Qadir al-Jilani in his Ghunya 5 ) we might 
assert with confidence that Sarraj cannot have been a mem 
ber of the school. None of the heresies there enumerated 
occurs in the Lumcf, and on the last page of his book 
Sarraj declares that the spirit dies like the body, a state- 

1) Cf. my Mystics of I slam ^ p. 1 6 foil. 

2) See under Ibn Salim in the List of Authorities. 

3) Shadharat al-Dhahab, I, 1720 (citation from the c lbar of Dhahabi). Poss 
ibly these words refer to Ibn Salim the Elder. Muhammadan writers fre 
quently fail to distinguish between the father and the son. 

4) Concerning the Salimis and their doctrines see Goldziher, Die dogma ti- 
sche Partei der Salimijja, ZDMG. vol. 61, p. 73 foil.; Amedroz in JRAS. 
for 1912, p. 573 foil.; and Massignon, Kit&b al-Tawdsin^ Index under Sali- 

5) Goldziher, loc. cit. p. 77. 


ment which is at variance with the Salimi belief in its im 
mortality. l ) On the other hand, it would be absurd to sup 
pose that each individual Salimi embraced all the heresies 
in G Abd al-Qadir s list. That Ibn Salim himself did so is 
most unlikely in view of the respect shown to him by 
Sarraj and the friendly intercourse that was maintained be 
tween them. Moreover, Sarraj on several occasions quotes 
sayings and verses by Hallaj, whom he seems to have re 
garded as a profound Unitarian (cf. 303, 20 foil.). But though 
he agreed with the Salimis on this point, I doubt whether 
any trace of their peculiar doctrines can be discovered in 
the Luma c . A follower of Ibn Salim would scarcely have 
twitted his leader with excusing in Sahl b. c Abdallah (the 
Sheykh of Abu Abdallah b. Salim) what he condemned in 
Abu Yazid al-Bistami, nor would he have described Sahl 
as "the Imam of Ibn Salim and the most excellent of 
mankind in his opinion" (394, 12 foil.). It is a striking cir 
cumstance that two of the three oldest surviving Arabic 
treatises on Sufism were directly influenced by Ibn Salim. 
In the Luma^ his personality stands out conspicuously amongst 
the author s contemporaries, and the Qut al-qulub is the work 
of his pupil, Abu Talib al-Makki, whom the Salimis justly 
claim as one of themselves. 

Sarraj obtained his materials partly from books and partly 
from oral tradition, but the information which he gives us 
concerning his sources is by no means complete. 

The following books are cited : 

1. A History of Mecca (4Xj\j>-\), possibly the work of 
Azraqi (22, 12). 

2. The Kitdb al-nmshdhadat by c Amr b. c Uthman al-Makkf 
(69, 12 and 117, 8). 

i) Cf. Massignon, Kitdb al-Tawdsin^ p. 136, n. 2. 


3. The Kitdb al-Sunan by Abu Dawud al-Sijistani (139, 13). 

4. A work on the rules of prayer (adab al-saldt) by Abu 
Sa c id al-Kharraz (153,7). 

5. A book of which the title is not mentioned, by Abu 
Turab al-Nakhshabi (205, 19). 

6. The Kitdb al-mundjdt by Junayd (259, 2). 

7. The Kitdb al-wajd by Abu Sa c id b. al-A c rabi (308, 5 ; 
310, I ; 314, 17). 

8. The Kitdb mcfrifat al-mcrifat by Ibrahim al-Khawwas 
(362, 14). 

9. A commentary by Junayd on the ecstatic expressions 
(shathiyydt] attributed to Abu Yazid al-Bistami (381,2; 
382,5, etc.). 

The persons cited as authorities at first hand are forty in 
number, all being Sufis with a single exception the cel 
ebrated philologist Ibn Khalawayh. Most of them are un 
known, but the list includes several mystics of eminence, 
e. g. Duqqi, Abu 1-Hasan al-Husri, Ja c far al-Khuldi , Abu 
c Amr b. Nujayd, Abu c Abdallah al-Rudhabari, Abu 1-Hasan 
b. Salim, and Abu 1-Husayn al-Sirawani. The names of the 
forty in alphabetical order, together with some biographical 
details and references, are printed below, and those most 
frequently cited are marked with an asterisk. 


Abbreviations: ! ) 

A = Ansdb of Sam c ani (Gibb Memorial Series, vol. XX). 
H = Hilyat al-Awliyd of Abu NiTaym al-Isbahani, Leyden 

MS. 311^ and 311^ Warn. 
K = Kashf al-Mahjub of Hujwiri, my translation (Gibb 

Memorial Series, vol. XVII). 
N = Nafahdt al-Uns of Jami, ed. by Nassau Lees (Calcutta, 

1859). The figures cited refer to the numbered bio 

graphies, not to the pages. 
Q = Qushayri s Risdla (Cairo, 1318 A. H.). 
Sh = Sha c rani s Tabaqdt al-Kiibrd (Cairo, 1299 A. H.). 
TA = Tadhkirat al-Awliyd of Fariduddin c Attar, ed. by me 

in Persian Historical Texts, vols. Ill and V (1905 

TS = Tabaqdt al-Sufiyya of Abu c Abd al-Rahman al-Sulami, 

British Museum, Add. 18520. 
Y = Yaqut, Mtfjam al-Bulddn, ed. by Wiistenfeld (1866 


c Akki, Abu 1-Tayyib Ahmad b. Muqatil al-Baghdadi. 
A 397^ penult. 

This quotation does not occur in the Lumrf y but Sam c ani 
may have found it in another work by Sarraj. 

i) In referring to MSS. I have used the italicised letters a and b to denote 
the two pages which face each other when the MS. lies open before the 
reader, a being on his right hand and b on his left. According to the method 
commonly adopted a and b denote the front and back of the same leaf. There 
fore the figures of the references given below are always one page ahead of 
the ordinary reckoning. For example, 200^ = 199^ and 2Qol>2OOa. 


c Akki reports a description of Shibli s behaviour on his 
deathbed, derived from his famulus, Bundar al-Dinawari, 
whom G Akki met on the same day in the house of 
Ja c far al-Khuldi (104, 6); part of a letter written to 
Ja c far al-Khuldi by Abu 1-Khayr al-Tinati (236, 13); 
an account derived from Ja c far al-Khuldi of the way in 
which Abu 1-Husayn b. Ziri, a pupil of Junayd, expressed 
his approval or disapproval of samtf (272, 13); an ecstasy 
of Shibli which he witnessed (282, 17). 
The author relates that c Akkf showed him a list that 
he had compiled of persons who recovered their lost 
property by means of a prayer which Ja c far al-Khuldi 
used for that purpose (317, 6). 

c Alawi, Hamza b. c Abdallah. N. 64. 

A pupil of Abu 1-Khayr al-Tinati (ob. 349 A. H.). 
Speaking from personal experience, he vouches for his 
master s telepathic powers (317, 8). 

c Alawi, Yahya b. al-Rida. 

He related at Baghdad, and copied for the author with 
his own hand, an anecdote of the Sufi Abu Hulman (289, 7). 

c Asd idi, Talhat al-Basri. 

He related at Basra an anecdote of Sahl b. c Abdallah 
al-Tustari which he derived from one of Sahl s disciples 
(330, 8). The name of the disciple is defectively written 
in the MSS. and cannot be ascertained. 

Bdniydsi, Muhammad b. Ma c bad. 

He relates a story of al-Kurdi al-Sufi (203, 5). 

Basri, Ahmad b. Muhammad. 

Possibly identical with Abu 1-Hasan Ahmad b. Muham 
mad b. Salim of Basra (see under Ibn Salim}. ! ) He 
reports a saying of al-Jalajili al-Basri (143, 14). 

i) The author uses the name Abu 1-Hasan Muhammad b. Ahmad (which is 
a mistake for Ahmad b. Muhammad) in reference to Ibn Salim (292, n). 


Basri, Abu 1-Husayn. 

He may, perhaps, be Abu 1-Hasan al-Husri of Basra (see 
under Husri). He reports, as eye-witness, a miracle that 
was granted to a negro faqir, at c Abbadan (316,8). 

Basri, Talhat al- c Asa idi. See ^Asa idi. 

Bayruti, Abu Bakr, Ahmad b. Ibrahim al-Mu addib. 

He recited to the author at Cairo some verses by Ibrahim 
al-Khawwas (250, i). 

Bistdmi, Tayfiir b. c lsa. 

He reports two sayings of the celebrated Abu Yazid 
al-Bistami on the authority of Musa b. c lsa al-Bistami 
(known as c Umayy), who heard them from his father. 
He describes the poverty in which Abu Yazid died 
(188, 12). 

Ibn Dillawayh, ) Ahmad. 

He reports a saying of Abu c lmran al-Tabaristani (171,13). 

Dinawari, Abu c Abdallah al-Khayyat. 
His wasiyyat to the author (265, n). 

D^na^var^, c tsa al-Qassar. 

He was the famulus of Shibli (148, 7). He reports a 
saying of Ruwaym (189, 8). A saying by him on hunger 
(202, 14). He witnessed the removal of Hallaj from prison 
to the place of execution (24^ of Dhu l-Qa c da, 309 
A. H.) and reports the last words which he uttered 
before his death (303, 20). 

Dinawari, Muhammad b. Dawud. See Duqqi. 

Dinaivari, Abu Sa c id. 

The author was present in his majlis at Atrabulus and 
gives the text of a prayer which he heard him pro 
nounce on that occasion (260, 4). 

i) For the name Dillawayh (Dilluya) or Dallawayh see Noldeke, Persische 
Studien^ S. B. W. A. 1888, vol. 116, part I, p. 403. Zakariyya b. Dillawayh 
of Naysabiir (pb. 294 A. H.) is noticed in N. 77, where the text has </^:>. 


*Duqqi, Abu Bakr Muhammad b. Dawiid al-Dinawari. TS. 
103^. Q. 33. N. 229. Sh. I, 158. A. 228^, 24. 
Originally of Dinawar, he resided for some time at 
Baghdad and finally settled at Damascus, where he died 
in 359 or 360 A. H. He was a pupil of Abu Bakr al- 
Zaqqaq the Elder (see the List of Sufis given below) 
and Abu c Abdallah b. al-Jalla (Q. 24. Sh. I, 116. N. 
112). That Duqqi, to whom there are eighteen referen 
ces in the Lumcf, was a trustworthy reporter may be 
judged from the fact that he made a special journey 
from Syria to the Hijaz in order to hear from the lips 
of Abu Bakr al-Kattani the true version of an anecdote 
concerning the latter (178, 18). He relates sayings and 
anecdotes of Jariri, Abu Bakr al-Farghani, J ) Abu Bakr 
al-Kattani, . Ibn al-Jalla, Abu Bakr al-Zaqqaq, Abu 1- 
Husayn al-Darraj, and verses of Abu c Ali al-Rudhabari. 
He also describes the hunger which he endured at Mecca 
(170, 6) and tells the story of the slave whose sweet 
voice was the death of his master s camels (270, 3). 2 ) 
The author mentions, several times, that he received 
information from Duqqi at Damascus. 

Farrd, Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Hamdun. TS. 117^. N. 
231. Sh. I, 166 (where \jb\ is a mistake for -\yJV). 
His kunya is Abu Bakr. N. gives his name as Ahmad 
b. Hamdun, which is incorrect. He was an eminent 
Sufi of Naysabur and died in 370 A. H. He reports a 
saying of c Abd al-Rahman al-Farisi (40, 5). 

Him si, Qays b. c Umar. 

He relates an anecdote of Abu 1-Qasim b. Marwan al- 
Nahawandi (288, 16). 

1) Generally known as AbU Bakr al-Wasiti (Q. 29. K. 154. TA. II, 265. 
Sh. I. 132. N. 212). 

2) See K. 399, where the same story is told on the authority of Ibrahim 


Husri, Abu 1-Hasan. TS. 114^. Q. 35. K. 160. TA. II, 
288. N. 290. Sh. I, 164. 

Died 371 A. H. A native of Basra but resided at Bagh 
dad. He was a pupil of Shibli, two of whose sayings he 
reports (396, 8 ; 398, 6). Sarraj quotes six sayings by 
Husri, including a definition of Sufi" (28, 2) and a sum 
mary of the principles of Sufism (218, i). 

Ibn Jab an, Abu Abdallah Ahmad. 

He relates an anecdote of Shibli, whose house he visited 
(395, 1 8). 

Ibn Khdlawayk, Abu c Abdallah al-Husayn. 

The well-known grammarian (Brockelmann, I, 125). He 
died in 370 A. H. He reports from Ibn al-Anbari (Brock 
elmann, I, 119) fourteen verses of Ka c b b. Zuhayr s 
ode beginning with the words Bdnat Su c dd (275, 8). ) 

Khayydt, Abu Hafs c Umar. 

He reports Abu Bakr b. al-Mu c allim, who related to him 
at Antioch how, after sixty years, he was called upon 
to pronounce the Moslem profession of faith (207,21). 

*Khuldi t Ja c far b. Muhammad b. Nusayr. Q. 33. K. 156. 
TA. II, 283. N. 278. Sh. I, 156. A. 205^, 13. 
A native of Baghdad, pupil of Junayd and Ibrahim al- 
Khawwas. He died in 348 A. H. 

He reports Junayd and through him Sari al-Saqati (seven 
references). A story of his own pilgrimage to Mecca 
(168, 13). A manuscript in his handwriting is mentioned 
as the authority for an anecdote of Junayd (204, 5) and 
for an extract from a letter written by a certain Sheykh 


(237, 14). The author s use of the words 4ic Cj\^5 \^ 
(251, 2; 306, 5; 434, 10) shows that in these cases he 
obtained from Ja c far al-Khuldi a personal assurance that 
the tradition was accurate. 

l) The word ^VijVi ( 2 7$-> 9) is an obvious misprint for 


Malati, c Umar. 

He reports to the author at Antioch the reply which 
he received from a certain Sheykh whom he had asked 
to pray for him (261, 17). 

Muhallab, Abu Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Marzuq al-Misri. 
He associated with Abu Bakr b. Tahir al-Abhari, who 
died circa 330 A. H. (N. p. 207, 1. 4 foil.). He relates 
that Abu Muhammad al-Murta c ish of Naysabur on his 
deathbed (ob. 328 A. H.) enjoined him to pay the debts 
wich he (Murta c ish) had contracted (266, 2). 

tbn Nujayd, Abu c Amr Isma c il. TS. 105*. Q. 34- TA. II, 
262. N. 281. Sh. I, 159. 

Died in 366 A. H. He was the maternal grandfather 
of Abu c Abd al-Rahman al-Sulami and the pupil of 
Abu c Uthman al-Hiri of Naysabur. He reports three 
sayings of Abu G Uthman al-Hiri. ] ) 

Rdzi, Abu c Abdallah Husayn b. Ahmad. 

He reports (316, 12) a story told by Abu Sulayman al- 
Khawwas, a Maghribi, who died at Damascus and was 
contemporary with Abu 1-Khayr al-Tmati (ob. 349 A.H.). 
See N. 286, where the same story is related. 

Rdzi, Husayn b. c Abdallah. 

He reports (215,20) a saying of Abu Bakr c Abdallah 
b. Tahir al-Abhari who died circa 330 A. H. 

Rudhabdri, Abu c Abdallah Ahmad b. c Ata. TS. 115$. Q. 
35. N. 328. Sh. I, 164. 

He lived at Sur and died there in 369 A. H. He was a 
nephew (son of the sister) of Abu c Ali al-Rudhabari 
(ob. 322 A. H.). He tells an anecdote of his uncle (185, 
14) and recites some verses by him (249, 10). He relates 

l) In the Lnmc? his name is given as Sa c id b. c Uthman al-Hirf (al-Razi), 
but according to all other authorities it is Sa c id b. Isma c il. He was originally 
a native of Rayy. 


that one night his prayer for forgiveness was answered 
by a heavenly voice (316, 17). The author states that 
Abu c Abdallah al-Rudhabari l ) wrote an impromptu 
letter in his presence at Ramla, begging the owner of 
a slave-girl, who was famed for her singing, to permit 
the author and his companions to hear. her performance 
(234, 6). 

*Ibn Salim, Abu 1-Hasan Ahmad b. Muhammad. Dhahabi, 
Ta rikh al-Isldm (British Museum, Or. 48, 710) cited in 
Notes on some Sufi Lives by H. F. Amedroz in JRAS 
for 1912, p. 573, note 2. Shadhardt al-DJialiab, I, 172^. 
He is the son of Abii Abdallah Muhammad b. Salim 2 ) 
of Basra (TS. 95^. H. II, 321^. N. 124. Sh. I, 154), who 
was a pupil of Sahl b. G Abdallah al-Tustari and founder 
of a school of mystical theologians known after him as 
the Salimis (al-Sdlimiyya). 3 ) Ibn Salim Senior died in 
297 A. H. 4 ) He is often confused with his son, the 
subject of the present notice, who died circa 360 A. H. 
Thus the author of the Luma* records (177, 21) a state- 
ment by Ibn Salim Junior that he associated with Sahl 
b. Abdallah for a period of sixty years. Evidently this 
refers to his father and, as it happens, the mistake is 
corrected in a later passage (292, n). Again, it must 
have been Ibn Salim Senior who had the conversation 
with Sahl which is reported by Ibn Salim Junior as a 
personal experience (293, 2). 

1) The text has Abii Ali al-Rudhabari, but the reading of B is correct. 

2) Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Salim, according to Abu c Abd al-Rahman al- 
Sulami, Abii Nu c aym al-Isbaham and Sam c ani. 

3) See p. X above. 

4) The passage cited by Dhahabi from the Hilyat al-Awliyd of Abu Nu c aym 
(ob. 430 A. H.) makes the latter say that he was born before the death of 
Ibn Salim the Elder, which is absurd. The correct reading of the text after 
the words V$T ^W_, (JR AS, 1912, p. 574, 1. 7 o f the Arabic text) is: 



Abu 1-Hasan b. Salim is cited as authority for several 
anecdotes and sayings of Sahl b. c Abdallah, and in 
about half of these instances it is expressly mentioned 
that his information was .obtained from his father. If 
he and Ahmad b. Muhammad al-Basri (143, 14) are the 
same person, he also reports a saying of al-Jalajili of 
Basra, concerning whom nothing is known. 
Sarraj was intimately acquainted with Ibn Salim. He 
was present in his majlis at Basra (195,18; 390,12; 
394, 8); he reports conversations with him (319, 2 ; 326, 17, 
390, 12) and a considerable number of his sayings (i 16, 9; 
152,13; 202,9; 219,2; 223,3; 3 l $> I2 ~ 3 l6 > 2 ; 4 1 7> 1 7)- 

Sayrafi, Abu 1-Hasan c Ali b, Muhammad. 

Apparently identical with Abu 1-Hasan c Ali b. Bundar 
b. al-Husayn al-Sayrafi of Naysabur, who associated with 
Ruwaym and died in 359 A.H. (Q 34, N. 118, Sh. I, 165). 
He reports a saying of Ruwaym (288, 13). 

Shimshdti, Abu Hafs c Umar. 

He recited some verses by Ibrahim al-Khawwas to the 
author at Ramla (250, 8). 

Shirdzi, Abu 1-Tayyib. 

He reports a saying of one of his Sheykhs (342, 17). 

Sirawdni, Abu 1-Husayn. N. 336. 

There are two Sufis of this name: Abu 1-Husayn c Ali 
b. Muhammad al-Sirawani, a native of Sirawan in the 
Maghrib, who resided at Dimyat (N. 283), and his pupil 
Abu 1-Husayn c Ali b. Ja c far b. Dawud al-Sirawani 
al-Saghir, who associated with Ibrahim al-Khawwas 
in Egypt and afterwards settled at Mecca, where he 
died. Jami says, on the authority of the Ta rikh al- 
Sufiyya of al-Sulami, that al-Sirawani al-Saghir lived 
to the age of a hundred and twenty-four. He is the 
person cited in the Lumcf, for he is described as the 
sahib of al-Khawwas. 


He met Sarraj at Dimyat and related to him a saying 
of Junayd (285, 18). 
Ibn Sun ay d, Ahmad b. Muhammad. 

Qadi of Dinawar. He reports an anecdote of Ruwaym 

(I6 3 , 12). 

Suri, Abu c Ali b. Abi Khalid. 

He recited to the author at Sur some verses written by 
him to Abu c Ali al-Rudhabari and by the latter in reply 
to him (234, 14). 

Talli, ! ) Ahmad b. Muhammad. 

He reported to the author at Antioch from his father, 
from Bishr (or c lsa), a saying of Ishaq b. Ibrahim al- 
Mawsili concerning the expert singer (271, 3). 

Tarasusi, Ahmad. 

He is probably Abu Bakr c Ali b. Ahmad al-Tarasusi 
al-Harami, who associated with Ibrahim b. Shayban al- 
Qarmisini (pb* 337 A. H.) and died in 364 A. H. at Mecca 
(N. 233). He reports from Ibrahim b. Shayban a story 
told by Ibrahim al-Khawwas (170, 14). 

Tusi, Abu Bakr Ahmad b. Ja c far. 

He reports a saying of Nasr b. al-Hammami (48, 15) 
and relates to the author at Damascus an anecdote of 
Abu Ya c qub al-Nahrajuri, who died in 330 A. H. (203, 13). 

*Ibn c Ulwdn, Abu c Amr c Abd al- Wahid. 

Fourteen references. He reports sayings and anecdotes 
of Junayd, whom he had met (116, 20), and a story of 
Abu 1-Husayn al-Nuri (193, 20). The author mentions 
twice that Ibn c Ulwan communicated information to 
him at Rahbat Malik b. Tawq. 

*Wajihi, Abu Bakr Ahmad b. c Ali. 

Twenty-four references. He is called (293, 17) Ahmad 
b. C AH al-Karaji (or al-Karkhi), generally known as Wa- 

i) Variant Talhi. 


jihi. He reports Abu c Ali al-Rudhabari (eleven referen 
ces), Jariri, Abu Bakr al-Zaqqaq, Ibn Mamliila al- c Attar 
al-Dinawari, Abu Ja c far al-Saydalani, Ja c far al-Tayalisi 
al-Razi, and Muhammad b. Yusuf al-Banna. He relates 
anecdotes of Bunan al-Hammal, Hasan al-Qazzaz, and 
Mimshadh al-Dinawari, and recites verses by Nuri. 
Zanjdni, Abu Amr. 

He recited to the author at Tabriz some verses by 
Shibli (251,12). 

About two hundred names of Sufis are mentioned in the 
Kitdb al-Luma c . Many of these are familiar and will be 
found in almost any Arabic or Persian Lives of the Saints . 
On the other hand, a great proportion of them either do 
not occur in the published works of reference, or are re 
corded only in one or two of such works, or are not mentioned, 
to my knowledge, except in the Lmncf. In the hope that 
further information may be forthcoming, I append the names 
of those more or less obscure mystics, accompanied by a few 
notes which I have made while endeavouring to identify 
them. Names included in the List of Authorities are omitted 
from the following list, which is also arranged alphabetically. 


1. c Abdallah b. al-Husayn (248, 15). 4th century. 

2. Abd al-Rahman b. Ahmad (325, 3). A sahib of Sahl b. 

Abdallah of Tustar. 

3. Abhari, Abu Bakr c Abdallah b. Tahir. Died 330 A. H. 

TS. 90^. Q. 32. H. II, 315*, N. 223, Sh. I, 149. 

4. Anmati, Abu c Umar (329, 20). 

5. c Attar al-Dinawari = Ibn Mamlula. 

6. c Attar, Abu Hatim (180, 17). Contemporary with Abu 

Turab al-Nakhshabi (ob. 245 A. H.). Abu Sa c id al- 
Kharraz and Junayd were his pupils. N. 35. 

7. c Atufi, Abu 1-Hasan (205, 11). Contemporary with Abu 

C AH al-Rudhabari (ob. 322 A. H.). 

8. Awlasi, Abu 1-Harith. His name is Fayd b. al-Khadir. 

He was a pupil of Ibrahim b. Sa c d al- c Alawi (ob. 
circa 260 A. H.). N. 16. 

9. Abu 1-Azhar (325, 7). Contemporary with Abu Bakr al- 

Kattani (ob. 322 A. H.). 

10. Banna, Muhammad b. Yusuf (325, 19). Author of many 

excellent works on Sufism. He travelled with Abu 
Turab al-Nakhshabi (ob. 245 A. H.) and was the 
Sheykh of c Ali b. Sahl al-Isbahani (ob. 307 A. H.). 
N. 103. H. II, 328^. 

11. Barathi, Abu Shu c ayb (200,3). He is described as one 

of the ancient Sheykhs of Baghdad. Junayd said that 
Abu Shu c ayb was the first who dwelt at Baratha (a 
quarter of Baghdad) in a knkh, or hut made of 


rushes, and devoted himself to asceticism. His wife, 
Jawhara, died in 170 A. H. (Nujum, ed. by Juynboll, 
I, 460). H. II, 304^, gives the same anecdote which 
is related here. 

12. Barizi, Abu Bakr (207,6; 264,4). 

13. Basri, Ahmad b. al-Husayn (248, 15). Contemporary with 


14. Bunan al-Hammal al-Misri. Died 316 A. H. Q. 28. N. 

184. Sh. I, 130. 

15. Ibn Bunan al-Misri (193,18; 209,20). A pupil of Abu 

Sa c id al-Kharraz (ob. 277 or 286 A. H.). Notices of 
him under the name of Abu 1-Husayn b. Bunan J ) 
occur in TS. 90*2, H. II, 317^, Q. 32, and N. 271. 

1 6. Bundar b. al-Husayn. A pupil of Shibli. He was a native 

of Shiraz but resided at Arrajan, 2 ) where he died 
in 353 A. H. H. II, 323^. Q. 34. Sh. I, 161. N. 280. 

17. Busri, Abu c Ubayd. A pupil of Abu Turab al-Nakh- 

shabi (ob. 245 A. H.) Q. 26. A. 8i, 5. N. 114. Y.I, 
621, 8. Sh. I, 118. 

18. Damaghani, al-Hasan 3 ) b. c Ali b. Hayawayh. 4 ) 

19. Darraj, Abu Ja far (194, 19). 

20. Darraj, Abu 1-Husayn, of Baghdad. N. 207. Famulus of 

Ibrahim al-Khawwas. He had a brother, Bukayr al- 
Darraj, who was also a Sufi (N. 208). Abu 1-Hu 
sayn al-Darraj died in 320 A. H. 

1) (jUJ in N. is a mistake for (jVu. 

2) j\c> \\, the reading of B at 278, 7, is a mistake for ^WjV\. 

3) Qushayri has al-Husayn. See 41, 9, note 8. 

4) Examples of the name Hayawayh, which appears to be the correct reading 
here, are found in my MS. of the Shadhardt al-Dhahab (see JRAS. for 1899, 
p. 911, and for 1906, p. 797)1, 1770, 24, Abu 1-Hasan Muhammad b. c Abd- 
allah b. Zakariyya b. Hayawayh al-Naysaburi al-Misri al-Qadi (pb. 367 A.H.); 
I, 183^, 17, Abu Bakr Muhammad b. Hayawayh al-Karkhi, the grammarian 
(ob. 373 A. H); and 1, l88d!, 10, Abu c Amr b. Hayawayh al-Khazzaz of 
Baghdad, the traditionist (ob. 382 A. H.). 


21. Dinawari, Abu Bakr al-Kisa i = Kisa i. 

22. Dinawari, Bakran (210, 14). Contemporary with Shibli. 

23. Dinawari, Bundar (104,7). Famulus of Shibli. 

24. Dinawari, Hasan al-Qazzaz = Qazzaz. 

25. Ibn al-Faraji = Abu Ja c far Muhammad b. Ya c qub al- 

Faraji. A sahib of Harith al-Muhasibi (ob. 243 A.H.). 
Author of the Kitdb al-waraf, the Kitdb sifat al- 
muridin and other works on Sufism. H. II, 293^. 

26. Farghani, Abu Bakr Muhammad b. Musa (228, 10) = 

Abu Bakr al-Wasiti (ob. circa 320 A. H.). Q. 29. 
K. 154. TA II, 265. N. 212. Sh. I, 132. 

27. Farisi, c Abd al-Rahman (40, 6). Contemporary with Mu 

hammad b. Ahmad b. Hamdun al-Farra (ob. 370 A.H.). 

28. Farisi, Abu 1-Husayn c Ali b. Hind al-Qurashi (230, 2). 

He associated with Junayd and Amr b. c Uthman 
al-Makki, but himself belonged to a younger gene 
ration. TS 92^. N. 272. Sh. I, 150. 

29. Path al-Mawsili. Died in 220 A. H. N. 25. Sh. I, 105. 

30. Fath b. Shakhraf al-Marwazi (228, 6). Died in 273 A.H. 

N. 26. 

31. Ibn al-Fuwati (286, i) ). Contemporary with Abu 1-Hu- 

sayn al-Darraj (ob. 320 A. H.). 

32. Ghassani, Kulthum (142, 13). 

33. Haddad, Abu Ja c far (332, 5). There are two Sufis of 

this name: (i) Abu Ja c far al-Haddad al-Kabir of 
Baghdad, who was contemporary with Junayd (ob. 
298 A. H.) and Ruwaym (ob. 303 A. H.) ; and (2) 
Abu Ja c far b. Bukayr al-Haddad al-Saghir al-Misri, 
a pupil of Abu Ja c far al-Haddad the elder. At first 
sight it would seem that the former is referred to 
here, since he is described as having had a conver 
sation with Abu Turab, whom we should naturally 

i) Fuwati (not Qiiti or Ghuti) seems to be the correct form of the nisba. 
Cf. N. p. 216, 1. 2 and JRAS. for 1901, p. 708. 


identify with Abu Turab al-Nakhshabi (ob. 245 A.H.), 
but in N. p. 190, 1. i foil, the same story is told 
of Abu Ja c far al-Haddad the younger, and it is ex 
pressly stated on the authority of c Abdallah Ansarf 
that the Abu Turab in question is not Abu Turab 
al-Nakhshabi ). N. 201. 

34. Abu 1-Hadfd (256, 13). Contemporary with Abu Abd- 

allah al-Qurashi. 

35. Ibn Hamawayh, Abu Bakr Ahmad (197, 12). A sahib of 

Subayhf (q. v.) 

36. Ibn al-Hammami, Nasr (48, 17). Contemporary with Abu 

Bakr Ahmad b. Ja c far al-Tusi. See List of Authorities 
under Tusi. 

37. Harawi, Abu Muhammad (209, 12). Contemporary with 


38. Hasan, Sheykh (178, 4). He consorted for seventy years 

with Abu G Abdallah al-Maghribi (ob. 299 A. H.). 

39. Haykali, Abu c Abdallah. Contemporary with Abu G Abd- 

allah al-Qurashi. 

40. Abu Hulman al-Sufi (289, 8). A Persian, who resided at 

Damascus and gave his name to the sect of the 
Hulmanis, who are reckoned among the Hululis. Cf. 
al-Farq bayna l-firaq, p. 245, 1. 3 foil., and K. 260. 

41. Husri, Abu c Abdallah, of Basra. A pupil of Path al- 

Mawsili (ob. 220 A. H.). N. 116. 

42. Isbahani, Sahl b. G Ali b. Salil. (48, 7). Apparently the 

son of c Ali b. Sahl al-Isbahani (ob. 307 A. H.). 

43. Istakhri, Abu c lmran (211,6). Contemporary with Abu 

Turab al-Nakhshabi (ob. 245 A. H.). 

44. Istakhri, Yahya (211,8). Contemporary with Ibn c Ata 

of Baghdad (ob. 309 A. H.). 

i) On the other hand it is said in H. II, 310*$ that Abii Ja c far al-Haddad 
U . 


45. Jabala, Sheykh (287, 5). A Maghribi, contemporary with 

Abu c Abdallah Ahmad b. Yahya al-Jalla (ob. 306 AH.). 

46. Ja c far al-Mubarqa c (287, ii; 332, n). Probably identical 

with Ja c far ibn al-Mubarqa c (N. 117), who was con 
temporary with Abu c Abdallah al-Husri (q. v). 

47. Jalajili, al-Basrf (143, 15) *). Contemporary with Ahmad b. 

Muhammad al-Basri = Ibn Salim (see List of Au 

48. Ibn al-Karanbi, Abu Ja c far, of Baghdad 2 ). Teacher of 

Junayd and pupil of Abu Abdallah b. Abi Ja c far 
al-Barathi (H. II, 304^). H. II, 275^. N. 72. 

49. Ibn al-Katib, Abu c Ali (206,7). Q- 3 2 - Sh - I 1 4&- N. 249. 

50. Khawwas, Abu Sulayman. N. 286. See under Razi, Abu 

G Abdallah Husayn b. Ahmad in the List of Au 

51. Kisa i, Abu Bakr al-Dinawari. A sahib of Junayd, whom 

he predeceased. N. 135. 

52. Ibn al-Kurrini. See Ibn al-Karanbi. 

53. Maghazili, Abu Ali (281, 19). Contemporary with Shibli. 

54. Maghazili, Ishaq (195, 14). Contemporary with Bishr b. 

al-Harith al-Hafi (ob. 227 A. H.). 

55. Maghazili, Abu Muhammad (209,9). Contemporary with 

Ja c far al-Khuldi (ob. 348 A. H.). Cited in TA II 46,20 
and 84, 6. 

56. Makki, Abu 1-Hasan of Basra (165, 22). One of the au 

thor s contemporaries. Ibn Salim refused to salute 

1) This passage is cited by Qushayri, 152, 11 foil. 

2) Karanbi (cabbage-seller) is probably the correct form of the nisba^ which 

appears in the MSS. of the Lumcf as j an( i in the present edition as 
.A/p! The reading ^ ^ (Ihya, Bulaq, 1289 A. II. IV, 345,26) is certainly 

false. According to H. and N. the name of this Sufi is Abu Ja c far al-Karanbi 
but he is called Ibn al-Karanbi (N. p. 93, 1. 2) in a story of him which 
also occurs in the Lumcf^ 337, 16 foil. Cf. the Introduction to al-Hidaya Ha 
fara id al-quh ib^ ed. by Dr. A. S. Yahuda, p. 108. 


him, on the ground that he had made himself cel 
ebrated by his fasting. 

57. Ibn Mamlula al- c Attar al-Dinawari (201, 14). According 

to H. II, 3270, Muhammad b. Ma c ruf al- c Attar, gen 
erally known as Mammula, was the Imam of the 
congregational mosque. He heard Traditions from 
Yahya b. Sa c id al-Qattan (ob. 198 A. H.) and Yazid 
b. Harun (ob. 206 A. H.). The Mosque of Mammula 
b. Ma c ruf is named after him. 

58. Marandi, Husayn b. Jibril (238, i). 

59. Marastani, Ibrahim. His full name is Abu Ishaq Ibra 

him b. Ahmad al-Marastani. He was a friend of Ju- 
nayd. H. II, 308^, where the text is given of a letter 
written to him by Junayd. 

60. Marwazi, c Abdallah (178, 20). Contemporary with Abu 

c Ali al-Ribati (q. v.). 

61. Ibn Masruq, Abu l- c Abbas Ahmad b. Muhammad al- 

Tusi. Died at Baghdad in 298 or 299 A. H. Q. 27. 
K. 146. N. 83. TA I, 115. 

62. Ibn Masruq, Muhammad al-Baghdadi (297, 5). Contem 

porary with Junayd (K. 415). Probably the same as 
N. 61. 

63. Mimshadh al-Dinawari. Died in 299 A. H. N. 88. TA 

II, 157. Sh. I, 135. 

64. Ibn al-Misri, Husayn (198, 16). Contemporary with Ju 


65. Ibn al-Mu c allim, Abu Bakr (208, i). See the List of 

Authorities under Khayyat. 

66. Muhammad b. Ahmad, Abu 1-Hasan (292, n) = Ahmad 

b. Muhammad Abu 1-Hasan = Ibn Salim. See the 
List of Authorities. 

67. Muhammad b. Isma c il (189,9). Contemporary with Abu 

Bakr al-Kattani (ob. 322 A. H.). 

68. Muhammad b. Ya c qub (287, n) = Ibn al-Faraji. 


69. Munadi, Abu 1-Qasim, of Naysabur. Contemporary with 

Abu l -Hasan al-Bushanji of Naysabur (ob. 347 or 
348 A. H.). Q. 125,4 from foot and 126,3. 

70. Muqri, Abu c Abdallah al-Razi (149, 1 6) = Abu c Abdallah 

b. al-Muqri (191, 22). His full name is Abu c Abd- 
allah Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Muhammad al-Muqri. 
He died in 366 A. H. TS uSa. N. 332. Sh. i, 166. 

71. Abu 1-Musayyib (207, n). Contemporary with Abu 

1-Husayn al-Darraj (ob. 320 A. H.). 

72. Mushtuli, Abu c Ali (158,21). His full name is Abu c Ali 

Hasan b. c Ali b. Musa al-Mushtuli. He was a pupil 
of Abu c Ali b. al-Katib and Abu Ya c qu b al-Susi. 
He died in 340 A. H. N. 250. 

73. Ibn al-Muwaffaq, c Ali, of Baghdad (290, 18). He met 

Dhu 1-Nun al-Mfsri (ob. 245 A. H.). He performed 
more than fifty pilgrimages to Mecca. H. II, 301^. 
N. 108. 

74. Ibn al-Muwallad = Raqqi. 

75. Muzayyin, Abu 1-Hasan. Died in 328 A. H. Q. 32. N. 188. 

76. Muzayyin al-Kabir = Abu 1 Hasan al-Muzayyin. See A 

528^, 3 from foot and foil. According to c Abdallah 
Ansari (N. p. 180, 1. 18 foil.) there were two Sufis 
named Abu 1-Hasan al-Muzayyin. The elder, known 
as Muzayyin al-Kabir, was a native of Baghdad and 
was buried there. The younger, known as Muzayyin 
al-Saghir, was also a native of Baghdad, but was 
buried at Mecca. Sam c ani, on the other hand, says 
that Abu 1-Hasan al-Muzayyin al-Kabir was buried 
at Mecca. 

77. Muzayyin, Abu c Uthman (307, 20). 

78. Nahawandi, Abu 1-Qasim b. Marwan (288, 16). A sahib 

of Abu Sa c id al-Kharraz (ob. 277 or 286 A. H.). 

79. Nasibi, Abu c Abdallah (190, i). 

80. Nassaj, Abu Muhammad (399, i). 4 th century. 


81. Nawribati, Abu c Ali (183,7). Perhaps the same as Abu 

c Ali al-Ribati (q. v.). 

82. Nibaji, Abu c Abdallah (222, 12). His full name is Abu 

c Abdallah Sa c id b. Yazid al-Nibaji. He was contem 
porary with Dhu 1-Nun (ob. 245 A. H.) and was one 
of the teachers of Ahmad b. Abi 1-Hawari of 
Damascus (ob. 230 or 246 A. H.), who related anec 
dotes of him. H. II, 1 8 1. A. 553^, 6. N. 86. 

83. Qalanisf, Abu c Abdallah Ahmad. He is said to have 

been the teacher of Junayd (175, 20), but this state 
ment, which has been added by a corrector, is prob 
ably untrue. The answer given by him (176, 3) is 
ascribed in H. and in the Kitdb al-Lumc itself (217, 
1 6) to Abu Ahmad al-Qalanisi. H. II, 2560 and N. 
in, merely relate how he saved his life by keeping 
a vow which he had made that he would never eat 
elephant s flesh. 

84. Qalanisf, Abu Ahmad Mus c ab. He originally belonged 

to Merv but resided in Baghdad. Abu Sa c id b. al- 
A c rabi associated with him. He died in 290 A. H. at 
Mecca. H. II, 299^. N. 109. 

85. Qannad, Abu 1-Hasan C AH b. c Abd al-Rahim. He related 

sayings of Husayn b. Mansur al-Hallaj (ob. 309 A.H.). 
A. 462^, 13. 

86. Qarawi, Abu Ja c far (216, 5). One of the MSS. has Farwi. 

87. Qarmisim, al-Muzaffar (191, 8). He was a sahib of c Abd- 

allah b. Muhammad al-Kharraz, who died before 
320 A. H. Al-Muzaffar died at Ramla (N. p. 113, 1. 
1 8). TS. 910. Q. 32. N. 270. Sh. I, 150. 

88. Qassab, Abu Ja c far (205, 15). He resided at Ramla and 

was contemporary with Abu Sa c id al-Kharraz (ob. 
277 or 286 A. H.). 

89. Qassab, Muhammad b. c Ali (24, 20). Teacher of Junayd. 


90. Qassar, Muhammad b. c Ali (199, 10). Probably these two 

names refer to the same person. 

9 1 . Qazzaz, Hasan al-.Dina wari. Contemporary with Mimshadh 

al-Dinawari (ob. 299 A. H.). 

92. Qurashf, Abu c Abdallah. His full name is Abu c Abdallah 

Muhammad b. Sa c id al-Qurashi. H. II, 310^, where 
a passage is quoted from a book by him entitled 
Shark al- taw kid. 

93. Raqqi, Ibrahim b. al-Muwallad. TS. and N. call him 

Abu Ishaq Ibrahim b. Ahmad b. al-Muwallad. He 
died in 342 A. H. TS. 94^. H. II, 317^. N. 265. 
Sh. I, 153. 

94. Ibn Raz c an(?), Abu 1-Hasan (297, 13). 

95. Ribati, c Abdallah (328, 16). Contemporary with Abu Hafs 

al-Haddad of Naysabur (ob. 271 A. H.). 

96. Ribati, Abu c Ali (178, 20). A sahib of c Abdallah al- 

Marwazi. Perhaps identical with Ibrahim al-Ribati of 
Herat (N. 18), who was a pupil of Ibrahim Sitanbah 
(N. 17), the contemporary of Abu Yazid al-Bistami 
(ob. 261 A. H.). 

97. Ibn Rufay c al-Dimashqi (197, 20). Contemporary with 

Abu c Ali al-Rudhabari (ob. 322 A. H.). 

98. Sa igh, Ibrahim (205, 2). He associated with Abu Ahmad 

al-Qalanisi (ob. 290 A. H.). 

99. Sa igh, Yusuf (197, 16). Abu Bakr al-Zaqqaq (q.v.) met 

him in Egypt. 

100. Samarqandi, Muhammad b. al-Fadl == Muhammad b. 

al-Fadl al-Balkhi (ob. 319 A. H.). Q. 24. K. 140. 
TA. II, 87. N. 119. Sh. I, 117. 

101. Saydalani, Abu Ja c far, of Baghdad. He was contem 

porary with Junayd and was one of the teachers 
of Abu Sa c id b. al-A c rabi. He died in Egypt. N. 197. 

102. Sijzi, Abu c Abdallah (191, 22). He associated with Abu 

Hafs al-Haddad (ob. 271 A. H.). TS. tfb. H. II, 


N. 115. Sh. I, 132 (where <5\ is a mistake 
for l5jf J\). 

103. Sindi, Abu c Ali. Abu Yazid al-Bistami (ob. 261 A. H.) 

learned from him the theory of fand. N. 43. 

104. Subayhi, Abu c Abdallah, of Basra. He was a great 

ascetic and is said to have lived for thirty years 
in a cellar. H. gives his name as Abu G Abdallah 
al-Husayn b. c Abdallah b. Bakr. Abu Nu c aym al- 
Isbahani (ob. 430 A. H.). says that his father was 
a sahib of Subayhi, before the latter left Basra and 
settled at Sus. TS. ?$&. H. II. 3150. N. 190. Sh. 
I, 136 (where ( j& a ^\ is a mistake for ^^\). 

105. Sulami, Ahmad b. Muhammad (185,23). Contemporary 

with Abu c Abdallah al-Husri (q. v.). 
1 06. Sulami, Isma c il (332, 13). Contemporary with Abu Bakr 

al-Zaqqaq (q. v.). 
107. Susi, Abu Ya c qub. He resided chiefly at Basra and 

Ubulla. He was the teacher of Abu Ya c qub al-Nahr- 

ajuri (ob. 330 A. H.). N. 139. 
1 08. Tabaristani, Abu c lmran (171, 15; 190, 1 6). 
109. Tayalisi, Ja c far al-Razi. The nisba Tayalisi is conjec 

tural. See notes at 288, 10; 336, 13; and 359,6. 
1 10. Tusi, Abu VAbbas Ahmad b. Muhammad = Ibn 

Masruq al-Tusi. 
in. Tusi, Muhammad b. Mansur of Baghdad (183,4). He 

was the teacher of Ibn Masruq al-Tusi, Abu Sa c id 

al-Kharraz, and Junayd. N. 53. 

112. c Ukbari, Abu 1-Faraj (252, 10). Contemporary with 


113. c Umar b. Bahr (260,9). Contemporary with Shibli. 

1 14. Urmawi, al-Kurdi al-Sufi. Perhaps identical with Abu 
1-Husayn al-Urmawi (N. 295), who was contemporary 
with Abu c Abdallah al-Rudhabari (ob. 369 A. H.). 


115. Ibn Yazdaniyar, Abu Bakr al-Husayn b. c All, of Urmiya. 

He followed a path of his own in Sufism and came 
into conflict with Shibli and other Sheykhs of c lraq 
whose doctrines he opposed. It is greatly to be 
regretted that the chapter which Sarraj devotes to 
him in the Kitdb al-Lumc is wanting in both MSS. 
See p. f.v. TS. 940. Q. 32. N. 219. Sh. I, 151. 

116. Zahirabadhi, Abu Bakr (41, 10). 

117. Zajjaji, Ahmad b. Yusuf (177, 3). 

1 1 8. Zaqqaq, Abu Bakr. His full name is Abu Bakr Ahmad 

b. Nasr al-Zaqqaq al-Kabir al-Misri. He was a con 
temporary of Junayd. Amongst his pupils were 
Abu Bakr al-Zaqqaq al-Saghir of Baghdad and Abu 
Bakr al-Duqqi. Q. 25. N. 213. Sh. I, 117 (where 
JjViijM is a mistake for JjVsjH). 

119. Ibn Ziri (194,2) = Abu 1-Husayn b. Ziri (272, 14). A 

sahib of Junayd. 

120. Zurayq, Sheykh (287,6). A Maghribi, contemporary 

with Abu c Abdallah b. al-Jalla (ob. 306 A. H.). 


Until five years ago the Kitdb al-Lumc fi l-Tasawwuf 
(Hajjf Khalifa, ed. Fluegel, V 331, N. 11178) was known 
only by its title. Since then two copies have come to light, 
one of which belongs to Mr. A. G. Ellis, while the other has 
recently been acquired by the British Museum (Or. 7710). Owing 
to the kindness of Mr. Ellis, the former MS. has remained 
in my hands from the date whom I began to prepare this 
edition until the last proof-sheets were corrected. The con 
ditions under which the British Museum codex is accessible 
are not attractive to any one living at a distance from 
London, and I have to thank Dr. Barnett, Head of the 
Oriental Department, for the readiness with which he granted 
my request that he would allow me to have the MS. pho 
tographed. The photographs made by Mr. R. B. Fleming 
are so excellent that whatever inaccuracies may be found in 
the critical notes are probably due to me. 

In the following description of these two MSS. I shall call 
Mr. Ellis s manuscript A and the British Museum manuscript 
B. They are similarly designated in the critical notes. 

A contains 197 folios. The text of the Kitdb al-Luma c 
(fif. \a 193^) is preceded by a title-page, bearing the in 
scription uJJ^ai}\ J ^Vj-iJ T^\ w_j\i5 as well as a number of 
memoranda (mostly illegible) by different hands. Following 
the title-page is a full table of contents, beginning .jLj\ i^A> 

ic ^ and ending ^j 


L, <jv. -^v^ The text is written with great distinctness, 
each page containing twenty-one lines, but diacritical points 
are left out frequently, and vowel-marks almost invariably. 
A is dated the 10* of Rabf II, 683 A. H. = June 26th, 
1284 A. D. The name of the copyist, Ahmad b. Muhammad 


al-Zahiri, occurs at the end of three of the four samd c s 
(A ff. 193^ ig6a) which he transcribed from a MS. dated 
the ;th of Sha c ban, 566 A. H. = April 15^, n^i A. D. This 
MS. is the original (J-^V^) of which A is a copy. 

A is superior to B in all respects but that of age. There 
can be few manuscripts of the 13^1 century that are so well 
preserved. The ink seems to have lost scarcely anything 
of its firm and glossy blackness, and nearly every word is 
as clear as if it had been written yesterday. The margins 
have been curtailed by the binder s knife and honeycombed 
here and there by worms, so that a small portion of the 
numerous marginal notes has disappeared. These notes af 
ford evidence of careful collation not only with the asl, to 
which I have referred above, but also with other MSS. of 
the work ! ). In some cases the scribe has copied samd c s 
(ff. 2\b, 43#, 63^, 85^, 109^, 128^, 147^, 163^, 177^, 1830); 
on f. 139^ he has supplied several words that were omitted 
in the asl. Most of the annotations, however, have been 
made by later hands; they are plentiful in the first half of 
the text but then become sparse. Unfortunately A has a 
lacuna (1790, last line) which probably covers between ten 
and fifteen folios, and B does not fill the gap. Five chapters 
have been wholly lost: 

(1) Concerning the accusation of infidelity brought against 
Abu 1-Husayn al-Nuri in the presence of the Caliph. 

(2) Concerning Abu Hamza al-Sufi 2 ). 

(3) Concerning a number of Sheykhs who were charged with 
infidelity and persecuted. 

(4) Concerning Abu Bakr c Ali b. al-Husayn (read al-Husayn 
b. c Ali) b. Yazdaniyar. 

1) This is attested by such phrases as sLViu *1>, 5 P \ Jj <dj\JL il , &\M il 

* <d * 

2) Probably Abii Hamza Muhammad b. Ibrahim al-Baghdadi (ob. 289 A.H.). 



(5) Concerning Muhammad b. Musa al-Farghani and some 
of his sayings. 

The beginning of a sixth chapter, in explanation of the 
sayings of Wasiti ), has also disappeared. 

B (British Museum, Or. 7710) is dated Jumada II, 548 
A. H. = August September 1153 A. D. The text, though 
worm-eaten in many places, is written clearly and remains, 
on the whole, in a tolerable state of preservation. B contains 
243 folios. After the Bismillak there is an incomplete table of 
contents (2a b}. The text begins in the middle of a sentence 
(30, 1. i) and concludes (242^, 1. 4 foil.) with a passage on love 
(makabbat), which is now for the most part illegible and which 
does not occur in A. This passage, however, covers less than 
a page. The omissions in B are very serious; as compared 
with A, it is defective to the extent of over a third of the 
text. Its arrangement is chaotic. The correct order is given 
in the second column of the following table , which also 
shows what portions of the text are missing. 

A B 

A, fol. itf, 11. 2 10. B, om. 

A, fol. la, 11. 10 16. B, fol. 3#, 11. i ii. , 

A, fol. i a, 1. 17 fol. 50, 1. 7. B, om. 

A, fol. 50, 1. 7 fol. 6#, 1. 9. B, fol. 30, 1. i fol. 40, last line. 

A, fol. 6#, 1. 9 fol. io0, 1. i. B, om. 

A, fol. io0, 1. i fol. 1 60, 1. i. B, fol. 40, 1. i fol. 150, last line. 

A, fol. i60, 1. I fol. 17^, 1. 3. B, om. 

A, fol. 170, 1. 4 fol. 320, 1. 7. B, fol. 150, 

A, fol. 32^, 1. 7 fol. 410, 1. 15. B, fol. 69^, 

A, fol. 4 1^, 1. 15 fol. 620, last line. B, om. 

A, fol. 620, 1. i fol. 630, penult. B, fol. 870, 

A, fol. 630, last line fol. 680, 1. 10. B, fol. 430, 

A, fol. 680, 1. 10 fol. 69^, 1. 12. B, fol. 680, 

I fol. 430, last line. 
I fol. 870, 1. 7. 

8 fol. 900, last line. 
I fol. 520, last line, 
i fol. 69*2, last line. 

A, fol. 690, 1. 12 fol. 950, 1. 8. B, om. 

A, fol. 950, 1. 8 fol. 1050, 1. 12. B, fol. 900, 1. i fol. 1090, 1. I. 

A, fol. 1050, 1. 12 fol. 1080, 1. 2. B, fol. 2320;, 1. 6 fol. 238^, last line. 

i) Abii Bakr al-Wasiti, the same person as Muhammad b. Musa al-Far 
ghani mentioned in the preceding chapter. See List of Stiffs under Farghani. 


A, fol. io8/5, 1. 2 fol. 1090, 1. 16. B, fol. 239^, 1. i fol. 241 0, last line. 

A, fol. 1090, 1. 16 fol. 109^, 1. 12. B, fol. 238^, 1. I fol. 2390, last line. 

A, fol. 109,5, 1. 13 fol. 1 1 20, 1. 8. B, fol. 62/5, 1. i fol. 68, last line. 

A, fol. 1 1 2, 1. 9 fol. 113^, 1. 4. B, fol. 54/5, 1. i fol. 56^, last line. 

A, fol. 113^, 1. 5 fol. 1140, 1. 7. B, fol. 241*5, 1. i fol. 2420, last line. 

A, fol. 1140, 1. 8 fol. 115/5, 1. 4. B, fol. 52/5, 1. I fol. 540, last line. 

A, fol. 115/5, 1. 5 fol. H9/z, I. 19. B, fol. 56/5, 1. I fol. 62#, last line. 

A, fol. 1190, penult. fol. 147/5, 1. 2. B, fol. 1310, last line fol. 191/7,1.4. 

A, fol. 147^, 1. 2 fol. 1530, 1. 1 8. B, fol. 109/5, 1. 2 fol. 1220, 1. 10. 

A, fol. 1530, 1. 18 fol. 1720, 1. 8. B, fol. 191^, 1. 4 fol. 2300, last line. 

A, fol. 1720, 1. 8 fol. 172*5, 1. 10. B, om. 

A, fol. 172^, 1. 10 fol. 1730, last line. B, fol. 230/5, 1. i fol. 232/2, 1. 6. 

A, fol. 1730, last line fol. 1780, 1.2. B, fol. 1220, 1. 10 fol. 1310, penult. 

A, fol. 1780, 1. 3 fol. 193/5, 1. 4. B, ora. 

A, om. B, fol. 242*5, 11. 4 17. 

As regards the provenance of the present text of the 
Kitdb af-Luma c , in the opening lines of A (p. t , 11. !* t 
in this edition) it is stated that the text was put together by an 
anonymous editor from written materials which were com 
municated to him by several persons residing in Baghdad and 
Damascus, all of whom derived their information from Abu 
1-Waqt Abd al-Awwal b. c lsa al-Sijzi; and that Abu 1-Waqt 
obtained his text in 465 A. H. from Ahmad b. Abi Nasr al- 
Kufani, who in turn received it from Abu Muhammad al-Hasan 
b. Muhammad al-Khabushani, presumably a pupil of the author. 

This isndd will not bear examination. According to the 
Shadhardt al-Dhahab, Abu 1-Waqt died in 553 A. H. at 
the age of ninety-five, ! ) so that he was only seven years 

) Under 553 A. H. the Shadhardt gives the following account of Abu 1-Waqt : 

u\ &3jj>\ *{ i$ 

(Brockelmann i, 157) 

( b - 467 A. H.) 

(pb. 471 A. H.) 


old at the time when Kufani is alleged to have transmitted 
the text to him. ! ) Moreover, Kufani died at Herat in 464 
A. H. 2 ) Then, as regards the persons (four men and one 
woman) whom the anonymous editor mentions by name as 
his immediate authorities, we learn from the Tabaqdt al- 
Handbila of Ibn Rajab that Abu 1-Qasim c Ali, the son of 
Abu 1-Faraj c Abd al-Rahman Ibn al-Jawzi, died in 630 
A.H. at the age of eighty 3 ). He was therefore born in 550 
A. H., three years before the death of Abu 1-Waqt, and 
could not possibly have received information from him. A 
further anachronism is involved in the appearance of a 
great-grandson of the Caliph Mutawakkil as one of the five 
reporters of the text. Mutawakkil died in 247 A. H., and 
even if we allow 50 years for each generation we only 
reach 400 A. H. 

At the end of A (ff. 193^, 16 - 196^, 8) the copyist, 
Ahmad b. Muhammad al-Zahiri, has transcribed four samd c s, 
which he found in his original. 

The first of these was copied in an abridged form by 
Ibn Yahya 4 ) in 566 A. H. It gives the names of seven per- 

& \JC 

1) The Shadkardt, it will be noticed, makes the almost equally incredible 
statement that in the same year (465 A. H.) Abu 1-Waqt attended lectures 
on the Sahih of Bukhari and other books of Traditions. 

2) Yaqut, ed. by Wiistenfeld, IV 321, 14 foil. The Lttwtf gives Abu Nasr 
as his kunya, but Yaqiit reads Abu Bakr; which is confirmed by the samcfs 
written on the margin of A. For Abu 1-Waqt al-Bahri (1. 16) read Abu 
1-Waqt al-Sijzi. 

3) I owe these details to Mr. A. G. Ellis, who possesses a MS. of the 
Tabaqdt al-Hanabila. He adds that in the life of Ibn al-Jawzi (ob. 597 A.H.) 
it is stated that his eldest son, c Abd al- c Aziz, received instruction from Abu 
1-Waqt and Muhammad b. Nasir al-Silafi (ob. 550 A. H.). This is quite poss 
ible, since c Abd al- c Aziz died in 554 A.H. during his father s lifetime. 

4) Abu l-Ma c ali Ahmad b. Yahya b. Hibatallah al-Bayyi c . He seems to 
have been the owner of the original MS. from which A was copied. See below. 


sons, including Abu 1-Waqt al-Sijzi, who heard a portion of 
the Kitdb al-Lumc in 465 A. H. The name of the person 
from whom they heard it is not mentioned. ! ) 

The second was copied by c Abd al- c Aziz b. Mahmud b. 
al-Akhdar 2 ) at an unspecified date. It gives the names of 
twenty-five persons (headed by Abu l-Ma c ali Ahmad b. 
Yahya b. Hibatallah) who heard the whole of the Kitdb 
al-Lumc in a series of sessions which were completed on 
the 1 2th of Rabi c II, 553 A. H. The names of two persons 
are added who attended every session except one. The text 
which these twenty-seven persons heard was read to them 
by Sheykh Abu 1-Fath Yusuf b. Muhammad b. Muqallad 
al-Dimashqi on the authority of Abu 1-Waqt al-Sijzi, from 
Kufani, from Khabushani. 

The third samd^ contains the names of a hundred and 
forty persons to whom the entire text, as derived from Abu 
1-Waqt, was read by Abu 1-Fadl b. Shafi c during a number 
of sessions, the last of which took place on the gth of Sha c ban, 
553 A. H. Many of these names are illegible. Among them 
occurs the name of c Abd al-Razzaq, the fifth son of c Abd 
al-Qadir al-Jili. c Abd al-Qadir died in 561 A. H. c Abd al- 
Razzaq (born 528 A. H. ; died 623 A. H.) was twenty-five 
years of age when he heard the Kitdb al-Lumcf on this 

The fourth samd c enumerates thirty-one persons, including 
two women, who heard Abu 1-Waqt s text of the whole 
volume. At the head of the list stands the well-known author 
of the Addb al-muridin, Abu 1-Najib c Abd al-Qahir b. c Abd- 

1) The same sawd c is given more fully in various places on the margin of 
A (see p. XXXV supra}^ each record covering a certain portion of the text. 
These marginal samcfs name Abu Bakr al-Kufani as the authority for the text 
and Abu Hafs c Umar al-Farawi as the reader. 

2) MS. ^a-Y\, The penultimate letter is clearly sad, not mini. 


dallah al-Suhrawardi (ob. 563 A. H.), with his sons c Abd al- 
Rahim and c Abd al-Latif. The reader was Yusuf b. Muham 
mad b. Muqallad al-Dimashqi (already mentioned in the 
second samd c ), and the last meeting was held on the nth o f 
Rajab, 553 A. H. The sama ends with the following words: 

<~ Cr* >^ -A ^-^ f* ^ 

It seems to me likely that the isndd is a fiction based 
upon the samd c s. The date 465 A. H. occurs in the first 
samd c ; those written in the margin of A record that Kufani s 
text of the Luma c was read to Abu 1-Waqt in that year; 
and in the second samd* it is asserted that Kiifanf derived 
his text from Khabushani. For reasons indicated above, I do 
not see how we can accept the statement that Abu 1-Waqt 
received the text from Kiifanf himself or that he heard it 
from any one as early as 465 A. H. ; but he may have 
received it at a later date from one of Kufani s pupils. 
The list given in the isndd of five persons who are said to 
have transmitted Abu 1-Waqt s text to the anonymous 
editor is discredited on chronological grounds and also lacks 
external authority. None of those five names appears in 
the samd c s. 

Had the authenticity of the text been doubtful, I should 
have felt myself obliged to print the samd s in full, since 
they might have helped us to settle the question one way 
or the other. But there is nothing in the book, as it stands, 
to support or justify such a suspicion, and the evidence 
from outside is equally convincing. Qushayrf in his Risdla 
(437 A. H.) cites many passages from the Lunicf which agree 
with our text. Hujwiri, writing twenty or thirty years later, 
made free use of the work, and he quotes verbatim a passage 
on adab, which occurs in the present edition, p. Iff, 1. 11, 


foil. ) The Kitdb al-Lumcf is one of the sources of Ghazzali s 
Ihyd. 2 ) M. Louis Massignon has called my attention to a 
passage in the Tabaqdt al-Shdffiyyat al-Kubrd of Subki 
(Cairo, 1324 A. H., part V, p. 123, 11. 13 19), where Sarraj 
is cited by Abu 1-Qasim al-Rafi c i as impugning the genuineness 
of the Hadith, "Lo, a veil is drawn over my heart and I 
ask pardon of God a hundred times every day." This refers 
to Lumcf, p. Tvl*, 1. b, foil, (under &\). 3 ) Another passage 
of the Lu/na c (p. n* 1 , 1. r., foil.) was cited in the lost 7V- 
rikh al-Siifiyya of Sulami (ob. 412 A. H.), whence it was 
extracted by Khatib and published by him in the History 
of Baghdad*}. 

The description of the two MSS. which has been given 
above will sufficiently explain my decision to make A the 
basis of the present edition, notwithstanding its relative in 
feriority in age. Although, as a rule, the textual differences 
are unimportant, I have recorded almost every variation, 
however trivial, so that the reader practically has both texts 
before him. The readings of A have been followed throughout 
except in a comparatively small number of instances which 
will be found in the foot-notes. 

1) See Kashf al-Mahjub, Lucknow ed., 265, 8 foil. = my translation, p. 
341. The same passage is cited by Qushayri, 153, 5 foil, and in Persian by 
c Attar, Tadhkirat al-Avoliya, II, 183, 15 21, and Jami, Nafahdt al-Uns, 
320, 714- 

2) Sarraj is cited by name in the Ihya (Biilaq, 1289 A.H.), II, 278, 6. The 
passage following , which has been translated by Prof. D. B. Macdonald in 
JRAS for 1901, p. 745, is an abridgment of Lumaf, p. M**, 1. t , foil. 
Two quotations from Abu Sa c id b. al-A c rabi (Lumaf, p. ^, 11. t and p. 
H., 11. if i*) occur in the Ihya, II, 269, \>]^ = JRAS ibid., p. 720. The 
extent of Ghazzali s debt to Sarraj may be estimated by comparing the chap 
ters in the Lumcf that treat of music and ecstasy with the corresponding 
portion of the Ihya. 

3) According to Rafi c i the Tradition in question was described by Sarraj as 
JxL d-o-k>, but the words used in the Lttmcf are ^Ji^> _s\- . 

4) See Massignon, Quatre textes inedits, relatifs a la biographic a al-Hosayn 
ibn Mansour al-Hallaj, p. 25*, N. 23. 


The omission of words or passages in one of the MSS. is 
always noted, but I have not thought it necessary to record 
every occasion when words which occur in B have been 
supplied in A by a later hand. 

As regards spelling, the printed text does not retain all 
the peculiarities of the MSS., e.g. such forms as J,V*x> for 

o "* 

jV*-, \j--X> f r y^) ^ f r t5^ Hamza very rarely ap- 


pears in the MSS., but I have generally restored it. Where 
it has been added over a medial yd, the dots under that 
letter are allowed to stand: thus, a53^L (the MSS. write 
sSC^L). I must admit that my practice in this respect is not 
entirely consistent, for sometimes the MS. spelling has been 
left unaltered, as J.~- = J*~. Yd is often substituted for alif 

-is 1 

hamzatum in the final radical of the verb. e. g. L ^\ = Ul\, 
Ja)\ = \3a$^ and consequently we meet with many inGorrect 
forms , e. g. UyU\ = \&j \*U\ , 

4j^s = &f . In such cases the MS. readings have been retained. 
One can only conjecture how far the author shares with 
his copyists responsibility for the numerous grammatical mis 
takes and irregularities which are found in the MSS. As he 
says (p. If P 1. 11 foil.), the adab of the Sufis is not philological 
but theosophical; and though we may acquit him of gross 
blunders, it is more than likely that his knowledge of Arabic 
grammar was imperfect, and that in writing the language 
he did not observe all the niceties appropriate to a high 
standard of literary composition. The most common errors 
and solecisms may be classified as follows: Use of the ac 
cusative instead of the nominative (^ instead of jj ), 
and of the nominative instead of the accusative (especially 
after ^\) ; omission of the c d id, with or without a preposi 
tion, after U and ^j^ (19,8; 95,19; 154,6,16; 198,2; 


282,4; 313,4; 406,5, etc.)\ use of the plural verb when it 
precedes a plural subject (17,1; 18, 2; 158,22; 165,9; f ur ~ 
ther examples in the foot-notes); use of the Imperfect in 
the apodosis of conditional sentences (116,19; ^5, 18 et 
passim)-, use of the Indicative instead of the Subjunctive; 
omission of ^J after C\. With regard to these irregularities 
and others of the same kind, I have acted on the principle that 
while an editor is bound to correct flagrant faults of syntax, 
it is no part of his business to improve the author s style. 

But the chief difficulties of the Kitdb al-Lumc? are not 
essentially linguistic; they arise from the subtlety and ab- 
struseness of the ideas which mystical writers have to ex 
press. In their effort to express such ideas the Sufis often 
employ language that no grammarian can make intelli 
gible, though it undoubtedly suggests a meaning to the 
initiated : it may be comprehended as a whole, but will not 
bear logical analysis. A text of this character is peculiarly 
liable to corruption and almost beyond the reach of 
emendation. The critic is disarmed when the notions pre 
sented to him are so obscure and elusive that he cannot 
draw any sharp line between sense and nonsense, or con 
vince himself that one reading is superior to another. 

For a large portion of the book we have to depend on a 
single MS., and there are many passages which the author 
cannot have written exactly as they now stand. The mys 
tical verses are sometimes unmetrical as well as corrupt. 
I have done my best to alleviate the difficulties of the text, 
without altering it except in a few places where the remedy 
seemed to be fairly obvious. That it requires further cor 
rection is evident, but in editing a work of this description 
for the first time, conjectural emendation is only justified 
when it can claim a high degree of probability. 

The Abstract of Contents will, I believe, be found useful 
both by those who wish to refer to the original and by 


those who do not read Arabic but are interested in the 
study of Muhammadan mysticism. It should be pointed out 
that the English Index (pp. 122 130) supplies references 
to the principal subjects discussed by Sarraj and also to the 
Arabic technical terms which he explains in the course of 
his work. 

In the Glossary I have collected a number of words and 
forms which illustrate the author s somewhat unclassical style. 
Many of them occur in Dozy, but his examples of their 
usage are generally drawn from writers belonging to a much 
later period. The fact that Sufism was largely a popular 
movement in close touch with the poorer and uneducated 
Moslems could not fail to lower its literary standards and 
vulgarise its vocabulary; but this is not entirely to be 
deplored. Unlike the philologists and lexicographers, the 
Sufi authors availed themselves freely of the living and 
growing language of their time, and helped to overcome 
the academic influences which, if unchecked, would have 
raised a barrier against the extension and diffusion of Mu 
hammadan culture amongst those who needed it most. 

The book has been printed with the accurate and finished 
workmanship that Orientalists have learned to expect from 
Messrs Brill, and though the list of Corrigenda and Addenda 
is a long one, there are few serious errors. For these I am 
responsible, but I hope they will be excused as misfortunes 
which befall the most careful proof-reader in moments of 
preoccupation or fatigue. It only remains to express once 
more my gratitude to Mr. A. G. Ellis for having placed at 
my disposal, without any restriction whatever, the manuscript 
that forms the basis of the present edition and is the unique 
authority for a large portion of the original text. 



Page Line 

f I. For \&k> read 

.~~ -_, 

For &*> - *X> read 

tf f, .For tiU read 

If IF Dele the hamza in 
IA I** For v o>tj read &. 
FF IF (note I.) For ,la read .Lo. 

i. Ansari in his commentary on the Risdla of 
Qushayri (I, 172, 1) says: 

Fariduddm <Attar (Tadhkirat al-Awliijd, II, 132, 3) 

rhymes ,^.-j-z> with ^.-XAOJ, and though he is often 
at fault in historical matters, it seems to me that he 
is a more trustworthy authority than Ansari as regards 
the correct pronunciation of the nisba. 

For L\j>m read 

For *i Jo reat^ xi .Jo. 

S^ For 

H jFor ^*i read will. 

5 O 

11 J^or I^Ub read ^Lb. This saying in a somewhat diff 
erent form is attributed by Qushayri (12, 8) to Sari 


Page Line 
f* If For JJu read 

fA 11 (jMyj. The correct reading is probably u^Lsu. See 

G j > o 

fl v jPor j&Xo read *J5L\*3. 
<% y Dele \ after &JIJ. 

6* I* The accusative yv-jiA^, instead of the nominative, is 
contrary to rule, (Wright II, 85), but the author may 
have written it so. 

ir 1 For t>J read ^>J. 

o -- -. 

IA tv For ^*jJl read 

^ v 
11 Id Jffyr 

v 1 For jxli reac? r^S. Cf. Freytag, Arabutn Proverbia, 
II, 421. 

a A- > ^ 

vf I* J^or w. feod w.. 

11 1 For z& read UL&. 

II** J^or Lxll read 

llf f ^or \ read 

111 Iv For Joc> read (}*> (as in A). 

- > o - > 

\^> reac^ A.^>. 
has dropped out before 


fn Iv 

jf^or read 

in* 1 lo 

It^j** |l ^or -*Jy (so A-, but the points over the initial o have 
been added by a later hand) read 









For &J$ o ^ read ^ Q^ The same correction 
must be made on p. UV, 1, I*, p. IAA, 1. If, p. !1/\, 1. A, 
p. PL, 1. v, and p. H*V, 1. Iv. See the Introduction, 
p. XXVII n. 2. 

(note P). For sjL^ read ^ . 



J CO J _O 



Perhaps <$\ 
For ^bCo read 
.For LiC) read 

I have little doubt that we should read 

.^LAMJ ^5 and omit the words i^J3 ^1. Cf. p. HI, 1. I, 

where read 


For Ax 


jRead *j 


For -c 


For ^ 


For U 









* instead of 
instead of o 
instead of 

A f. 102a should be printed opposite this line. 

For lJUx^ read 




Ji /"or 


Page Line 

F^o f For ^^.j\J read 

If I* I* For 


Iff If The sajt suggests LpUS ] in the sense of "metaphorical 

description" or "symbolism". 
IfP !v For the construction c\_x_otJl ^JUaj see Wright, II, 

218 CD. 

Iff v Jfcad lijU /or pt> . 

rfo f Perhaps <$U5 ^yj. Of. p. yf*l, 1. 1 

ffA o The following verses occur thrice (pp. 22*, 33*, and 
53*) in Massignon s Quatre textea inedits, relatifs a la 
biographic d al-Hosayn ibn Mansour al-Halldj , where 
they are attributed to Hallaj himself. QT. gives eight 
verses, and the order is different from that in the 
Lumat. The variants that seem to me worth noting 
are these : 
If A , 


fJ*A, f. j*_kXJf L\Co ^x, but in the third version 
jJ^G (sic) 

1 ^a^ lo tc;t^ B. 

rf A If r In the Kashkul (Biilaq, 1288 A. H-), p. 118, 1. 26, 
these verses are attributed to Hallaj. 

O -- S 

o The metre of this verse requires ^-x-^x_*J 13 ^j, 
whereas in the remaining verses the rhyme-letter must 
be pronounced with the vrdb. Moreover, the rhymes 
are highly irregular, although the MSS. present an 
appearance of uniformity, which has been obtained at 
the expense of grammar 


Page Line 

_ O - S-.O-. O _ _ G ^ 

v For l**Xu read 

4 _fl These verses are cited by Qushayri (95, 4 foil.), together 
with the opening verse : 

See the supercommentary by Mustafa al- Ariisi on Za- 
kariyya al- An sari s Shark al-Risdlat al-Qushayriyya, 
III, 62, 2 foil. 


!v J?ear^ ^LXPli; o^ ^yo^ j, o^kLi. Qushayri has 

V! For AJJJ rea^ Joy. 

I! It is unnecessary to alter the reading of the MSS. 

= ,f^i but cf. the Introduction, p. XLII. 

1* For ^JLfJ5 read 
1 For oUioLi rea^ 

(note If). For Aghdni, IV 21 foil, rearf Aghdni, IV 39, 
21 foil. 

For ~joA read (probably) 

t For 1^ read ^. Cf. N., f 

I. (note A). De^e the reference to the Ansdb. The person 
noticed there, Abu Abdallah Muhammad al-Tayalisi 
al-Razi, cannot be identified with this Stiff, whose 
name is Jarfar (cf. PV1, o). 

1 For .LwJdi read 

nr I! For Js-^>l ^j L\- ^ad A ^ A^>l = Abu 

1-Hasan Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Salim. 

i**.v 1 For xo read L^s. 

Ws !d For ^^y^J read s- 

rrr r For X^Lil read X 

HT v For L read 


Page Line 

ft For yJilJfj read jjJUllv 
A 1 It seems probable that ^o? and the following verbs 

_ O ~0 

should be read as Imperatives. In this case v_a=>i must 
be substituted for ^A and jLS? for 

. tv For *U^I read SL^i. Of. H% A 
vt f For 

HI Iv .For 

I Perhaps 

1 Grammar requires 


(Of. n% io- 

ft. A i^Ui .JJI X5l. Of. 

fll v ^ea^ 

fir A Read 

flf ir Perhaps ^^l^cji may stand. Of. 


78 9 For laqd read liqd. 



1 The anonymous editor mentions the names of several per 
sons (four residing in Baghdad and one in Damascus) through 
whom the text of the Kitdb al-Luma c was transmitted to 
him. All of them derive it from the same authority, namely, 
Abu 1-Waqt c Abd al-Awwal b. c lsa b. Shu c ayb b. Ishaq al- 
Sijzi al-Sufi al-Harawi al-Malini, who received it in 465 A. H. 
from his teacher Abu Nasr J ) al-Kiifani, to whom it was 
communicated by Abu Muhammad al-Khabushani. Doxology. 
Praise to God, who has endowed the elect among His ser 
vants with various degrees of knowledge and understanding 
of Himself. The whole of knowledge is comprised in three 
sources, (a) the Koran, (b) the Traditions of the Prophet, 

2 (c) that which is revealed to the Saints. Blessings on the 
Prophet and his family. Preface. The author describes the 
nature of the present work. It is a treatise on the principles 
and sciences of Sufism, including an account of the tradi 
tions and poems of the Suffs, their questions and answers, 
their stations and states , their peculiar symbolism and 
technical terms. The author has indicated the salient features 
of each topic to the best of his power. He writes as an 
orthodox Moslem and begs his readers to study the work 
in a spirit of pious devotion and friendliness towards the 

t) This should be Abu Bakr. 

Sufis, who, though few in number, are highly esteemed and 
honoured by God. Some knowledge of the principles, aims, 
and method of genuine Sufis is necessary in this age, in 
order that they may be distinguished from the impostors 

3 who appropriate their name and dress. Description of the 
genuine Sufis, whose hearts God has vivified by gnosis and 
whose bodies He has adorned with worship, so that they 
have renounced all things for His sake. Many of the author s 
contemporaries were only theoretically acquainted with Sufism, 
yet they composed pretentious books on the subject. This 
contrasts unfavourably with the behaviour of the eminent 
Suffs of old who did not discourse upon mystical questions 
until they had undergone austerities and had mortified their 
passions and had endeavoured to cut every tie that hindered 
them from attaining to God, and who combined theory with 

4 perfection of practice. The author states that he has often sup 
pressed the isndds and abridged the text of the traditions 
and anecdotes in this volume. He has recorded the answers 
and sayings of the ancient Sufis inasmuch as these enable 
him to do without the ostentatious discussions in which con 
temporary writers indulge. God is the enemy of any one 
who embellishes or clothes in different language a mystical 
thought belonging to the ancients and attributes it to him 
self for the purpose of winning fame or popularity. 

CHAPTER I: "Explanation of the science of Sufism and 
the doctrine of the Sufis and their position in regard to 
the ^ulamd." 

The author was asked, by some one who pointed out 
that many diverse opinions were held concerning Sufism , 

5 to explain the principles of its doctrine and to show by 
argument how it is connected with the Koran and the Apostolic 
Traditions. He replies by quoting Kor. 3, 16, where the most 
excellent of the believers and those of the highest rank in 
religion are described as "the possessors of knowledge" 

(ulu 9 l c ilm). Similarly, Muhammad said that the savants 
( c ulamd) are the heirs of the prophets. The author divides 
these Culamd into three classes : the Traditionists (ashdb al- 
hadith}, the Jurists (fuqahd), and the Sufis. Corresponding 
to these three classes there are three kinds of religious know 
ledge: knowledge of the Koran, knowledge of the Sunna, 

6 and knowledge of the realities of Faith. The last is identical 
with ihsdn (well-doing), which, according to the definition 
imparted to the Prophet by Gabriel, consists in "worshipping 
God as though thou sawest Him, for if thou seest Him not, 
yet He sees thee." Knowledge is joined with action, and 
action with sincerity (ikhlds], and sincerity is this, that a 
man should seek God alone (wajh Allah] with his know 
ledge and his actions. The three classes mentioned above 
differ in their theory and practice and spiritual rank, each 
possessing characteristics peculiar to itself, as the author 

7 now proceeds to explain. 

CHAPTER II: "Description of the classes of Traditionists, 
their system of transmission, their critical sifting of the 
Hadith, and their special knowledge of it." 

The Traditionists attached themselves to the external form 
of the Hadfth, and regarding this as the foundation of religion 
they travelled to all parts of the world and sought out the 
relaters of Traditions, from whom they handed down stories 
about the Prophet and his Companions. They took pains to 
verify all the information that they received, to discover 
whether the relaters were trustworthy or not, to arrange 
the materials which they had collected, and to distinguish 
the genuine Traditions from those which were of doubtful 

8 authority. In this critical investigation some achieved greater 
success than others and gained such a reputation for learning 
that their testimony as to what the Prophet said and did 
and commanded and forbade was universally accepted. The 
Prophet prayed that God would make radiant the face of 

any man who heard an Apostolic Tradition and transmitted 
it: hence all Traditionists, it is said, have shining faces. 
CHAPTER III: "Account of the classes of Jurists and the 
various sciences with which they are specially endowed." 
9 It is the function of the Jurists to study, interpret, and codify 
the Hadith --a task in which they are guided by the Ko 
ran, the Sunna, the consensus of public opinion, and analogy. 

10 CHAPTER IV: "Account of the Sufis, their theory and 
practice, and the excellent qualities by which they are cha 

The Sufis agree with the Traditionists and Jurists in their 
beliefs and accept their sciences and consult them in diffi 
cult matters of religious law. Should there be a difference 
of opinion, the Sufis always adopt the principle of following 
the strictest and most perfect course; they venerate the 
commandments of God and do not seek to evade them. 
Such is their practice in regard to the formal sciences handled 
by the Traditionists and Jurists, but having left these behind 
they rise to heights of mystical devotion and ethical self- 

1 1 culture which are exclusively their own. 

CHAPTER V: "Account of the moral culture and spiritual 
feelings of the Sufis, and of the sciences in which the other 
^ulamd have no share." 

The first point of distinction is that the Sufis renounce 
what does not concern them, i. e. everything that hinders 
them from attaining the object of their quest, which is God 
only. In the next place, they possess many moral, ascetic, 
and mystical qualities. Enumeration of these (pp. 11 13). 
13 CHAPTER VI: "How the Sufis are distinguished from the 
c ulamd in other respects." 

The Sufis are specially distinguished by their practical 
application of certain verses of the Koran and Traditions 
which inculcate noble qualities and lofty feelings and ex 
cellent actions such as formed part of the Prophet s nature 

and character. The c ulamd and the jurists acknowledge the 
truth of these verses and Traditions without studying them 
closely and drawing forth their inmost meaning, but the 
Sufis realise the qualities and feelings referred to, e. g., 

14 repentance, abstinence, patience, fear, hope, etc., so that 
each of these states is represented by a special class of 
persons who attain to diverse degrees therein. Again, the 
Sufis are distinguished by self-knowledge, for they examine 
themselves in order to detect any trace of hypocrisy and 
secret lust and latent polytheism, that they may escape 
from those evils and take refuge with God. Finally, they 
have derived from the Koran and the Traditions mystical 
sciences which it is hard for the jurists and c ulamd to under- 

15 stand. Examples are given. The Sufis are distinguished from 
the rest of the c ulamd by grappling with these recondite 
questions and solving them and speaking about them with the 
certainty that comes of immediate experience. The whole of 
Sufism is to be found in the Koran and the Traditions of 
the Prophet, a fact which is not denied by the ^ulamd when 
they investigate it. Those who deny it are the formalists 
who recognise in the Koran and the Traditions only the 
external ordinances and whatever will serve them in con 
troversy with opponents. The author laments that in his 
time this formal theology, inasmuch as it offered a ready 
means of obtaining power and worldly success, was far more 
popular than Sufism, which involves bitterness and anguish 
and self-mortification. 

16 CHAPTER VII: "Refutation of those who maintain that 
the Sufis are ignorant, and that the Koran and the Tradi 
tions supply no evidence in favour of Sufism." 

The Koran mentions numerous classes of men and women 
endowed with particular qualities, e. g. "the sincere", "the 
patient", "those who trust in God", "the friends of God", etc. 

In the Traditions, too, we find examples not only of 

special classes but also of individuals who are described as 
peculiarly holy, such as c Umar b. al-Khattab, al-Bara, Wabisa, 
Uways al-Qarani, and Talq b. Habib. The circumstance that 
these men, though included among the Faithful, are set apart 
17 by special designations, indicates their distinction from the 
mass of believers. Moreover, the prophets, who occupy a 
more exalted position before God than the persons above- 
mentioned, are allowed by the greatest religious authorities 
to have been like common men in respect of eating and 
sleeping and the ordinary events of life. The distinction 
enjoyed by the prophets and by these holy persons was 
the result of their intimate communion with God and their 
exceeding faith in His Word; but the prophets are distin 
guished from the rest by inspiration (wahy), the apostolic 
office, and evidences of prophecy. 

CHAPTER VIII: u Account of the objection raised by the 
Sufis against those who claim the title of jurist or divine 
(faqih), together with an argument showing what is meant 
by understanding in religion (al-fiqh fi *l-din)" 

Tradition: "when God wishes to confer a blessing on any 
one, He gives him understanding in religion." Definition of 
faqih by Hasan of Basra. Religion is a term comprehending 
all the commandments, both outward and inward, and the 
endeavour to understand the mystical states and stations 
mentioned above is no less profitable than the endeavour to 
become expert in legal knowledge. The latter is seldom 
required and can be obtained from a lawyer whenever the 
1 8 occasion for it arises, but knowledge of the states and 
stations in which the Sufis strive to become proficient is 
obligatory upon all believers at all times. The lore deduced 
(from the Koran and the Traditions) by the Sufis must be 
more abundant than the legal deductions drawn by the 
divines from the same source, because the mystical science 
is infinite, whereas all other sciences are finite. 

CHAPTER IX: "The permissibility of a special endowment 

1 9 in the religious sciences, and the exclusive possession of 
every science by its representatives. Confutation of those 
who arbitrarily refuse to recognise a particular science in 
stead of referring the question to the experts in that science." 

Some c ulamd deny that there is any special endowment in 
the science of religion. The Prophet, however, said, "If ye 
knew what I know, ye would laugh little and weep much." 
Now, if this knowledge had been part of the knowledge which 
he was commanded to proclaim to mankind, he would have 
proclaimed it; and if it had been allowable for his Com 
panions to ask him about it, they would have asked him. 
Hudhayfa, one of the Companions, had a special knowledge 
of the names of the Hypocrites, and c Ali b. Abi Talib 
declared that he learned from the Prophet seventy catego 
ries of knowledge which the Prophet did not impart to any 
one else. The truth is that the science of religion is divided 

20 amongst the Traditionists, the Jurists, and the Sufis, and 
each of these three classes is independent of the others. No 
traditionist will consult a jurist upon any difficulty connected 
with the science of Tradition, nor will a jurist bring legal 
problems to a traditionist. By the same rule, any one who 
desires to be instructed in the mysteries of Sufism must 
seek information from those who have thoroughly mastered 
the subject. Let none vituperate a class of men of whose science 
and feelings and aims he knows nothing. 

CHAPTER X: "Why the Sufis are so called and why the 
name is derived from their fashion of dress." 

The author explains that the name Stiff is not connected 
with any science or spiritual condition, because the Suff is not 
characterised by one particular science or quality but, on the 
contrary, by all sciences and all praiseworthy qualities. He is 
continually advancing from one state to another, and his pre- 
21 dominant characteristics vary from time to time, so that he 


cannot be designated by a name derived from them. The 
appellation Sufi is derived from the garments of wool (suf) 
which used to be worn by the prophets and saints : it is a 
general term connoting all that is praiseworthy. Similarly the 
disciples of Jesus were named al-Hawdriyyun on account 
of their white robes. 

CHAPTER XI: "Confutation of those who say that they 
never heard mention of the Sufis in ancient times and that 
the name is modern." 

If it be argued that there were no Sufis amongst the 

22 Prophet s Companions, the reason is, that it was impossible 
to apply the name Sufi to men who were known by the 
title of Companion, which is of all titles the highest and 
most honourable. The statement that Sufi is a name of re 
cent origin invented by the people of Baghdad is absurd : 
the name was current in the time of Hasan of Basra and 
Sufyan al-Thawri, and according to a tale related in the 
History of Mecca on the authority of Muhammad b. Ishaq 
and others it existed before the promulgation of Islam. 

23 CHAPTER XII: "Demonstration of the reality of the esoteric 

Some formedists recognise only the science of the external 
religious law comprised in the Koran and the Sunna, and 
declare that the esoteric science, i. e. Sufism, is without 
meaning. In fact, however, the science of the religious law 
has an internal as well as an external aspect and inculcates 
inward as well as outward actions. The outward actions are 
bodily, such as hunger, fasting, almsgiving and the like, 
while the inward actions, or the actions of the heart, are 
faith, sincerity, knowledge of God, etc. The esoteric science 

24 signifies the science of the actions of the interior which 
depend on the interior organ, namely, the heart (al-qalb}\ 
and is identical with Sufism. The inward aspect of religion 
is the necessary complement of the outward aspect, and 


vice versa. Both aspects are inherent in the Koran, in the 
Traditions of the Prophet, and in Islam itself. 

CHAPTER XIII: "The nature and quality of Sufism." 

25 Definitions of Sufism by Muhammad b. c Ali al-Qassab, Ju- 
nayd, Ruwaym, Sumnun, Abu Muhammad al-Jariri l ), c Amr 
b. c Uthman al-Makki, and c Ali b. Abd al-Rahim al-Qannad. 

CHAPTER XIV: "Description of the Sufis and who they are." 
Sayings of c Abd al-Wahid b. Zayd, Dhu 1-Nun al-Misrf, 

26 Junayd, Abu 1-Husayn al-Nuri. The people of Syria call 
the Sufis poor men (fuqara). Meaning of Sufi explained 
by Abu c Abdallah al-Jalla. It is said that the original form 
of the word was Safawi. According to Abu 1-Hasan al- 
Qannad Sufi is derived from safd (purity). Anonymous 
definitions of Sufi . The author s explanation of what is 
really implied by the name Sufi . 

27 Qannad says that it refers to the dress in which the Sufis 
resemble each other outwardly, though they are very diffe 
rent spiritually. Shibli s answer to the question why the 
Sufis were so named. It has been said that they are a 
remnant of the Ahl al-suffa. Ibrahim b. Muwallad al-Raqqi 
gave more then a hundred definitions of Sufism. Verses by 
c Ali b. Abd al-Rahim al-Qannad on the decay of Sufism. 
Three definitions by an anonymous Shaykh referring to three 

28 points of view from which Sufism may be regarded. Definitions 
given by Husri to the author. Saying of the Caliph Abu Bakr. 

CHAPTER XV: "On unification (taw hid}" 
Definitions of unification, according to the sense which the 
Moslems generally attach to it, by Dhu 1-Nun and Junayd. 
Definitions of the term, according to the sense which the 

29 Sufis attach to it, by Junayd. The author s comment on the 
saying of Junayd that "man should return from his last state 
to his first state and be as he was before he existed". Saying 

:) Or Jurayri. See note on p. fc>, 1. 1 in List of Addenda et Corrigenda. 


30 of Shiblf to the effect that the unity of God is utterly in 
expressible and indefinable, with a brief explanation by the 
author. Explanation of three answers of Yusuf b. al-Husayn 

31 al-Razf concerning unification. The author then calls atten 
tion to another class of definitions, namely, those uttered in 
the language of ecstasy, and says that he will explain them 
as far as is possible, lest any of his readers should be misled. 
One must be a mystic in order to understand mystical sym 
bolism. Ruwaym s saying, that unification is the effacement 
of human nature, signifies the transformation of the nature 

32 of the lower soul (nafs). Explanation of several anonymous 
sayings on tawhid and wakddniyyat, and of a saying by 

33 Shiblf. Another anonymous definition of tawhid. Description 
of the first stage of tawhid and the first sign of taw kid by 
Abu Sa c id al-Kharraz, together with the author s commentary. 

34 Saying of Shibli : "egoism impairs unification". Another 
saying of Shibli to the same effect, with the author s expla 
nation. Distinction made by Shibli between the unification 
of humanity (tawhid al-bashariyyat] and the unification of 
Divinity (tawhid al-ildhiyyat}. The author s explanation of 
this saying. Two contradictory sayings of Shibli: on one 
occasion he said that whoever is acquainted with an atom 
of the science of unification cannot bear the weight of a 
gnat; but on another occasion he said that such a person 
sustains the whole heaven and earth on a single eyelash. 
Meaning of the latter saying. It is related that Gabriel covers 

35 the East and the West with two of his six hundred wings. 
Other traditions respecting the size of Gabriel and the dimen 
sions of the heavenly kingdom (malakut}. Saying of Ahmad 
b. c Ata al-Baghdadi: "the reality of unification consists in for 
getting unification, etc." The author explains what this means. 

CHAPTER XVI: "Concerning what has been said on the 
subject of gnosis (mcfrifat) and the characteristics of the 
gnostic ( c drif)" 

1 1 

Two sources of gnosis according to Abu Sa c id al-Kharraz. 
Description of the gnostic by Abu Turab al-Nakhshabi. Two 
kinds of gnosis, marifat al-haqq and mafrifat al-kaqiqat, 

36 distinguished by Ahmad b. c Ata. The author s explanation 
of part of this saying: God is really unknowable; hence it 
has been said that none knows Him save Himself, and the 
Caliph Abu Bakr said, "Praise to God who hath given His 
creatures no way of attaining to the knowledge of Him except 
through their inability to know Him." Three sayings of 
Shibli on gnosis. Abu Yazid al-Bistami said, describing the 
gnostic, that the colour of water is the colour of the vessel 

37 which contains it. The author explains the meaning of this 
metaphor. Saying of Junayd. Anonymous definition of gnosis. 
Saying of Junayd: what gnostics desire of God. Muhammad 
b. al-Fadl of Samarcand asserted that gnostics desire nothing 
and that they have no personal volition, but when some 
one asked him what gnostics desire of God he answered, 
u Steadfastness"(z.y/z^zwtf/) ! ). Description of the gnostic byYahya 
b. Mu c adh al-Razi. Reply of Abu 1-Husayn al-Nuri to one 

38 who asked him why the intellect is unable to apprehend 
God. Explanation of this saying by the author. Saying of 
Ahmad b. c Ata (which is sometimes wrongly attributed to 
Abu Bakr al-Wasiti): "What is deemed evil is evil only 
through His occultation, and what is deemed good is good 
only through His manifestation, etc." The author quotes a 
similar saying of Abu Sulayman al-Darani and says that Ibn 

39 Ata s words bear the same meaning as the Tradition in 
which it is related that the Prophet went forth with a scroll 
in his right hand and another scroll in his left hand, and 
that he said, "Here are written the names of the people of 
Paradise, and here are written the names of the people of 

i) Cf. Fliigel, Ta -rifdt^ p. 19, 1. 18, where istiqdmat is defined as "not 
preferring anything to God." The term is explained by Qushayri, 111,27 fol. 


Hell." A saying of Abu Bakr al-Wasiti concerning gnostics, 
with the author s explanation thereof. 

CHAPTER XVII: "Description of the gnostic and what 
has been said about him." 

Three sayings of Yahya b. Mu c adh al-Razi. Three signs of 
the gnostic enumerated by Dhu 1-Nun al-Misri. Anonymous 

40 sayings: no one who describes gnosis is a true gnostic; if the 
gnostic turns from God towards mankind without His permis 
sion, God will abandon him; none can know God unless his 
heart is filled with awe. Perfect gnosis defined by Abd al- 
Rahman al-Farisi. The author s explanation of this definition. 

CHAPTER XVIII: "Concerning the means by which God 
is known. The difference between the believer and the gnostic." 
Abu 1-Husayn al-Nurf said that God is known only through 
Himself, and that the intellect cannot know Him. On being 
asked what is the first duty imposed by God on His servants, 
he replied, "To know Him." Anonymous definition of gnosis. 

41 Gnosis is originally a divine gift. Distinction between the 
believer and the gnostic. The former sees by the light of 
God, the latter through God Himself. Three kinds of gnosis: 
gnosis of acknowledgment, gnosis of reality, gnosis of con 
templation. Definition of gnosis by Abu Bakr al-Zahirabadhi. 


CHAPTER XIX: "Concerning the stations (al-maqdmdf] and 
their realities." 

Definition of the term maqdm. 

42 Explanation by Abu Bakr al-Wasiti of the Tradition, "The 
spirits are hosts arrayed (junud mujannada)" Examples of 
the qualities to which the term station is applied. 

CHAPTER XX: "Concerning the meaning of states (al- 

Definition of the term ahwdl by the author. 


Definition by Junayd. Anonymous description of the state 
(hdl) as secret recollection (al-dhikr al-khafi}. It is not 
gained, like the stations , by means of ascetic practices and 
works of devotion. Examples of states . The author s expla 
nation of a saying by Abu Sulayman al-Darani: "the body 
obtains relief when man s dealings with God pass over to 
the heart." 

43 Sayings of Muhammad b. Wasi c , Malik b. Dinar, and Junayd. 
CHAPTER XXI: "On the station of repentance (tawbat}" 
Definitions of repentance by Abu Ya c qub al-Susi, Sahl b. 

c Abdallah al-Tustari ("that you should not forget your sins"), 
and Junayd ("forgetting your sins"). The author points out 
that the definitions of al-Susi and Sahl b. Abdallah refer 
to the repentance of disciples and seekers, whereas that of 
Junayd refers to the repentance of spiritual adepts. It was 
in the latter sense that Ruwaym defined repentance as 
"repenting of repentance." 

44 So Dhu 1-Nun said that common men repent of sin but 
the elect repent of forgetting God. The expressions used 
by gnostics and ecstatics in regard to repentance are illus 
trated by the definition of Abu 1-Husayn al-Nuri: "that 
you should repent of everything except God." Dhu 1-Nun 
alludes to the above distinction in his saying, "The sins of 
the saints (al-muqarrabiri) are the good deeds of the pious 
(al-abrdr)" Another similar saying: "The hypocrisy of gnostics 
is the sincerity of disciples." Explanation of the different 
spiritual degrees. 

CHAPTER XXII: "On the station of abstinence (warcf}" 
Three classes of those who practise abstinence. 
The first class abstain from what is dubious , i.e. neither 
plainly lawful nor plainly unlawful. Saying of Ibn Sirin. 

45 The second class abstain from whatever their consciences 
bid them avoid. Definition of abstinence by Abu Sa c id al- 
Kharraz. Harith al-Muhasibi never ate anything dubious : 


a vein in his finger throbbed when he attempted to take such 
food. Story of Bishr al-Haff. Definition of lawful by Sahl 
b. Abdallah al-Tustari and the author s comment. Traditions 
justifying the appeal to conscience. The third class, namely, 
the gnostics and ecstatics, share the view of Abu Sulayman 
al-Darani, that whatever diverts the attention from God is 

46 abominable. Similar sayings by Sahl b. c Abdallah and Shibli. 

CHAPTER XXIII: "On the station of renunciation (zuhd}" 
Renunciation is the basis of spiritual progress, because 
every sin originates in love of this world, and every act of 
goodness and obedience springs from renunciation. The name 
of ascetic (zdhid) is equivalent to a hundred names of praise. 
Renunciation has reference only to what is lawful, since the 
avoidance of unlawful and dubious things is obligatory. Three 
classes of ascetics (zuhhdd). The first class are the novices 
whose hands are empty of possessions and whose hearts are 
empty of that which is not in their hands. Sayings of 
Junayd and Sari al-Saqati. The second class are the adepts 
in renunciation (al-mutakaqqiqun fi l-zuhd), to whom Ru- 

47 waym s definition of zuhd as the renunciation of all selfish 
interests is applicable. There is a selfish interest in renoun 
cing the world, inasmuch as the ascetic gains joy and praise 
and reputation, but the real ascetic banishes all these inter 
ests from his heart. The third class are those who recognise 
the utter vanity of this world and hold it so cheap that 
they scorn to look at it : hence they regard even renuncia 
tion of it as an act of turning away from God. Sayings of 
Shibli and Yahya b. Mu c adh al-Razi. 

CHAFER XXIV: "On the station of poverty (faqr] and 
the characteristics of the poor." 

Verse of the Koran describing the poor. Poverty is a 
great ornament to the believer (Tradition). Saying in praise 

48 of poverty by Ibrahim al-Khawwas. Three classes of poor 
men (fuqard). The first class are those who possess nothing 


and do not seek outwardly or inwardly anything from anyone, 
and if anything is offered to them they will not accept it. 
Saying of Sahl b. G Ali b. Sahl al-Isbahani. The reality of 
poverty explained by Abu c Abdallah b. al-Jalla. The question 
why faqirs refuse to accept food when they need it answered 
by Abu c Alf al-Rudhaban and Abu Bakr al-Zaqqaq. Answer 
given by Nasr b. al-Hammami to the question why the 
Sufis prefer poverty to everything else. The second class 
possess nothing and do not beg either directly or indirectly, 
but if anything is offered to them they accept it. Saying of 
Junayd : the sign of the true faqir. Definition of the true 
faqir by Sahl b. c Abdallah al-Tustari. 

49 Real poverty defined by Abu c Abdallah b. al-Jalla. Charac 
teristics of the true faqir according to Ibrahim al-Khawwas. 
The third class do not possess anything, but when they are 
in want they beg of a brother Sufi and expiate the act of 
begging by their sincerity. ! ). Sayings of Jariri and Ruwaym. 

CHAPTER XXV: "On the station of patience (sabr)" 
Sayings of Junayd and Ibrahim al-Khawwas. Dialogue 

50 between Shibli and a man who asked him, "What is the 
hardest kind of patience ?" The mutasabbir, the sdbir, and the 
sabbdr defined by Ibn Salim. These definitions are illustrated 
by a saying of al-Qannad and stories of Dhu 1-Nun and 
Shibli. Verses which Shibli used to quote. 

5 i Tradition as to the effect of one moan uttered by Zakariyya, 
when the saw was laid on his neck. 

CHAPTER XX VI: "On the station of trust in God (tawakkul}" 
Passages in the Koran showing that trust in God is con 
nected with faith. Other passages referring to the trust of 
the elect of the elect (khusus al- khusus). Three kinds of trust 
52 m God. The first is the trust of the faithful (al-mu minun). 

.; .. " " 

i) Read xJJL\-o instead of JLJ>L\~o (cf. p. 111* 1. P. foil.). Sincerity (jidq) 

involves the entire absence of self-interest and self-regard. 


Definitions of this by Abu Turab al-Nakhshabi, Dhu 1-Nun, 
Abu Bakr al-Zaqqaq, Ruwaym, and Sahl b. G Abdallah al- 
Tustari. The second kind is the trust of the elect (ahl 
al-khusus}. Definitions by Ibn c Ata, Abu Ya c qub al-Nahrajurf, 
Abu Bakr al-Wasitf, and Sahl b. c Abdallah al-Tustari. The third 
kind is the trust of the elect of the elect (khusus al-khusus}. 
Definitions by Shibli, an anonymous Sufi, Ibn al-Jalla, Junayd, 

53 Abu Sulayman al-Darani, and another anonymous mystic. 

CHAPTER XXVII: "On the station of satisfaction (ridd) 
and the characteristics of the satisfied." 

According to the Koran (9, 73), God s satisfaction with man 
precedes man s satisfaction with God. Definitions of ridd 
by the author, Junayd, al-Qannad, Dhu 1-Nun, and Ibn c Ata. 

54 Saying of Abu Bakr al-Wasitf. Three classes of the satis 
fied : (i) those who strive to preserve equanimity towards 
God in all circumstances (2) those who pay no regard to 
their own satisfaction but consider only the fact that God is 
satisfied with them (3) those who realise that the question 
whether they are satisfied with God and God with them 
depends absolutely on the eternal providence of God. Saying 
of Abu Sulayman al-Darani in this sense. Ridd is the last 
of the stations and is followed by the mystical states , of 
which the first is observation (murdqabat). 

CHAPTER XXVIII: "On the observation of mystical states 
and the characteristics of such observers." 

55 The observer is he who knows that God is acquainted 
with his most secret thoughts: consequently he keeps watch 
over the evil thoughts that hinder him from thinking of 
God. Sayings of Abu Sulayman al-Darani, Ibrahim al-Ajurri, 
and Hasan b. c Ali al-Damaghani. Three types of murdqabat. 
The first is that of beginners and is described in the saying 
of Hasan b. c Alf al-Damaghani. The second is described in 
a saying of Ibn c Ata. The third is peculiar to those who observe 
God and ask Him to keep their minds always fixed upon Him. 

56 Saying of Ibn c Ata. 

CHAPTER XXIX: "On the state of nearness to God (qurb)" 
Koranic texts declaring that God is near. The state of 
nearness belongs to one who contemplates God s nearness 
to him, and seeks to draw near to God by means of obedience 
to His commands, and concentrates his thoughts by constant 
recollection of God. Such persons form three classes. The 
first class are those who seek to draw near to God by 
various acts of devotion. The second class are those who 
realise God s nearness to such an extent that they resemble 
c Amir b. c Abd al-Qays who said, "I never looked at any 
thing without regarding God as nearer to it than I was." 

57 Verses describing the inward feeling of nearness produced by 
ecstasy. Saying of Junayd: God is near to man in proportion 
as man feels himself near to God. An anonymous saying to 
the same effect. The third and highest class are those whose 
nearness to God causes them to be unconscious of nearness, 
Sayings of Abu 1-Husayn al-Nuri and Abu Ya c qub al-Susi. 

CHAPTER XXX: "On the state of love (mahabbat}" 
It appears from several passages in the Koran that God 

58 loves man and that God s love of man precedes man s 
love of God. The author describes the man who loves God. 
Three forms of love. The first is the love of the vulgar 
(al^dmmat], which results from God s kindness towards them, 
according to the Tradition that men naturally love their 
benefactors. Descriptions of this form of love by Sumnun, 
Sahl b. c Abdallah al-Tustari, Husayn b. C AH 1, and an an 
onymous authority on Sufism. The second form of love, which 
is the love of the sincere (al-sddiqun\ is produced by regarding 
the majesty, omnipotence, and omniscience of God. Descript- 

59 ions of it by Abu 1-Husayn al-Nuri, Ibrahim al-Khawwas, 
and Abu Sa c id al-Kharraz. The third form of love, i. e. the 

Husayn (Hasan) b. C AH al-Damaghani is probably meant. 


love of saints and gnostics (al-siddiqun wa l- c drifun) results 
from their knowledge of the eternal and causeless Divine 
love: hence they love God without any cause for loving 
Him. Descriptions of this exalted love by Dhu 1-Nun, Abu 
Ya c qub al-Siisi, and Junayd. Tradition: God becomes the 
eye, ear, and hand of any one whom He loves. 

60 CHAPTER XXXI: "On the state of fear (khawf)." 
Nearness to God (qurb) may produce either love or fear. 

Three kinds of fear mentioned in the Koran. While the 
vulgar (al- c dmmat) fear the vengeance of God, the middle class 
(al-awsdt) fear separation from God and the occurrence of 
anything that might impair their gnosis. Sayings on the 
latter kind of fear by Shibli, an anonymous gnostic in reply 
to Abu Sa c id al-Kharraz, Ibn Khubayq, and al-Qannad. The 

6 1 third class are the elect (ahl al-khusus). Their fear is described 
by Sahl b. c Abdallah al-Tustari, Ibn al-Jalla, and al-Wasiti. 

CHAPTER XXXII: "On hope (rajd)" 

62 Tradition: if the believer s hope and fear were weighed, 
they would balance each other. Some one whose name is 
not given said that fear and hope are the two wings of 
(devotional) work, without which it will not fly. Saying of 
Abu Bakr al-Warraq. Three kinds of hope: hope in God, 
hope in the abundance of God s mercy, and hope in God s 
recompense (thawdb). Description of one who possesses the 
second and third kinds of hope. Sayings by Dhu 1-Nun and 
an anonymous Sufi. He whose hope is in God desires nothing 
of God except God Himself. Sayings of Shibli and a woman 
who met Dhu 1-Nun in a desert. 

SECTION: on the meaning of hope and fear. 
The language used by spiritual adepts concerning hope 
and fear is illustrated by a saying of Ibn Ata. 

63 Another saying in the same style by Abu Bakr al-Wasiti. 
Anonymous saying, that love is not perfect without fear, 
nor fear without hope, nor hope without fear. 


CHAPTER XXXIII: "On the state of longing (shawq)" 
Tradition on the longing for Paradise. The Prophet prayed, 
that he might be filled with longing to meet God, and he 

64 also said that those who long for Paradise hasten to do 
good works. Another Tradition giving the names of three 
persons whom Paradise longed for. Description of the mystic 
who feels longing. Two anonymous definitions of shawq. 
Saying of Jariri on the pleasure and pain of longing. De 
scription by Abu Sa c id al-Kharraz of those who feel longing. 
Three classes of such. The first class long for the blessings 
which God has promised to His friends, the second class 
long for Him whom they love, and the third class, contem 
plating God as present with them, not absent, say that 
longing is felt only in the absence of the desired object; 
hence they lose consciousness of the longing which charact 
erises them in the eyes of their brethren. 

CHAPTER XXXIV: "On the state of joy or intimacy (uns)" 

The author s definition of uns: reliance on God and seeking 

help from Him; he adds that no further explanation is pos- 

65 sible. Letter written by Mutarraf b. Abdallah to Umar b. 
G Abd al-Aziz. Anonymous saying to the effect that those 
who enjoy uns with God feel no fear of aught except Him. 
Description of one who is in the state of uns. Three classes 
of intimates . The first class are intimate with the recol 
lection (dhikr) of God and with obedience to Him. Saying 
of Sahl b. G Abdallah al-Tustari. The second class are inti 
mate with God and shrink from all thoughts that distract 
them from Him. Sayings of Dhu 1-Nun and Junayd. 

66 Ibrahim al-Marastani defined uns as the heart s joy in 
the Beloved. The third class are they whose feelings of 
awe in the presence of God cause them to become un 
conscious of being intimate . Saying of an anonymous 
gnostic, the answer written by Dhu 1-Nun to a man who 
had said in a letter to him, "May God grant thee the joy 


of being near to Him!", and a definition of uns by Shibli. 
CHAPTER XXXV: "On the state of tranquillity (itma ninat)" 
Saying of Sahl b. Abdallah al-Tustari. 

67 Explanation of the text, Those whose hearts are at rest 
in the recollection of God (Kor. 13, 28), by Hasan b. c Ali 
al-Damaghani. Shibli s interpretation of a saying of Abu 
Sulayman al-Darani. Characteristics of the tranquil man. 
Three kinds of tranquillity. The first belongs to the vulgar 
who find peace in thinking of God; the second to the elect 
who resign themselves to the Divine decree and are patient 
in tribulation, but at the same time are conscious of their 
devotional acts; the third to the elect of the elect who reve 
rently acknowledge that their hearts cannot rest with God 

68 inasmuch as He is infinite and unique: therefore they advance 
in their ardent search and fall into the unimaginable Sea. 

CHAPTER XXXVI: "On the state of contemplation (mush- 

Mystical interpretation of Kor. 85, 3 by Abu Bakr al-Wasitf. 
Sayings on contemplation by Abu Sa c id al-Kharraz and c Amr 
b. c Uthman al-Makkf. Saying of the Prophet: "worship God as 
though thou sawest Him." Explanation of shahid (Kor. 5, 306). 

69 Three more sayings by c Amr al-Makkf. Three kinds of 
contemplation indicated respectively by Abu Bakr al-Wasitf, 
Abu Sa c fd al-Kharraz, and c Amr al-Makkf in his Kitdb al- 

70 CHAPTER XXXVII: "On the state of certainty (yaqiri)" 
Three forms of yaqin are mentioned in the Koran: c ilm 

al-yaqin, c ayn al-yaqin, and kaqq al-yaqin. Tradition: "ask 
God for certainty in this world and the next." The Prophet 
also said that if Jesus had possessed more yaqin he would 
have walked in the air. Saying of c Amir b. Abd Qays : "if 
the veil were lifted my certainty would not be increased." 
Saying of Abu Ya c qub al-Nahrajuri. The author says that 
yaqin is revelation (mukdshafat), which is of three kinds: 


(a) ocular vision on the Day of Resurrection () revelation 
to the heart by real faith (c) revelation of the Divine Power 
by means of miracles. Three classes of those who possess 
yaqin. The yaqin of the first class is described by an anony 
mous Sufi, Junayd, Abu Ya c qub (al-Nahrajuri), and Ruwaym. 

71 The yaqin of the second class is described by Ibn Ata, 
Abu Ya c qub al-Nahrajuri, and Abu 1-Husayn al-Nuri; that 
of the third class by c Amr b. c Uthman al-Makki and Abu 
Ya c qub al-Nahrajuri. Yaqin is the beginning and end of all 
the states : its extreme point is a profound and real belief 
in the Unseen. Saying of al-Wasiti. 



CHAPTER XXXIII: "On conformity to the Book of God." 
Tradition of the Prophet on this subject. Saying of c Abd- 

allah b. Mas c ud. The Koran is a guide to those who fear 

God and believe in the Unseen (Kor. 2, i). 

73 Verses of the Koran from which the Sufis infer that a 
hidden meaning lies beneath every word of the Holy Book, 
and that this meaning can he found only by means of deep 
thought and attentive study. 

74 Such thought and study demand a sound heart (qalb 
salim), i. e., a heart in which there is nothing but God. 
Saying of Sahl b. c Abdallah al-Tustari to the effect that 
the hidden meanings of the Koran are inexhaustible, because 
it is the Word of God, who is infinite: it cannot be under 
stood by human minds, except in so far as God reveals its 
meanings to those whom He loves. 

CHAPTER XXXIX: "On the particular application of the 
term call (da c wat), and the nature of election (istifa)." 

Sahl b. c Abdallah said in reference to Kor. 10, 26, that 
call is general and guidance (hidayat) special. Many are 
called but few chosen. 


75 It appears from two passages of the Koran (22,74 and 
35, 29) that the elect are (a) the Prophets (b) certain of the 
Faithful. The Prophets are distinguished by sinlessness, the 
revelation of God s Word to them, and the apostolic office; 
the other believers by their pure devotion, self-mortification, 
and cleaving to spiritual realities. All the Faithful are com 
manded to hasten to good works. 

76 Verses of the Koran specifying different kinds of good works. 

77 CHAPTER XL: "On the diversity of those who hear the 
Divine admonition and their various degrees in respect of 
receiving it." 

Some hear the Divine command but are hindered from 
fulfilling it by worldliness and sensuality. Verses of the 
Koran referring to such persons. 

78 Others hear the Divine command and comply with it and 
repent and become active in good works and devote them 
selves sincerely to the pursuit of moral and spiritual excel 
lence. Verses of the Koran referring to persons of this sort. 
The meaning of laghw (Kor. 23, 3) explained by c Amr b. 
c Uthman al-Makkf. A third class are the savants ^ulama] 
who fear God (Kor. 35, 25). Among these, again, are a special 
class, whom the (Koran 3, 5) describes as "well grounded in 

79 Explanation by Abu Bakr al-Wasiti of the characteristics 
of those who are "well grounded in knowledge". The words 
of al-Wasiti are elucidated by a saying of Abii Sa c id al- 
Kharraz. "To follow what is best in God s Word" (Kor. 
39,19) refers to the wonderful things which are revealed to 
the hearts of mystics who hear the Koran with understanding. 

80 CHAPTER XLI: "How the hidden meaning of the Koran is eli 
cited by listening with studious attention when it is read aloud." 

According to Abu Sa c id al-Kharraz, there are three ways 
of listening attentively to the recitation of the Koran: (i) 
when you listen as though the Prophet were reading it to 


you (2) when you listen as though you heard Gabriel reading 
it to the Prophet (3) when you listen as though you heard 
God reading it. In the last case, understanding is produced - 
you being absent from wordly concerns and from your 
self - by power of contemplation and purity of recollec 
tion (dhikr] and concentration of thought. 

8 1 This explanation is drawn from a verse of the Koran (2, 2) 
referring to belief in the Unseen. Saying of Abu Sa c id b. 
al-A c rabi. Definition of the Unseen by Abu Sa c id al-Kharraz : 
"that which God causes men s hearts to behold of convic 
tion as to His attributes, whether described by Himself or 
conveyed by Tradition. Since the ultimate apprehension of 
the divine attributes, no less than of the divine essence, is 
impossible to man, mystical theologians are agreed that the 
Unseen (al-ghayb] includes all the manifold experiences of 
theosophists, ecstatics, gnostics, and Unitarians." 

82 CHAPTER XLII: "Description of the way in which the 
Koran is understand by mystics." 

Mystical interpretation of Kor. 5,39; 23, 57 59. The 
words khashyat and ishfdq distinguished and defined. 

83 According to the mystic sense of Kor. 7, 158, there is no 
limit to the increase of faith, and all mystical experience, 
from beginning to end, is the fruit of real and infinite faith. 
Again, from Kor. 23, 61, it appears that those who fear God 
and believe in Him are free from polytheism (shirk}. This 
shirk, as mystics interpret it, consists in having regard to 
one s acts of devotion and in seeking recompense for them; 
it is a thing insidious and hard to detect, and the only 
means of discovering and removing it is ikhlds, that is to 
say, a purely disinterested belief in God alone. Sayings on 
ikhlds by Sahl b. c Abdallah al-Tustari. 

84 The Koran (23, 62) mentions those whose hearts are terror- 
stricken by the thought that they shall at last return to 
God, notwithstanding their piety and zeal in doing good 


works. Mystics interpret this terror (wajal) as being due to 
the inscrutable fact that God, in His eternal foreknowledge, 
has doomed them either to happiness or to misery hereafter. 
They cannot know what their fate shall be, hence they turn 
to God with supplication and utter poverty of spirit. The 
words of the Koran quoted above do not refer to evil-doers, 
as is proved by the Prophet s answer to a question which 
c A isha asked him. 

CHAPTER XLIII: "Account of the sdbiqun and the mu- 
qarrabun and the abrdr according to the method of mystical 

The author cites a number of passages in the Koran in 

85-86which these classes of persons are mentioned, and using the 

method called instinbdt (that is, drawing out the hidden 

sense), he shows that the muqarrabun are superior to the 

sdbiqmi and the abrdr. 

CHAPTER XLIV: "How the duty of exerting one s self 
to the utmost (tashdid) is set forth in the Koran." 

The Koran says (64, 16) "Fear God with all your might". 
This obligation in its real nature is such that, even if men 
should perform all the works of the angels and prophets and 
saints, that which they had done would be less than that 
which they had left undone. The angels themselves say, 
"Glory to Thee, O Lord! We have not worshipped Thee 
as Thou oughtest to be worshipped." 

87 The true meaning of "Fear God with all your" might". 
If you performed a prayer of a thousand ralfas and were 
able to perform one ratfa more, but postponed it to another 
time, you would have failed to pray with all your might . 
Similarly in the case of recollection (dhikr) or almsgiving. 
A passage of the Koran (4, 68) implies that any inward 
reluctance to accept the decision of the Prophet, even were 
it a sentence of death against one s self, constitutes a depar. 
ture from the Faith. 

2 5 

88 CHAPTER XLV: "Concerning what is said on the subject 
of the mystical sense of the Words (in the Koran) and the 
Divine Names." 

It is said that whatever lies within the range of knowledge 
and understanding is derived from two phrases at the be 
ginning of the Koran, viz., Bismillatt (in the name of God) 
and al-hamd lillah (the praise to God), because the faculties 
of knowledge and understanding are not self-subsistent but 
are through God and to God. When Shibli was asked to 
explain the mystical sense of the B in Bismillah, he replied 
that spirits, bodies, and actions subsist in God, not in them 
selves. In answer to the question, "What is that in which 
the hearts of gnostics put their trust?" Abu VAbbas b. 
c Ata said, "In the first letter of God s Book, i.e., the B in 
Bismillah al-Rahmdn al-Rakim: for it signifies that through 
God all things appear and pass away and through His mani 
festation are fair, and through His occultation are foul; 
because His name Allah expresses His awfulness and majesty, 
and His name al-Rahmdn expresses His love and affection, 
and His name al-Rakim expresses His help and assistance." 
The author explains that good things are called good only 
because God accepts them, and that evil things are called 
evil only because God rejects them. Abu Bakr al-Wasiti 

89 said that every divine Name (attribute) can be used as a 
means of forming one s character except the names Allah 
and al-Rahmdn which, like the attribute of Lordship (szma- 
diyyat], are beyond human comprehension. It has been said 
that the Greatest Name of God is Allah (JJV) because when 
the initial alif is removed, there remains Ilk (= lillah, to 
Allah), and when you remove the first lam, there remains 
lh (= lahu, to Him), and when you remove the second 
lam, there remains h, in which all mysteries are contained, 
inasmuch as h means huwa (He). Thus the name Allah is 
unlike ail the other names of God, which become meaning- 


less when a single letter is taken away from them. Sahl b. 
c Abdallah al-Tustari said that alif is the first and chief of 
the letters, because it signifies Allah who united (allafa 
bayn] all things and is Himself separated from all things. 
Abu Sa c id al-Kharraz said that when a man is concentrated 
on God, he reads the Koran with real understanding, which 
is greater in proportion to his love of God and his feeling of 
nearness to Him. Saying of Abu Sulayman al-Darani : rap 
ture, not reflection, is necessary for understanding the Koran. 
Saying of Wuhayb b. al-Ward on the emotional effects pro 
duced by reading and study of the Koran. 

90 CHAPTER XL VI: "Description of the right and wrong 
methods of mystical interpretation (istinbdf)" 

A sound interpretation must be based on the following 
principles: (a) that the interpreter shall not change the order 
of the words in the Koran (b) that he shall not overpass the 
limits suitable to one who is a faithful and obedient servant 
of God (c) that he shall not pervert the form or meaning 
of the sacred text. Examples of such perversion (Kor. 21, 
83; 93,6; 18, no). The sound method of interpretation is 
illustrated by Abu Bakr al-Kattani s explanation of bi-qalb in 
salim 1 1 (Kor. 26, 89). 

QJ The author elucidates the meaning of a phrase occurring 
in al-Kattani s explanation, viz., "he passes away from God 
through God" (faniya c ani llah billah). Further examples 
of sound interpretation: (i) Shah al-Kirmani on Kor. 26, 
7880; (2) Abu Bakr al-Wasiti on Kor. 13,28; (3) Shibli 
on Kor. 24,30; (4) Shibli on Kor. 50,36. 

92 Another kind of interpretation is indirect and allusive 
(ishdrat). Specimens of this are given : two from Abu l- c Abbas 
b. c Ata, and others from Abu Yazid al-Bistami, Junayd, 
Abu c Ali al-Rudhabari, and Abu Bakr al-Zaqqaq. Abu Yazid 
al-Bistami, when some one questioned him concerning gnosis, 
replied by quoting Kor. 27,34: "Lo, when kings enter a 


city they spoil it and abase the mighty men of its people", 
meaning to say that when gnosis enters the heart it con 
sumes and casts out everything besides. The author declares 
that such interpretations are sound, though he adds that 
God knows best. 



CHAPTER XL VII: "Description of the Pure (Sufis) in 
respect of their understanding (the Koran) and their con 
formity and obedience to the Prophet." 

The Prophet was sent to all mankind (Kor. 7, 157), that 
he might teach them "the Book and the Wisdom" (Kor- 
62, 2), i. e., the Koran and the Sunna. God has commanded 
all mankind to obey him (Kor. 24, 53), and has promised 

94 that those who obey him will be rightly guided, while the 
disobedient will suffer a grievous punishment. The love of 
God towards the Faithful depends on their following the 
Prophet (Kor. 3, 29). He is held up as a pattern to true 
believers (Kor. 33, 21), who must accept as binding every 
Tradition that has come down to them from him on trust 
worthy authority. Those who act in conformity with the 
Koran but do not follow the Sunna are really at variance 
with the Koran. Imitation of the Prophet in his character 
and actions, in doing what he commands and in not doing 
what he forbids, is incumbent on his followers, save in 

95 certain cases which the Koran or the Traditions expressly 
mention as exceptions to the general rule. Whereas theo 
logians and lawyers have codified the religious and legal 
ordinances of the Prophet and are the recognised defenders, 
propagandists, and exponents of the religious law, the elect 
among them (namely, the Sufis) have laid upon themselves 
the duty of imitating his moral and spiritual character. The 
Prophet s character, as c A isha said, is the Koran, i. e., con- 


formity with the Koran: he describes himself as having been 
sent "with a noble disposition" (bi-makdrim al-aklddq]. 

96 CHAPTER XL VIII: "What is related concerning the cha 
racter and actions and feelings with which God endowed 
the Apostle." 

Traditions regarding the excellence of the Prophet s con 
duct, his knowledge and fear of God, his humility, his 
asceticism, his trust in God. 

97 He would not allow food to be kept for the next day s 
meal. He never found fault with his food. Signs of his 
humility. How he prayed for lowliness. Description of his 
manners and appearance by Abu Sa c id al-Khudri. 

98 Saying of c A isha about his liberality. It was said of him 
that he gave like one who had no fear of being poor. 

He always behaved with the utmost humility and meekness. 
Stories illustrating his frugality and dislike of ostentation. 

99 He said that he loved equally those on whom he bestowed 
and those from whom he withheld his bounty. His praise 
of the faqirs of Medina. He said that the poor Moslems 
shall enter Paradise five hundred years before the rich. 
Religious men suffer tribulation, the prophets most of all. 
Sayings and anecdotes showing his unworldliness. The nobility 
of his character. 

100 List of the virtues which he possessed. He was habitually 
sorrowful and thoughtful. In order that he might render due 
thanks to God, he stood in prayer until his feet became 
swollen. He did not revenge himself upon his enemies but 
returned good for evil. His kindness to widows and orphans. 
His clemency described by Anas b. Malik, and exemplified 
by his treatment of the Quraysh when he conquered Mecca. 

101 CHAPTER XLIX: "On the Apostolic Traditions relating 
to the indulgences and alleviations which God has granted 
to the Moslem community." 

Under this head the author enumerates various articles 

2 9 

of luxury owned by the Prophet and quotes the words 
which he addressed to his Companions, "Eat your fill". Had 
such indulgences not been granted by God, His creatures 
would have been undone, for He calls them not to money- 
making and industry and commerce (which are only per 
mitted as a concession to human weakness), but to obey 
and worship Him and trust in Him and entirely devote 
themselves to Him. 

102 In this respect the prophets are not as other men. Whereas 
the majority of mankind betake themselves to indulgences 
on account of the weakness of their faith and their propen 
sity to pleasure, and consequently are sometimes led into 
sin, the prophets have within them a God-given strength 
that raises them above self-interest. Moslems comply with 
the Koran and obey the Prophet in different ways. Three 
classes may be distinguished: (i) those who avail themselves 
of indulgences; (2) those who base their conduct on know 
ledge of the religious law; (3) those whose knowledge of the 
law does not extend beyond what is indispensable, but who 
set their minds on spiritual states and good works and noble 
dispositions, and strive after perfection and truth and such 
real faith as Haritha attained. It is said that the whole 

103 theory of mysticism is founded upon four Traditions, viz., 
those of Gabriel, Abdallah b. c Abbas, Wabisa, and Nu c man 
b. Bashir. The author adds a fifth, namely, the saying of 
the Prophet, "No Moslem shall do harm to another with 
or without provocation." 

CHAPTER L: "On what is recorded of the leading Sufis 
in regard to their following the Apostle of God". 

Saying of Junayd : "Sufism is intimately connected with the 
Apostolic Traditions". Saying of Abu c Uthman al-Hiri. Story of 
Abu Yazid al-Bistami: how be turned his back without cere 
mony on a celebrated ascetic who spat on the floor of a mosque. 

104 Another story of Abu Yazid: from respect for the Prophet 


he would not ask God to relieve him of the pains of hunger 
and lust, and God rewarded him by making him utterly in 
sensible to the charms of women. Anecdote of Shibli: when 
he was dying and unable to speak he seized the hand of 
his servant, who was washing him, and passed it through 
his beard in order that the ablution might be performed 
in the manner prescribed by the Prophet. Abu Ali al-Rudha- 
bari mentioned the names of his teachers in four subjects: 
Sufism, theology, grammar, and the Apostolic Traditions. 
Dhu 1-Nun said: "I know God through God Himself and I 
know all besides God through the Apostle of God". Sahl b. 
Abdallah al-Tustari declared that no ecstasy is real unless 
it is attested by the Koran and the Sunna. Saying of Abu 
Sulayman al-Darani to the same effect. 



CHAPTER LI: "On the method by which the Sufis elicit 
the true meanings of the Koran and the Traditions, etc." 

Definition of mustanbatdt. They are derived by men of 
profound spiritual intelligence who, alike in theory and 
practice, conform to the Koran and obey the Prophet. When 
such men act upon that which they know, God endows 
them with the knowledge of that which they did not know 
before, a knowledge peculiar to themselves, and removes 
from their hearts the rust produced by sin and passion and 
worldliness. Then they utter on their tongues the myste 
rious lore which flows into their hearts from the Unseen. 

106 The key to this knowledge is attentive study of the Koran 
(Kor. 4, 84). Its possessors constitute an elect class among 
the *ulamd (Kor. 4, 85). Only those who are thoroughly 
grounded in the rudiments of religious knowledge can reach 
the higher knowledge that belongs to mystics, as is shown 

by the Prophet s reply to a man who sought instruction in 
the latter. The Moslem lawyers and divines have their own 
mustanbatdt, which they use for controversial purposes; and 
so have the scholastic theologians. All these interpretations 
are good in the opinion of the people who make them, but 
the interpretations of the Sufis are still more excellent. 

107 CHAPTER LII: "On the nature of the difference in the 
interpretations of mystics concerning the meanings of their 
sciences and states." 

The Sufis differ in their interpretations just as the formal 
ists do, but whereas the differences of the latter lead to 
error, differences in mystical science do not produce this 
result. It has been said that difference of opinion amongst 
the authorities on exoteric science is an act of divine mercy, 
because he who holds the right view refutes and exposes 
the error of his adversary. So, too, the difference of opinion 
amongst mystics is an act of divine mercy, because each 
one speaks according to his predominant state and feeling: 
hence mystics of every sort - - whether novices or adepts, 
whether engaged in works of devotion or in spiritual medi 
tation - - can derive profit from their words. This statement 
is illustrated by the varying definitions of the true faqir 

108 (al-faqir al-sddiq) given by Dhu 1-Nun, Abu "Abdallah al- 
Maghribi, Abu 1-Harith al-Awlasi, Yusuf b. al-Husayn, Hu- 
sayn b. Mansur (al-Hallaj), Nuri, Sumnun, Abu Hafs al- 
Naysaburi, Junayd, and Murta c ish. All these definitions are 
different in accordance with the different states and feelings 
of their authors, yet all are good ; and every single defini 
tion is suitable and instructive to mystics of a certain class. 

109 CHAPTER LIII: "On the Sufistic interpretations of the 
Koran concerning the peculiar excellence of the Prophet and 
his superiority to other prophets." 

no Interpretations of Kor. 12, 108 and 7,28. 

Interpretation of Kor. 41, 53, confirmed by a line of La- 


bid which the Prophet described as "the truest word that 
the Arabs have spoken". The Prophet s superiority to Moses 
is shown by a comparison of Kor. 20, 26 27, and Kor. 94, I 
foil.; his superiority to Abraham by a comparison of Kor. 
26, 87 and Kor. 66, 8. Moreover, while God calls Muham 
mad to regard Himself (Kor. 25, 47). He bids all His other 
creatures consider His kingdom and glory and the wonders 
of His creation. 

1 1 1 Again, love is more intimate than friendship, for love 
effaces from the heart all that is not itself: therefore Mu 
hammad, the Beloved (Habib) of God, is superior to Abra 
ham, who was His Friend (Khalil). Furthermore, it ap 
pears from several passages in the Koran that whereas the 
sins of other prophets are mentioned before the fact that 
God forgave them, in Muhammad s case the forgiveness is 
mentioned before the sin, i. e., his sins were forgiven before 
they were committed. Muhammad wrought not only the 
same miracles as the former prophets did, but also many 
others which God vouchsafed to him alone. God bestowed 
on him no special attribute such as He bestowed on each 
of the former prophets (e.g., on Abraham friendship, on Job 
patience) : He attached nothing to Muhammad except Him 
self, and He said, "Thou didst not throw when thou threw- 
est, but God threw" (Kor. 8, 17). 

112 Mystical interpretation of Koran 18, 17 by Shibli. As re 
gards the meaning of the words describing Muhammad s 
Ascension, "He transported His servant by night" (Kor. 17, i), 
it has been said that if, as his opponents alleged, the Pro 
phet had ascended to heaven in the spirit only, God would 
not have applied to him the name of servant , which ne 
cessarily includes the spirit and the body together. "The 
great favour that God conferred on the Prophet" (Kor. 4, 113) 
consisted in his being chosen by God, for the prophetic and 
apostolic offices are not conferred as a reward for merit: 


otherwise Muhammad would not have been judged superior 
to the rest of the prophets, who lived longer and performed 
a larger amount of good works. God demands patience from 
His creatures on the ground of the recompense which they 
shall receive hereafter, but He bade Muhammad be patient 
inasmuch as he was in God s eye (Kor. 52,48). That is to 
say, God honoured him too much to require him to do 
anything that entailed recompense. His position is one of 
unique distinction. 

113 CHAPTER LIV: "On the Sufistic interpretations of Apos 
tolic Traditions relating to the peculiar distinction of the 
Prophet and his superiority to other prophets". 

Mystical interpretation of the Tradition, "I take refuge 
from Thine anger in Thy good pleasure, and from Thy chas 
tisement in Thy forgiveness, and from Thee in Thyself: I 
cannot praise Thee: Thou art even as Thou dost praise Thyself". 

H4 Meaning of the Traditions, "If ye knew what 1 knew, ye 
would laugh little and weep much, etc.," and "I am not 
as one of you ; I am with my Lord, who gives me food and 
drink." The Prophet implored God to tend him as a child 
and never leave him to himself for a single moment. Saying 
of Abu Bakr al-Wasiti. Explanation of the words which 
were uttered by the Prophet on his deathbed, "O my grief!" 

H5 The Prophet said, "I am the chief of the children of 
Adam, but I make no boast of it." Explanation of this 
saying by Abu Muhammad al-Jariri. The point of the Prophet s 
words concerning Zaynab, the wife of Zayd, explained by 
Junayd. Explanation by Junayd of the Traditions, "I ask 
pardon of God and turn towards Him a hundred times daily," 
and "May God have mercy upon my brother Jesus! Had 
his faith been greater, he would have walked in the air." 
Comment by Husrf on the Tradition, "Sometimes I am with 
God in a state which I do not share with anything other 
than God." 



116 CHAPTER LV: "On the meanings derived by the Sufis 
from certain Apostolic Traditions." 

Explanation by Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Salim of the 
Tradition, "A man s best food is that which his hand hath 

Explanation by Shibli of the Tradition, "My daily bread 
is set under the shadow of my sword." 

117 Explanation by Junayd of the Tradition, "If ye had trust 
in God as ye ought, He would feed you even as He feeds 
the birds, etc." Explanation by c Amr b. c Uthman al-Makki 
of the words addressed by the Prophet to c Abdallah b. c Umar, 
"Worship God as though thou sawest Him, for if thou seest Him 
not, yet He sees thee". Explanation by Abu Bakr al-Wasiti of 
the Tradition, "The friend (wall) of God is created with a dispo 
sition to generosity and good-nature." Explanation by Shibli of 

118 the Tradition, "When the lower soul (nafs) is assured of her 
sustenance, she becomes quiet." Explanation by Junayd of 
the Tradition, "Thy love for anything makes thee blind 
and deaf." Explanation by Shibli of the Tradition, "When 
ye see the afflicted, ask God to make you free from tribu 
lation." Explanation by Shibli of the Tradition, "A heart 
ruled by the present world is debarred from feeling the 
sweetness of the world to come." Explanation by Muhammad 
b. Musa al-Farghani of the Prophet s advice to Abu Juhayfa, 
"Question the savants and be on terms of sincere friendship 
with the sages and associate with the great (mystics)." 
Explanations by Sahl b. c Abdallah al-Tustari of the Tradi 
tions, "The true believer is he who is made glad by his 
good actions and grieved by his evil actions", and "Accursed 
is the world and accursed all that is therein except the 
recollection (dhikr) of God." 

The author declares that the principle of Sufistic divina 
tion (istinbdt) is founded on the Tradition that the Prophet 

119 asked a number of his Companions, amongst whom was 


c Abdallah b. c Umar, "What tree resembles Man?" c Abdallah 
divined that the Prophet was referring to the date-palm, 
but since he was the youngest man present, he felt ashamed 
to answer. This proves that mystical divination does not 
depend on age or experience but on knowledge of the 
Unseen which is communicated by God. 


CHAPTER LVI: "Concerning the Companions of the Prophet 
and their good qualities." 

1 20 Explanation of the Prophet s saying, "My Companions are 
like the stars: whomsoever of them ye take as your pattern, 
ye will be rightly guided." Their authority as regards matters 
of practice is well-known. The Prophet recognised the pre 
eminence of particular Companions in certain details of ex 
ternal conduct. His description of their spiritual characteris 
tics under four heads. Muhammad b. c Ali al-Kattani enu 
merates the different religious and moral qualities which 

121 prevailed in the first four generations of Islam. 

CHAPTER LVII: "Account of Abu Bakr the Veracious 
and how he was distinguished from the other Companions 
of the Prophet by states which the Sufis imitate and model 
themselves upon." 

A saying of Abu Bakr showing the intensity of his fear 
as well as the greatness of his hope. His words to the Mos 
lems immediately after the death of the Prophet. Definition 
of the term rabbdni. Abu Bakr al-Wasiti said that Abu 
Bakr was the first Moslem who spoke mystically, alluding 

122 to the fact that, when he abandoned all his possessions and 
the Prophet asked him what he had left behind for his 
family, he replied, "Allah and His Apostle". This is a 
sublime allegory for Unitarians. His being firmly grounded 
in unification (tawhid] is also indicated by his speech to the 
people after the Prophet s death. When the Prophet implored 


God to help the Moslems on the field of Badr, Abu Bakr 
calmed him, saying, "God will fulfil unto thee His promise." 
Such was the reality of his faith in God. The author explains 
the reason why the Prophet showed agitation and Abu Bakr 
equanimity, although the Prophet was more perfect than 
Abu Bakr. Moreover, Abu Bakr was endowed in a peculiar 

123 degree with inspiration (ilhdm) and insight (firdsaf). Three 
occasions on which he displayed these qualities. Bakr b. 
G Abdallah al-Muzani said that Abu Bakr surpassed the Com 
panions of the Prophet, not in the amount of his fasts and 
prayers, but in something that was within his heart. It is 
said that this thing was the love of God. 

124 Other sayings of Abu Bakr. Three verses of the Koran 
by which his mind was occupied. Lines by Abu l- c Atahiya 
attributed to him. Junayd declared that the loftiest saying 
on unification is that of Abu Bakr, "Glory be to Him who 
hath given His creatures no means of knowing Him save 
their inability to know Him." 

125 CHAPTER LVIII: "Account of c Umar b. al-Khattab." 
c Umar was described by the Prophet as an inspired man 

(mukaddath). Evidence of his inspiration afforded by the 
story of his crying out, "O Sariya! the hill, the hill." Anec 
dotes and sayings of c Umar. 

126 Characteristics in respect of which c Umar is taken as a 
pattern by the Sufis. Discussion of his attitude towards 
quietists (mutawakkilun). Four things which, according to 
him, constitute devotion ^ibddat). 

127 CHAPTER LIX: "Account of c Uthman." 

He was specially distinguished by the quality of firm 
ness (tamkin), which is one of the highest spiritual de 
grees. Although he was brought into contact with the things 
of this world, he really dwelt apart from them, as the true 
gnostic does: he used his wealth to benefit others, not for 
his own pleasure. Therefore he liked spending money better 


than amassing it. Instances of his generosity. Definition by 
Sahl b. c Abdallah al-Tustari of the person who is justified 
in departing from the rule of poverty. Sahl b. Abdallah 
said that sometimes a man who possesses great wealth is 

128 more ascetic than any of his contemporaries, e. g., c Umar b. 
c Abd al-Aziz. Hence those who exalt wealth above poverty 
are mistaken, for wealth does not consist in abundance of 
wordly goods, nor poverty in the lack of such : it is true 
wealth to have God, and true poverty to need God. Anec 
dotes illustrating the asceticism of c Uthman. His steadfastness 
appeared in his behaviour on the day when he was murdered. 

129 Saying of Junayd concerning firmness (tamkin). Four things 
in which c Uthman found spiritual good comprised. 

CHAPTER LX: "Account of C AH b. Abi Talib." 
Junayd said that if c Ali had been less occupied with war 
he would have imparted to the Moslems much of the esoteric 
knowledge that was bestowed upon him. This esoteric know 
ledge was possessed by Khadir (Kor. 18, 64), hence the 
erroneous doctrine that saintship is superior to prophecy. 

130 Characteristics of Ali which are imitated by the Sufis. His 
definition of the nature of God. The mystery of Creation. 
Sayings on faith. His analysis of states (ahwdl) and stations 
(maqdmdt] : if it be genuine, he was the first who discoursed 
on the subject. His answer to the question, "Who is safest 
from faults?" On one occasion c Ali pointed to his breast 
and exclaimed, "Here is a secret knowledge, if I could but 
find any one worthy to receive it !" 

131 C AH was distinguished from the rest of the Companions 
by his power of elucidating mystical ideas such as unifica 
tion and gnosis. Exposition (baydri] is a great gift. Saying 
on friendship. His asceticism: when c Ali was murdered, his 
son Hasan announced that the whole of the worldly wealth 
which he had left behind was a sum of 400 dirhems. At the 
hour of prayer he used to tremble and turn pale for fear 


that he might fail in the trust committed to him (Kor. 
33, 72). 

132 Comparison of the passions (nafs) to a flock of sheep which 
as soon as they are collected on one side break away on 
the other. Statement of the characteristics in respect of which 
each one of the four Orthodox Caliphs is an example to 
the Sufis. Saying of G Ali concerning four things wherein 
spiritual good entirely consists. 

CHAPTER LXI: "Description of the People of the Bench 
(AM al-Suffa)" 

133 Passages of the Koran in which they are mentioned. God 
rebuked the Prophet for treating one of their number scorn 
fully. Marks of respect shown towards them by the Prophet. 
Their ascetic dress and food. 

134 The Prophet approved of their quietism and did not com 
mand them to work or trade. 

CHAPTER LXII: "Account of the other Companions from 
this point of view." 

The author illustrates the asceticism and quietism of the 
Companions of the Prophet by relating anecdotes and sayings 
of the following: Talha b. Ubaydallah, Mu c adh b. Jabal, 
c lmran b. Husayn, Salman al-Farisi, 

135 Abu 1-Darda, Abu Dharr, Abu c Ubayda b. al-Jarrah, 

136 c Abdallah b. Mas c ud, Bara b. Malik, c Abdallah b. al- c Abbas, 
Ka c b al-Ahbar, 

137 Haritha, Abu Hurayra, Anas b. Malik, c Abdallah b. c Umar, 
Hudhayfa b. al-Yaman, 

138 c Abdallah b. Jahsh, Safwan b. Muhriz al-Mazini, Abu 
Farwa, Abu Bakra, c Abdallah b. Rawaha, Tamim al-Darf, 
c Adi b. Hatim, Abu Ran c the Prophet s client, 

139 Muhammad b. Ka c b, Zurara b. Awfa, Hanzala al-Katib, 
al-Lajlaj (Abu Kuthayyir), Abu Juhayfa, Hakfm b. Hizam, 

140 Usama, Bilal, Suhayb, c Abdallah b. Rabfa, Mus c ab b. 
c Umar, c Abd al-Rahman b. c Awf, Sa c d b. al-Rabi c . 



CHAPTER LXIII: "Concerning Manners." 

142 The Prophet said, "No sire ever begot a son more ex 
cellent than Good Manners", and he also said, "God disci 
plined me and made my manners good." Answer given by 
Muhammad b. Sirin to one who asked him what manners 
bring a man nearest to God and most advance him in God s 
sight. Answer given by Hasan b. Abi 1-Hasan al-Basri to the 
question, "What manners are most useful in this world and bring 
one nearest to God in the next world?" Sayings of Sa c id b. 
al-Musayyib and Kulthum al-Ghassani. Ibn al-Mubarak said, 
"We have more need of a little manners than of much 
knowledge." Another saying of Ibn al-Mubarak. 

The author divides men, as regards their manners, into 
three classes: the worldly, the religious, and the elect 
among the religious. The manners of the worldly consist, 
for the most part, in such polite accomplishments as elegant 

143 speech, learning, poetry and rhetoric. The manners of the 
religious are mostly a discipline of soul and body : they 
keep the commandments, refrain from lusts, and devote 
themselves to piety and good works. Sayings of Sahl b. 
c Abdallah and others on this topic. The manners of the 
elect among the religious (i. e., the Sufis) consist mainly in 
purity of heart, spiritual meditation, faithful observance of 
that which they have promised to perform, concentration on 
their mystical states , etc. Saying of al-Jalajili al-Basri. 
Definition of adab by Abu VAbbas b. c Ata. 

144 The Sufis are distinguished from other people and recog 
nised amongst themselves by their manners, which enter into 
every detail of their practical lives. 

CHAPTER LXIV: "Concerning their manners in ablution 
and purification." 


The first thing requisite is to know what is obligatory, 
what is recommended, and what is most excellent in itself. 
Ordinary men should be excused if they take advantage of 
the indulgences and remissions which are granted to them, 

145 but there is no excuse for Sufis who fall below the highest 
standard of outward purity and cleanliness. The author 
mentions the exemplary practice of some Sufis whom he 
had seen. It belongs to the manners of the Sufis that they 
should always be in a state of purity both at home and 
abroad, so as to avoid the risk of dying unclean. Saying of 
Husri explained by the author. Anecdote of Abu Abdallah 
al-Rudhabari. Saying concerning the endeavour of Satan to 
get something for himself out of every human action. 

146 Story of Ibn al-Kurrini (al-Karanbi) the teacher of Junayd. 
Why Sahl b. Abdallah urged his disciples to drink plenty 
of water and pour as little as possible on the ground. De 
scription of the rule of purity observed by Abu G Amr al- 
Zajjaji during his thirty years residence at Mecca. How 
Ibrahim al-Khawwas preferred to suffer from thirst rather 
than neglect his ablutions in the desert. Various practices 

147 adopted or rejected by Sufis for the sake of purification. 
Account of the manner in which Ibrahim al-Khawwas used 
to journey from Mecca to Kufa. Certain eminent Sufis dis 
liked entering public baths, and when obliged to do so, took 

148 strict precautions that decency should be observed. Practices 
connected with ablution and cleanliness. The most puncti 
lious attention to these rules does not constitute waswasat 

149 which the author defines as a misplaced zeal for superfluities 
that causes neglect of what is obligatory. The right course 
in such matters depends on circumstances, e. g. the quantity 
of water available. Stories of Sufis who persevered in ablution 
though it was hurtful to them. 

150 Stories of Ibrahim b. Adham and Ibrahim al-Khawwas. 
CHAPTER LXV: "Concerning their manners in prayer". 

The knowledge necessary for the due performance of 

151 prayer. Sufis should make themselves ready for prayer 
before the hour arrives. Consequently they need some know 
ledge of astronomy and geography. 

152 Sahl b. G Abdallah used to say that it was a sign of the 
sincere mystic to have an attendant Jinni who impelled 
him to pray at the proper time, and awakened him if he 
were asleep. Some Sufis engaged in devotional exercises by 
day and night, and through force of habit never failed to 
perform them at the appointed time. Description of the initial 
rites of prayer. Sayings of Junayd and Ibn Salim on the 
importance of intention (niyyat). Answer given by Abu Sa c fd 
al-Kharraz to the question, "How should one enter upon 
prayer?" Anonymous sayings describing the reverence that 

153 should be felt by one who begins to perform the service of 
prayer. At this time there must be no thought of anything 
except God. Quotation from a book on the manners of 

154 prayer by Abu Sa c id al-Kharraz, with explanations bySarraj. 

The holy meditation and concentration of mind which 
prayer demands should commence before the prayer itself 
and remain after it, so that the worshipper when he begins 
to pray only proceeds, as it were , from one prayer to an 
other, and when he has ceased to pray, nevertheless continues 
in the mental attitude of prayer. 

J 55 Saying of the Prophet on this subject. Awe of God causes 
some to blush or grow pale when they begin to pray. Story 
of a man whose concentration in prayer was such that he 
could not count the number of genuflexions which he per 
formed : accordingly he used to make one of his friends sit 
beside him and count for him. Sahl b. c Abdallah was too 
weak to rise from his place, but when the hour of prayer 
arrived his strength was restored and he stood erect throughout 
the service. Anecdote of a man who, though he was alone 
in the desert, performed his devotions with the same punc- 


tilious ceremony as at home. Account of a hermit who used 
to perform a prayer of two ra&as whenever he ate or drank 
or put on a garment, or entered or quitted the mosque, or 
felt joy or sorrow or anger. 

156 Story of Abu c Abdallah b. Jaban. The Sufis dislike to 
act as Imam (leader in prayer), to pray in the first row in 
the mosque, and to make their prayers too long. Even if 
one of them knew the whole Koran by heart, he would 
prefer as Imam someone who could only recite the Jdtiha 
and another chapter, because the Imam, as the Prophet 
said, is responsible (for the correctness of the prayer). 

The reason why the Sufis dislike to pray in the first row 
and to make long prayers. Junayd , notwithstanding his 
great age, refused to forgo his prayers, by means of which 
(he said) he had attained to God in the beginning of his 
religious life. Four qualities which belong to prayer. 

157 CHAPTER LXVI : "Concerning their manners in almsgiving." 
It is not obligatory on the Sufis either to pay the legal 

tithes (zakdt) or to give the voluntary alms (sadaqa) , because 
God has removed from them the worldly wealth that would 
make it incumbent on them to give such alms. Saying of 
Mutarraf b. c Abdallah b. al-Shikhkhir. God has bestowed 
a greater favour on the Suffs by taking wealth away from 
them than He would have bestowed by endowing them 
with much wealth. Verse of a poet who boasts that, in con- 

158 sequence of his generosity, he is too poor to be liable for 
the payment of tithes. Reply given by Shibli to Ibrahim b. 
Shayban, who asked him what amount of tithes was payable 
on five camels. Some Sufis neither ask for alms nor accept 
them when offered. Their motive in acting thus. Anecdote 
of Muhammad b. Mansur. Story of a Sufi who expended 
1000 dinars every year upon his poor brethren. Munificence 
of Abu c Ali al-Mushtuli towards the Sufis. Story of an eminent 

159 Sufi and a rich man. Extract from a letter written by a 


celebrated Imam to a poor Sufi. It is not proper that Sufis 
should refuse to accept alms that have been freely offered 
by strangers. Tradition of the Prophet on this subject. Such 
alms are a gift from God and may either be used to purchase 
food or handed to any one whom the recipient knows to 
be more deserving than himself. Anecdote of Abu Bakr al- 
Farghani. Anonymous saying on the principle that should 
be followed in giving and receiving alms. The true crfterion 
of the Sufi who gives or takes or refuses alms for God s 
sake alone is that he feels no difference whether alms are 
given to him or withheld from him. Another class of Sufis 

160 choose to receive alms rather than presents, arguing that 
when they receive alms they only receive what is due to 
the poor from the rich, and that the refusal to take alms 
is a sort of pride and shows a dislike of poverty. Story of 
Abu Muhammad al-Murta c ish. The Prophet said that it is not 
allowable to give alms to the rich. Those who hold that the 
Sufis ought not to accept alms base their objection upon 
this Tradition, for the Sufis, though poor from a worldly 
point of view, are spiritually rich. Saying of c Ali b. Sahl 
al-Isbahani. Another interpretation of the Tradition quoted 
above. Derivation of the word faqr (poverty). 

161 Although it is said that alms are filth, the poor may 
accept them without loss of dignity. If a man has no worldly 
wealth and is unable to give alms of that sort, let him give 
alms of kind words and deeds. Bishr b. al-Harith urged the 
Traditionists to pay a tithe on the Traditions which they 
wrote down and committed to memory, i. e. t to practise five 
out of every two hundred Traditions. Four things necessary 
for those who pay tithes. The rich who pay tithes to the 
poor are only restoring what really belongs to the latter. 

CHAPTER LXVII: "Concerning their manners in fasting." 

Explanation of the Tradition that God said, "Fasting is 

Mine and I give recompense for it." Other Traditions on 


fasting. The author defines the qualities which constitute 
good manners in fasting. Description of the fasting of Sahl 
b. c Abdallah al-Tustari. 

163 How Abu c Ubayd al-Busri fasted during Ramadan. Volun 
tary fasts. Some eminent Sufis used to fast continually, 
whether they were staying at home or travelling: their 
object was to protect themselves from the Devil and lust 
and passion. Story of Ruwaym and a girl of whom he 
begged a drink of water. Other Sufis adopt the fast of 
David, i. e., they fast every second day. The author ex 
plains why the Prophet declared this method of fasting to 
be the best. 

164 Saying of Sahl b. c Abdallah. Anecdote of Abu c Abdallah 
Ahmad b. Jaban, who fasted continually for more than fifty 
years. Some dislike continual fasting on the ground that the 
lower self (nafs) is gratified by every habitual act, even 
though it be an act of devotion. Story of Ibrahim b. Adham, 
showing the importance of lawful food. The state of the 
dervishes who are entirely detached from this world and 
depend on God for their daily bread is more excellent than, 
the state of those who, when they break their fast, partake 
as usual of the food prepared for them. The dervishes of 
the former class have their own manners in fasting. For 
example, none of them will fast without having obtained 
permission from his companions, who need not wait for him 

165 to complete his fast, unless he is an invalid or a spiritual 
director. Anecdote of Junayd. It is said, "When you see a 
Sufi fasting voluntarily, hold him in suspicion, for he must 
have got with him something of this world." Rules of fasting 
applicable to a company of dervishes amongst whom there 
is a novice or a Sheykh. Story of a Sheykh who fasted for 
the sake of one of his disciples. The author relates that Abu 

1 66 1-Hasan al-Makki, whom he saw at Basra, became celebrated 
for his fasting, and that Ibn Salim banished him from his 


presence on that account. Anecdote of a Sufi of Wasit. 
Saying of Shibli. 

CHAPTER LXVIII: "Concerning their manners in making 
the Pilgrimage." 

The first rule is that they should make every possible 
effort to perform the Pilgrimage once at least during their lives. 

167 Want of provisions and means of conveyance does not 
relieve them from this duty, since it is a rule of the Sufis 
to fulfil the utmost obligations laid upon them by the reli 
gious law. Sufis who make the Pilgrimage may be divided 
into three classes. The first class are those who perform 
only one Pilgrimage, and for the rest of their lives are 
content with mystical experiences. Sahl b. c Abdallah and 
other eminent Sufis followed this rule. The second class are 
those who cut themselves free from all worldly ties and set 
out to make the Pilgrimage, penniless and unprovisioned; 
they journey alone through pathless deserts, trusting in none 
but God, and never tire of going as pilgrims to His holy 

168 temple. Anecdotes illustrating the manners of Sufis who 
belong to this class. Hasan al-Qazzaz al-Dmawari made 
twelve pilgrimages with bare feet and uncovered head. Stories 
of Abu Turab al-Nakhshabi, Abu c Abdallah al-Maghribi, Ja c far 
al-Khuldi, and Ibrahim al-Khawwas. 

169 Another story of Ibrahim al-Khawwas, who quitted Mecca 
with the resolution not to touch food until he should 
arrive at Qadisiyya. The third class are those who by their 
own choice become residents at Mecca or in the neighbour 
hood, either on account of the sanctity of the place or from 
ascetic motives. Their manners are illustrated by anecdotes 
of Abu c Abdallah b. al-Jalla, 

170 Abu Bakr al-Kattani, Abu c Amr al-Zajjaji, and al-Duqqi. 
It is said that anyone who can endure hunger at Mecca 
for a day and a night can endure it for three days in the 
rest of the world. There used to be a saying that residence 

4 6 

at Mecca alters the disposition and reveals the inmost nature, 
and that only true mystics can live there uncorrupted. Story 
of a dervish who refused some money which Ibrahim al- 
Khawwas offered to him. Tho reasons why Sufis willingly 

i/ 1 undergo hardships in travelling to Mecca. Story of some 
dervishes who found fault with one of their number for cir 
cumambulating the Ka c ba in the daytime, because they 
fancied that he did so in the hope of receiving alms. Another 
rule of the Sufis is this, that when they have vowed to 
make the Pilgrimage they keep their word even though it 
should cost them their lives. Story of Ahmad b. Dillawayh. 
Also, while crossing the desert, they perform the obligatory 
acts of devotion, so far as they can, no less punctiliously 
than at home. They do not travel by regular stages or com 
plete the journey within a fixed time, but set out when God 
causes them to set out and halt when God causes them to 
halt. Every rite connected with the Pilgrimage should be ac 
companied by the spiritual action or feeling appropriate to it. 
172-3 Exemplifying this principle in detail, the author describes 
the allegorical meaning of the various ceremonies, such as 
the ikrdm, the talbiyat, the kissing of the Black Stone, the 
standing at c Arafat, the casting of the pebbles at Mina, and 
indicates the right way of performing them. Story, related 
by Ibrahim al-Khawwas, of a Sheykh who taught the doctrine 
of trust in God but proved false to it in practice. Anecdote 
of al-Zaqqaq : though starving, he would not accept food 
from some soldiers whom he met in the Desert of the 

174 Another story of al-Zaqqaq: how he lost the sight of 
one eye. 

CHAPTER LXIX: "Concerning the manners of dervishes 
in their mutual intercourse, and the principles which they 
observe at home and abroad". 

Two sayings of Junayd. Sayings of the above-mentioned 


Abu Bakr al-Zaqqaq and Abu c Abdallah b. al-Jalla. Three 
rules of conduct for dervishes stated by Sahl b. G Abdallah 

175 and by an anonymous Sufi. Three things necessary for the 
dervish, according to Sahl b. c Abdallah. Saying of Junayd. 
Twelve qualities of the dervish enumerated by Ibrahim al- 
Khawwas. Anonymous sayings on poverty. It is a breach of 
manners for a dervish to say anything that suggests egoism. 
Anecdotes of Ibrahim b. Shayban, Abu G Abdallah Ahmad 
al-Qalanisi, and Ibrahim b. al-Muwallad al-Raqqi. 

176 Three fundamental principles of Sufism according to al- 
Qalanisi and another whose name is not mentioned. An 
onymous saying on the false dervish. Saying of Ibrahim al- 
Khawwas : the dervish must not regard secondary causes 
(asbdb). Saying of Junayd : how to treat dervishes. 

CHAPTER LXX: "Concerning their manners in compan 

Saying of Ibrahim b. Shayban: "We were not used to 
associate with anyone who said, My shoe or My bucket . 
Sayings of Sahl b. c Abdallah and Dhu 1-Nun al-Misri to 
the effect that God is the best companion for the Sufi. 

177 Sayings by Dhu 1-Nun and Ahmad b. Yusuf al-Zajjaji. 
Disagreement condemned. Abu Sa id al-Kharraz said that 
he consorted with the Sufis for fifty years and never quar 
relled with them, because he always sided with them against 
himself. Junayd said that he preferred a good-natured liber 
tine to an ill-natured pietist. Story of Abu Hafs. How Abu 
Yazid and Abu c Ali al-Sindi instructed one another. Story 
of Abu Hafs and Abu c Uthman (al-Hiri). Answer given by 
Sahl b. G Abdallah to his pupil, Ibn Salim, who complained 
that Sahl had never pointed out to him any of the Abddl. 

178 Story told by Ibrahim b. Shayban of his companionship 
with Abu c Abdallah al-Maghribi. Sahl b. c Abdallah would 
not take as his companion anyone who was afraid of wild 
beasts. Dhu 1-Nun s answer to the question, "With whom 

4 8 

shall I associate ?" Three conditions imposed by Ibrahim 
b. Adham on those who desired his company. How Abu 
Bakr al-Kattani overcame the dislike which he felt towards 
one of his friends. The duty of a true companion exem 
plified by c Abdallah al-Marwazi while travelling with Abu 
c Ali al-Ribati. 

179 Three classes of men whose society, according to Sahl b. 
c Abdallah, should be avoided. 

CHAPTER LXXI: "Concerning their manners in discussing 
mystical topics". 

Sayings of Abu Muhammad al-Jariri, Abu Yazid al-Bistami, 
Junayd, Abu Ja c far b. al-Faraji, and Abu Hafs. 

Story of Abu G Abdallah b. al-Jalla who refused to speak 
on the subject of trust in God (tawakkul] until he had giv 
en away four small coins which he possessed. 

1 80 Anecdote of Abu Abdallah al-Husri and Ibn Yazdaniyar. 
Saying of Ibrahim al-Khawwas on the qualifications neces 
sary for those who discuss the theory of mysticism. Abu 
Sa c id al-Kharraz rebuked a man for using symbols (ishdrat] 
in reference to God. Junayd said that he did not know any 
theory and practice more excellent than the theory and 
practice of Sufism. Abu c Ali al-Rudhabari declared that the 
knowledge of the mystic cannot be expressed in plain words. 
Anecdote of Abu Sa c id al-Kharraz and Abu Hatim al- c Attar. 
Saying of Junayd. 

181 Shiblf told those who were listening to his discourse that 
the angels would like to be in their place. When Sari al- 
Saqati heard that Junayd gathered round him an audience 
of Sufis in the mosque, he said, "Alas, you have become 
a resort for idle folk". How Sari asked Junayd to explain 
the meaning of thanksgiving (shukr). Sahl b. c Abdallah would 
not speak in public so long as Dhu 1-Nun was alive. 
Sayings of Abu Sulayman al-Darani and Abu Bakr al- 
Zaqqaq on the value of oral instruction in Sufism. Why al- 


Jalla, the father of Abu c Abdallah b. al-Jalla, was so named. 

182 Saying of Harith al-Muhasibi. How Junayd used to answer 
those who questioned him on matters which lay beyond 
their spiritual capacity. Abu c Amr al-Zajjaji said that it is 
better to commit a gross breach of etiquette than to inter 
rupt a Sheykh in his discourse. Saying of Ibn al-Kurrini 
(al-Karanbi) to Junayd. Sayings of Shibli and Sari al-Saqati. 

CHAPTER LXXII: "Concerning their manners at meal 
time and in their gatherings and entertainments". 

Three occasions, enumerated by Junayd, when the divine 
mercy descends upon Sufis. 

183 Muhammad b. Mansur al-Tusi said to his guest, "Stay 
three nights with us, and if you stay longer it will be a 
gift of alms from you to us." Saying of Sari al-Saqati on 
the difficulty of obtaining lawful food. Saying of Abu c Ali 
al-Nawribati on the way to treat dervishes, theologians, and 
ascetics when they enter a house. Story of Abu Hamza 
and Sari al-Saqati. Sayings of Abu c Ali al-Rudhabari in praise 
of dervishes who meet together. Eating after a meal con 
demned by Ja c far al-Khuldi. Another saying of Ja c far on 
gluttony. Two sayings of Shibli. 

How one should behave when eating with friends, men 
of the world, and dervishes. The author s account of the 
manners which it is proper for the Sufi faqirs to observe in 
eating. A Sheykh who had eaten no food for ten days was 
reproached by his host because he ate with two fingers 
instead of three. Saying of Ibrahim b. Shayban. Abu Bakr 
al-Kattani would not eat any food that was not offered spon 
taneously. Saying of Junayd. How Abu Turab al-Nakhshabi 
was punished for refusing an offer of food. Saying of Junayd 
on the importance of purity as regards food, clothing, and 
dwelling-place. Sari al-Saqati said that the Sufis eat like 
sick men and sleep like men who are in danger of being 
drowned. Saying of Abu c Abdallah al-Husri. Anecdote of 



Fath al-Mawsili, describing the manner in which he was 
entertained by Bishr al-Hafi. 

185 Ma c ruf al-Karkhi accepted every invitation, saying that he 
was only a guest in the world and had no home except 
the house that he was bidden to enter. Description by Abu 
Bakr al-Kattani of a gathering of three hundred Sufis at 
Mecca: instead of talking about religion they acted towards 
each other with good-nature and kindness and unselfishness. 
Saying of Abu Sulayman al-Darani: eating deadens the heart. 
Ruwaym said that during twenty years he never thought 
of food until it was set before him. Story of Abu c Ali al- 
Rudhabari. Anecdote related by Abu c Abdallah al-Rudhabari of 
a man who entertained a party of guests and lighted a 
thousand lamps; on being charged with extravagance, he 
successfully challenged his accuser to extinguish any lamp 
that had not been lighted for God s sake. Anecdote of Ahmad 
b. Muhammad al-Sulami. 

1 86 CHAPTER LXXIII: "Concerning their manners at the time 
of audition (sama] and ecstasy." 

Junayd mentioned three things necessary in audition, and 
if these were absent, he disapproved of it. Saying of Harith 
al-Muhasibf. Story of Dhu 1-Nun s ecstasy on hearing some 
erotic verses recited. When Ibrahim al-Marastani was asked 
about dancing and rending the garments in audition, he 
quoted the word of God that was revealed to Moses, "Rend 
thy heart and do not rend thy garments." The author says 
that this subject will be fully set forth in a subsequent 

187 Junayd said that excess of ecstasy combined with defi 
ciency of religious knowledge is harmful. Explanation of 
this saying by the author. Ecstasy, provided that it is in 
voluntary, is not improper for dervishes who are entirely 
detached from worldly interests. No one, however, should 
seek to produce ecstasy in himself by joining a number of 

persons already enraptured and by participating in their 
audition. This, if it become a habit, is most destructive to 
spiritual illumination. So long as the heart is polluted with 
worldliness, audition is idle and vain. 

CHAPTER LXXIV: "Concerning their manners in dress." 

Three sayings of Abu Sulayman al-Darani. Reply given 

by a young Sufi to Bishr b. al-Harith (al-Hafi), who had 

expressed the opinion that Sufis should not wear patched 

frocks (muraqqci di}. 

1 88 Story related by al-Jariri of a dervish who wore the same 
garment both in summer and winter because of a vision 
which he had seen. Saying of Abu Hafs al-Haddad. Abu 
Yazid s criticism of Yahya b. Mu c adh al-Razi. Abu Yazid 
left nothing behind him except the shirt which he was 
wearing at the time of his death. Description of the patched 
frock belonging to Ibn al-Kurrini (al-Karanbi). The fine 
clothes worn by Abu Hafs al-Naysaburi. The author men 
tions the general rules observed by dervishes in regard to 

189 CHAPTER LXXV: "Concerning their manners in travelling." 
Counsel given by Abu c Ali al-Rudhabari to a man who was 
setting out on a journey. Ruwaym s advice to the traveller. 
Muhammad b. Isma c il describes a journey on which he was 
accompanied by Abu Bakr al-Zaqqaq and Abu Bakr al- 
Kattani. Saying of Abu 1-Hasan al-Muzayyin. Ibrahim al- 
Khawwas would not allow al-Muzayyin the Elder to kill a 
scorpion that was crawling on his thigh. What Shibli said 
to his disciples who suffered hardships in travelling. 

190 Three rules observed by Abu c Abdallah al-Nasibi during 
thirty years of travel. The author enumerates the various 
reasons for which Sufis travel; he says that they perform 
their religious duties just as carefully as when they are at 
home, and if a party of dervishes are travelling together, 
they show the utmost consideration to their weaker brethren. 


Other Sufis follow a stricter rule, which is illustrated by 
sayings of Ibrahim al-Khawwas and Abu c lmran al-Tabari- 
stani. According to Abu Ya c qub al-Susi there are four qualities 
that are indispensable to the traveller: religious knowledge, 
piety, enthusiasm, and good-nature. Abu Bakr al-Kattani 
said that the Sufis refuse to associate with any one of their 
number who journeys to Yemen more than once. Derivation 
of safar (travel). 

IQ 1 CHAPTER LXXVI: "Concerning their manners in sacrificing 
prestige (honour, influence, popularity), and in begging, and 
in acting for the sake of their friends." 

The author quotes a saying related by the pupils of Abu 
Abdallah al-Subayhi to the effect that it behoves the dervish 
to sacrifice the prestige that accrues to him in consequence 
of his having resigned all worldly goods; but he is not entirely 
poor until he has made a further sacrifice, namely, the 
sacrifice of self. Story of al-Muzaffar al-Qarmisini and another 
Sufi who made themselves so despised that no one would 
give them anything. Ibrahim b. Shayban s praise of al- 
Muzaffar al-Qarmisinf. Anecdote of a Sufi who abased him 
self by begging, which he disliked intensely. Story of a 
novice whose devotion and austerities had gained for him a 
great reputation : he was told by a certain Sheykh that he 
must go from door to door and beg his bread and eat 
nothing else, but he found himself unable to obey; and 
when he was reduced to beggary in his old age, he regarded 
this as a punishment for having disobeyed the Sheykh. 

192 Story of an eminent Sufi who never broke his fast except with 
pieces of bread that he had begged. Anecdote of Mim- 
shadh al-Dinawari. How Bunan al-Hammal learned that he was 
a parasite. Story of a novice who begged food for his com 
panions and partook of it with them : on this account he 
was blamed by some Sheykhs who said that he had really 
begged for himself. The author explains the true principles 


of begging. Anecdote of a Sheykh who refrained from begging 
for fear that he might endanger the spiritual welfare of a 
fellow-Moslem, in accordance with the tradition that he who 
repulses a sincere beggar will not prosper. 

193 CHAPTER LXXVII: "Concerning their manners when they 
receive a gift of worldly goods". 

Story of a dervish who lost his faith and his spiritual 
feeling (hdl) in consequence of receiving a gift. Another story 
of a dervish who, for the same reason, was deprived of the 
tribulation which mystics hold dear. Abu Turab al-Nakhshabi 
said that any one upon whom much bounty was bestowed 
ought to weep for himself. How Bunan al-Hammal refused 
a thousand dinars. 

Story of Ibn Bunan : four hundred dirhems were brought 
to him while he was asleep, but he was warned in a dream 
not to take more than he needed. Story of Abu 1-Husayn 
al-Nurf : he dropped three hundred dinars, one by one, into 
the Tigris. Anecdote of Ibn Ziri, a pupil of Junayd, who 

194 came into possession of some money and left his companions. 
Abu Ahmad al-Qalanisi would not let his pupils visit one 
of their number who had travelled and returned with money. 
How Abu Hafs al-Haddad spent a thousand dinars on the 
dervishes of Ramla. Story of Shibli, who bestowed on der 
vishes nearly all the money that was given him to buy food 
for his starving children. Story of a Sufi Sheykh who saved 
four dirhems in order that he might return them to God 
on the Day of Judgment and say, "These are all the worldly 
goods Thou hast given me." 

195 Shibli received a sum of money from the vizier of 
al-Mu c tadid to distribute amongst the Sufis of Baghdad; 
when every one had taken as much he wanted, Shibli 
said, "The more ye have taken, the farther are ye from 
God, and the more ye have rejected, the nearer are ye 
to God." 


CHAPTER LXXVIII: "Concerning the manners of those 
who earn their livelihood." 

Sahl b. c Abdallah said that while it is an offence against 
the Sunna to condemn work, it is an offence against the 
Faith to condemn trust in God. Saying of Junayd. How 
Ishaq al-Maghazili rebuked Bishr b. al-Harith for earning 
his livelihood by spinning thread. The reply of Ibn Salim 
to one who asked him whether it is the duty of Moslems 
to earn their livelihood or to trust in God. 

196 Two sayings of G Abdallah b. al-Mubarak in justification 
of earning. Abu Sa c id al-Kharraz once passed a whole night 
mending the shoes of the dervishes with whom he was tra 
velling. Saying of Abu Hafs (al-Haddad). Story of a negro 
at Damascus who was a follower of the Sufis. Anecdote of 
Abu 1-Qasim al-Munadi. Sayings of Ibrahim al-Khawwas, 
and Ibrahim b. Adham. General rules to be observed by 
Sufis who work. 

197 Abu Hafs al-Haddad earned a dinar every day and be 
stowed it upon the Sufis. Saying of Shibli to a cobbler. 
Dhu 1-Nun said that the true gnostic does not attempt to 
gain a livelihood. 

CHAPTER LXXIX: "Concerning their manners in taking 
and giving and in showing courtesy to the poor." 

A short way to Paradise described by Sari al-Saqati. Saying 
of Junayd: none has the right to take money unless he 
prefers spending to receiving. Saying of Abu Bakr Ahmad 
b. Hamawayh: money should be accepted or rejected for 
God s sake, not from any other motive. Story of al-Zaqqaq 
and Yusuf al-Sa igh. Anecdote showing the tact and deli 
cacy with which Ibn Rufay c of Damascus bestowed a gift of 
money upon Abu c Ali al-Rudhabari. 

198 Sayings of Abu Bakr al-Zaqqaq and Abu Muhammad al- 
Murta c ish. How Junayd induced Ibn al-Kurrini (al-Karanbi) 
to accept some money from him. Whenever Abu T-Qasim 


al-Munadi saw smoke issuing from a neighbour s house, he 
used to send and ask for food. Story of Junayd and Husayn 
b. al-Misri. Answer given by Yusuf b. al-Husayn to the 
question whether one is justified in bestowing all one s pro 
perty upon a brother in God. 

CHAPTER LXXX: "Concerning the manners of those who 
are married and those who have children." 

Story of the marriage of Abu Ahmad al-Qalanisi. How 
Muhammad b. c Ali al-Qassar trained his little daughter to 
trust in God. Story of Bunan al-Hammal and his son. Ibra 
him b. Adham said that a man who marries embarks on a ship, 
and that he suffers shipwreck when a child is born to him. 

Saying of Bishr b. al-Harith. Story of a woman who 
offered herself in marriage to Abu Shu c ayb al-Barathi and 
refused to enter his hut until he removed a piece of matting. 
The author says that a married Sufi must not commit his 
wife and children to the care of God but must provide for 
their needs unless they are in the same spiritual state as 
he is. Sufis ought to wed poor women and not take advan 
tage of rich women who desire to marry them. One day 
when Path al-Mawsili kissed his son he heard a heavenly 
voice saying, "O Path, art not thou ashamed to love another 
besides Me?" The author points out that although the Pro 
phet used to kiss his children and clasp them to his bosom, 
his spiritual rank and endowments were unique; and that God 
is jealous of the Sufis when they turn their thoughts towards 
any one except Himself. 

CHAPTER LXXXI: "Concerning their manners in sitting 
alone or with others." 

Sitting in mosques condemned by Sari al-Saqati. His defi 
nition of generosity (muruwwat). Saying of a Sufi Sheykh: 
"the prayer-mat of the dervish ought to be on his buttocks." 
Stories of Abu Yazid and Ibrahim b. Adham which indicate 
that it is a breach of manners to stretch out one s feet or 


to cross one s legs. Story of Ibrahim al-Khawwas and a 
dervish who had an excellent way of sitting. Saying of 
Yahya b. Mu c adh (al-Razi) on sitting with the unspiritual. 
Anecdote of Ibn Mamlula al-Attar al-Dinawari. Anonymous 
saying: a man s friends show his character. Hasan al-Qazzaz, 
who often sat awake during the night, said that Sufism is 
founded on three things: hunger, silence, and sleeplessness. 
Junayd preferred sitting with Sufis to prayer. 

202 CHAPTER LXXXII: "Concerning their manners in hunger". 
Two sayings of Yahya b. Mu c adh on hunger. Sahl b. 

c Abdallah used to be strong when he abstained from eating 
and weak when he ate. Saying of Sahl b. G Abdallah. Abu 
Sulayman (al-Darani) said that hunger is one of God s trea 
sures which He bestows upon those whom He loves dearly. 
A saying of Sahl b. Abdallah on hunger repeated to the 
author by Ibn Salim. Saying of c lsa al-Qassar. Why a Sufi 
Sheykh said, "Thou art a liar", to a man who said, "I am 
hungry". Another Sheykh s rebuke to a Sufi who came to 
visit him after having eaten no food for five days. 

203 CHAPTER LXXXIII : "Concerning their manners in sickness." 
Anecdote of Mimshadh al-Dinawari. It is related of al- 

Kurdi that part of his body was infested by worms, and 
when a worm fell to the ground he would put it back in 
its place. Story of Dhu 1-Nun and a sick disciple to whom 
he paid a visit. Advice which Sahl b. c Abdallah used to 
give to his disciples when they were ill. How Abu Ya c qub 
al-Nahrajuri refused to let himself be cured of a disease in 
his stomach by means of cautery. Saying of al-Thawri to a 
disciple who made excuses for delay in visiting him. Sahl 
b. G Abdallah know a remedy for piles but would not use it. 

204 When Bishr al-Hafi described his symptoms to the phys 
ician, he was asked whether he was not complaining (of 
God): his reply. Saying of Dhu 1-Nun quoted by Junayd 
when he was suffering from a severe illness. 


CHAPTER LXXXIV : "Concerning the manners of the 
Sheykhs and their kindness to their disciples". 

Saying of Junayd. How Bishr al-Hafi sympathised with 
the poor when he was unable to help them. Courtesy shown 
by al-Zaqqaq to a party of dervishes. Story of Junayd and 

Story of Abu Ahmad al-Qalanisi and a disciple. Anec 
dote of Junayd and a man who wished to abandon all his 
wealth. How Abu 1-Hasan al- G Atufi procured food for his 
companions in the desert. How Abu Ja c far al-Qassab fol 
lowed Abu Sa c id al-Kharraz from Ramla to Jerusalem in 
order to obtain his forgiveness. 

CHAPTER LXXXV: "Concerning the manners of disciples 
and novices". 

Saying on wisdom (hikmat) cited from a book by Abu 
Turab al-Nakhshabi. Saying of Junayd : anecdotes (of holy 
men) strengthen the hearts of disciples. 

Saying of Yahya (b. Mu c adh) on wisdom. Sayings of 
Mimshadh al-Dinawari, Abu Turab al-Nakhshabi, and Abu 
c Ali b. al-Katib concerning those who aspire to become 
Sufis. Saying of Shibli on two kinds of amazement ((kayrat) 
felt by disciples. How Shibli, when he was a novice, pre 
vented himself from being overcome by sleep. Manners and 
signs of the sincere disciple according to Abu Sa c id al- 
Kharraz. Saying of Sahl b. c Abdallah on the things which 
should occupy the disciple s mind. 

Description by Yusuf b. al-Husayn of the signs by which 
the disciple is known. Saying of Abu Bakr al-Barizi. 

CHAPTER LXXXVI: "Concerning _the manners of those 
who prefer to live alone". 

Saying of Bishr al-Hafi. How al-Darraj met the hermit, 
Abu 1-Musayyib, and brought him to Shibli. Saying of Ju 
nayd on the solitary life. Abu Ya c qiib al-Susi said that only 
men of great spiritual power can endure solitude, and that 


it was better for people like himself to perform their devo 
tions in the sight of one another. 

208 Story of Abu Bakr b. al-Mu c allim who retired to Mount 
Lukkam near Antioch and found that be was unable to 
perform his customary devotions; he remained ten years in 
solitude before he could perform them as well as he used 
to do amongst his acquaintances. A similar experience was 
communicated to Ibrahim al-Khawwas by a man whom he 
met in the desert. 

CHAPTER LXXXVII: "Concerning their manners in friend 
ship and affection". 

Sayings of Dhu 1-Nun and Abu c Uthman (al-Hiri). Answer 
given by Ibn al-Sammak to a friend who quarrelled with 
him. Sayings on the nature of affection. 

209 Sayings of Yahya b. Mu c adh, Junayd, Nuri, and Abu Mu 
hammad al-Maghazili. 

CHAPTER LXXXVIII: "Concerning their manners in the 
hour of death". 

Verses recited by Shibli on the night before he died. Only 
two of the hundred and twenty disciples of Abu Turab al- 
Nakhshabi died in poverty , namely, Ibn al-Jalla and Abu 
c Ubayd al-Busri. Description of the death of Ibn Bunan al- 

210 Story related by Abu G Ali al-Rudhabari of a youth who 
expired on hearing a verse of poetry. Saying of Abu Yazid 
(al-Bistami) on his deathbed. Saying of Ibn al-Kurrini (al- 
Karanbi) reported by Junayd, who was his pupil. Descrip 
tion of the death of Junayd by Abu Muhammad al-Jariri. The 
death of Shibli described by Bakran al-Dfnawari. Account 
of the death of Abu 1-Husayn al-Nuri. A saying of Abu 
Bakr al-Zaqqaq which was immediately followed by his death. 

211 How Ibn c Ata was killed. Ibrahim al-Khawwas died while 
performing an ablution. The corpse of Abu Turab al-Nakh- 
shabi was seen standing erect in the desert, untouched by 


wild beasts. Description of the death of Yahya al-Istakhri. 
Junayd s remark when he was told that Abu Sa c id al- 
Kharraz fell into an ecstasy before he died. 

CHAPTER LXXXIX: "Concerning the differences of doc 
trine shown in their answers to questions on mystical sub 

212 Question concerning concentration (Jam c ) and dispersion 

The author s definition of these terms. Their meaning ex 
plained by Abu Bakr c Abdallah b. Tahir al-Abhari. Verses 
by Junayd. Saying attributed to Niirf. 

213 Anonymous doctrines on the subject. Sayings of Junayd 
and Abu Bakr al-Wasitf. 

Question concerning passing-away (fand) and continuance 

Two sayings of Abu Ya c qub al-Nahrajuri: the true theory 
of / and and baqd requires that Man s normal relation to God 
the relation of a slave to his master should be maintained. 
The author says that fand and baqd are the attributes of 
those who declare God to be One, and who ascend in their 
unification to a particular degree, which is not reached by 
ordinary Moslems. He explains the original meaning and 
application of the terms. Two sayings of Sumnun. 

214 Sayings of Abu Sa c id al-Kharraz, Junayd, Ibn Ata, and 
Shibli. Saying attributed to Ruwaym. The author enume 
rates five stages of fand. 

215 Question concerning the realities (al-kaqd iq). 
Description by Sari al-Saqati of those who seek the real 
ities. Sayings of Junayd, Abu Turab (al-Nakhshabi) and 
Ruwaym. Three kinds of reality (haqiqat] distinguished by 
Abu Ja c far al-Saydalani. Anecdote of Abu Bakr al-Zaqqaq : 
"every reality that contradicts the religious law is an infid 
elity". Ruwaym s answer to the question, "When does a 
man realise the meaning of servantship ^ubudiyyat)^ Another 


saying of Ruwaym. A saying of Junayd. Definition by al- 
Muzayyin al-Kabir of the nature of God as conceived by 
the Sufis. 

216 Saying of c Abdallah b. Tahir al-Abhari, in which he iden 
tifies reality with positive religion ( c ilm). Distinction made 
by Shibli between c ilm, haqiqat, and haqq. The reality of 
humanity (insdniyyat] explained by Abu Ja c far al-Qarawi. 
Anonymous definition of the reality of union (wusul). Reality 
described by Junayd as that which removes every obstacle 
in the mystic s way. Saying of Abu Bakr al-Wasiti. 

Question concerning veracity (sidq). 

Saying of Junayd. Definition of veracity given by Abii 
Sa c id al-Kharraz to two angels whom he saw in a dream. 
A detailed definition by Yusuf b. al-Husayn. 

217 Sayings of an anonymous sage, Dhu 1-Nun, Harith (al- 
Muhasibi), Junayd, Abu Ya c qub, and another whose name 
is not mentioned. 

Question concerning the fundamental principles (usul)of Sufism. 

Five qualities enumerated by Junayd. Two principles men 
tioned by Abu c Uthman (al-Hiri). Saying of Junayd on the 
importance of taking care not to fail in fundamental prin 
ciples. Three principles of the Sufis, according to Abu 
Ahmad al-Qalanisi. Seven principles of Sufism enumerated 
by Sahl b. c Abdallah. 

218 List of six principles, according to Husri, and another 
list of seven principles, according to an anonymous dervish. 

Question concerning sincerity (ikhlds). 

Definitions by Junayd, Ibn c Ata, Harith al-Muhasibi, Dhu 
1-Nun, and Abu Ya c qub al-Susi. Two sayings of Sahl b. 
c Abdallah. Definitions by Junayd and an anonymous Sheykh. 
Three signs of the sincere man. Definition of sincerity attrib 
uted to Abu 1-Husayn al-Nuri. 

219 Question concerning recollection (dhikr). 

Ibn Salim distinguished three kinds of recollection : (a) with 


the tongue, (b) with the heart, (c) recollection which he 
defined as "being filled with love and shame because of 
nearness to God". Ibn c Ata said that recollection causes the 
human nature (bashariyyat) to disappear. Two sayings of 
Sahl b. c Abdallah. Three verses of the Koran in which the 
Moslems are commanded to recollect God. There are differ 
ent kinds of recollection, corresponding to the different 
language used in these verses. Saying of an anonymous 
Sheykh. Verbal recollection (repetition of the formulas "There 
in no god but Allah" and "Glory be to Allah!" or recitation 
of the Koran) and spiritual recollection (concentration of the 
heart upon God and His attributes). 

220 Recollection assumes various forms in accordance with the 
predominant state or station of each mystic. Shibli said 
that real recollection is the forgetting of recollection, i. e., 
forgetfulness of everything except God. 

Question concerning spiritual wealth (ghind). 

Junayd said that spiritual poverty and wealth are comple 
mentary, and that neither is perfect without the other. The 
signs of spiritual wealth described by Yusuf b. al-Husayn. 
Saying of c Amr b. c Uthman al-Makki on the spiritual wealth 
which consists in being independent of spiritual wealth. 

221 Saying of Junayd. 

Question concerning poverty (faqr). 

Junayd said that poverty is a sea of tribulation but that 
all its tribulation is glorious. Description by Junayd of the 
true faqir who enters Paradise five hundred years before 
the rich. Ibn al-Jalla said that poverty must be accompanied 
by piety (wara c ). Sayings of Junayd and al-Muzayyin. 

Question concerning the spirit (ruk) and the doctrines of 
the Sufis on the subject. 

222 Two sayings of Shibli. Abu Bakr al-Wasiti distinguished 
two spirits, viz., the vital spirit and the spirit whereby the 
heart is illumined. Other sayings of al-Wasiti. Abu c Abdallah 


al-Nibaji said that there are two spirits in the gnostic who 
has attained to union with God. Distinction between the 
human spirit (al-ruh al-bashariyyd] and the eternal spirit (al~ 
ruh al-qadima] in man. Traditions illustrating this doctrine. 

223 The author declares it to be false. Ibn Salim asserted 
that the spirit and the body together produce good or evil, 
and that both are liable to reward or punishment. Those 
who believe in metempsychosis and the eternity of the 
spirit go far astray from the truth. 

Qttestion concerning symbolic allusion (ishdrat). 

The meaning of ishdrat. Sayings of Shibli and Abu Yazfd 
al-Bistami to the effect that God cannot be indicated by 
means of symbols. How a man rebuked Junayd for raising 
his eye to heaven. c Amr b. c Uthman al-Makki said that the 
symbolism of the Sufis is polytheism (shirk). Junayd said 
to a certain man, "How long will you give indications to 
God? Let God give indications to you." 

224 Abu Yazid (al-Bistami) condemned both theological and 
mystical symbolism. Zaqqaq said that ishdrat is proper for 
novices, but the adept finds God by abandoning ishdrat. 
Saying of Shibli on nearness to God. Saying of Yahya b. 
Mu c adh on the different kinds of symbolism used by different 
classes of religious men. Sufism described by Abu Ali al- 
Rudhaban as an ishdrat. The use of ishdrat disapproved by 
Abii Ya c qub al-Susi. 

Diverse questions. Question concerning elegance (zarf). 

Definition of the term by Junayd. 

Question concerning generosity (muruwwat). 

Definition by Ahmad b. c Ata. 

Question concerning the reason why the Sufis are so called. 

225 Sayings by Ibn c Ata (who connects Sufi with safd), Nuri, 
Shibli, and an anonymous mystic. 

Question concerning the daily bread (rizq). 

Sayings of Yahya b. Mu c adh and another whose name is 


not mentioned. Various opinions as to the cause ot rizq. 
How Abu Yazid (al-Bistami) rebuked a theologian who 
questioned him about the source of rizq. 

Question. Junayd s answer to a question concerning the 
disappearance of the name of servant and the subsistence 
of the power of God, (as happens in fand). 

Question. Junayd was asked, "When is a man indifferent 

226 to praise and blame?" His answer. 

Question. Answer given by Ibn Ata when he was asked, 
"What is the means of obtaining security of mind (saldmat 

Question. "What is the explanation of the grief which a 
man feels without knowing its cause?" Answer by Abu 
c Uthman (al-Hiri). 

Question concerning sagacity (firdsat). 

Comment by Yusuf b. al-Husayn on the Tradition, "Be 
ware of the sagacity of the true believer, for he sees by 
the light of God." 

Question concerning the imagination (wahm). 

Definition of wahm by Ibrahim al-Khawwas. 

227 Question. Explanations by Abu Yazid al-Bistami and other 
mystics of the words sdbiq, muqtasid, and zdlim in Kor. 35, 29. 

Question concerning wishing (tamanni). 

Ruwaym said that the disciple may hope, but that he 
should not wish. The reason of this distinction. 

Question concerning the secret of the soul (sirr al-nafs). 

Sahl b. G Abdallah said that the secret of the soul was 
never revealed in any created being except in Pharaoh when 
he said, "I am your supreme Lord." 

228 Question. Human and divine jealousy (ghayrat] distinguished 
by Shibli. 

Question. Fath b. Shakhraf asked Israfil, the teacher of 
Dhu 1-Nun, whether secret thoughts (asrdr) are punished 
before actual sins. The answer given by Israfil. 

6 4 

Question. Three different states of the heart described by 
Abu Bakr al-Wasiti. 

Question. Three kinds of tribulation (bald) described by 

Question concerning the difference between the lower and 
higher degrees of love (hubb and wudd). 
229 Question concerning weeping (bukd). 

Saying of Abu Sa c id al-Kharraz. Eighteen causes of weeping. 

Question concerning the term shdhid. 

Definitions by Junayd and the author. 
2 3 Question concerning the sincere practice of devotion. 

Abu 1-Husayn c Ali b. Hind al-Qurashi, when questioned 
on this subject by the Sheykhs of Mecca, replied that sin 
cerity in devotion depends on the knowledge of four things, 
viz., God, self, death, and retribution after death. 

Question as to the nature of the generous man (karim). 

Definitions of the generous man by Harith (al-Muhasibi) 
and Junayd. 

Question concerning generosity (kardmat). 

Two anonymous definitions. 

Question concerning reflection (fikr). 

Definitions of fikr and tafakkur by Harith al-Muhasibi 
and others. Distinction between fikr and tafakkur. 
231 Question concerning induction (ftibdr). 

Definitions by Harith al-Muhasibi and others. 

Question as to the nature of intention (niyyat). 

Definitions by Junayd and others. 

Question as to the nature of right (sawdb). 

Definitions by Junayd and another. 

Question. Junayd s explanation of what is meant by com 
passion towards the creatures (shafaqat c ala l-khalq). 

Question concerning fear of God (taqiyyat). 

Five definitions of the word. 

Question concerning the ground of the soul (sirr). 


Definitions. Saying of Husayn b. Mansur al-Hallaj. 

232 Two sayings of Yusuf b. al-Husayn. Verses concerning 
the sirr by Nuri and others. 

The author remarks that the questions discussed by the 
Sufis are too numerous to mention. Saying of c Amr b. 
c Uthman al-Makki: "One half of knowledge is question, and 
the other half is answer." 

CHAPTER XC: "Concerning the letters sent by Sufis to one 

233 Words written by Mimshadh al-Dinawari on the back of a 
letter which Junayd wrote to him. Letter from Abu Sa c id 
al-Kharraz to Ahmad b. c Ata. Part of a letter addressed 
by c Amr b. c Uthman al-Makki to the Sufis of Baghdad, 
together with the observations made upon it by Junayd, 
Shibli, and Jariri. Part of a letter sent by Shibli to Junayd. 

234 Junayd s reply. The author relates how he and other 
Sufis asked Abu c Abdallah ) al-Rudhabari to write a letter to 
a certain Hashimite at Ramla, begging him to permit them 
to hear a singing-girl who was famous for the beauty of her 
voice. Copy of the letter which al-Rudhabari wrote impromptu 
on this occasion. Verses inserted by Abu c Ali b. Abi Khalid 
al-Suri in a letter which he wrote to Abu c Ali al-Rudhabari. 

235 Verses written by Abu c Ali al-Rudhabari in reply to the 
above. Answer sent by Dhu 1-Nun to a sick man who had 
asked him to invoke God on his behalf. Another letter 
written by Dhu 1-Nun. Letter written by Sari al-Saqati to 
Junayd containing some verses which he heard a camel- 
driver chanting in the desert. 

236 Letter written to (Abu c Abdallah) al-Rudhabari by one of 
his friends. Part of a letter from Abu c Abdallah al-Rudhabari 
to a friend. Letter written by an eminent Sufi to a certain 
Sheykh. Extract from a letter addressed by Abu 1-Khayr 

i) This is the correct reading. 


al-Tinati to Ja c far al-Khuldi. Letter written by a certain 
sage in answer to Yusuf b. al-Husayn, who had complained 
of being a prey to worldly feelings and dispositions. 

237 Letter written by one sage to another who had asked 
him by what means he might gain salvation. Part of a letter 
written by Ahmad b. G Ata to Abu Sa c id al-Kharraz, and 
the latter s reply. Letter of a lover to his beloved. Quotation 
from a letter written by a certain Sheykh. 

238 Part of a letter written to Husayn b. Jibril al-Marandi 
by one of his pupils, relating how he became friendly with 
a gazelle and shared his food with it. Letter sent by Shah 
al-Kirmani to Abu Hafs (al-Haddad) and the latter s reply. 
Letter written by Sari al-Saqati to a friend. Part of a letter 
from Junayd to c Ali b. Sahl al-Isbahani. 

239 The author says that it is impossible for him to quote 
the long epistles which celebrated Sufis have written to one 
another, such as the epistle of Nuri to Junayd on the sub 
ject of tribulation (bald), etc., but that he will give the text 
of one short epistle written by Junayd to Abu Bakr al- 
Kisa i al-Dmawari. 

240 Continuation of the epistle of Junayd to Abu Bakr al-Kisa i. 

241 Conclusion of the same. 

CHAPTER XCI : "Concerning the introductions (sudur) of 
books and epistles". 
241-3 Five introductions by Junayd. 

243 Specimens by Abu G Ali al-Rudhabari and Abu Sa c id b. al- 
A c rabi. 

244 Two more specimens by Ibn al-A c rabf, and one by Abu 
Sa c id al-Kharraz. 

245 Another by al-Kharraz and a third which the author at 
tributes to him. An introduction by al-Kurdi of Urmiya. 

Another by Abu Bakr al-Duqqi. 

246 Another by the same hand. Two anonymous specimens. 
CHAPTER XCII: "Concerning their mystical poems". 


247 Verses by Dhu 1-Nun and Junayd. 

248 Verses by Abu 1-Husayn al-Nuri and Junayd. 

249 Verses by Abu c Ali al-Rudhabari. 

250 Verses by Ibrahim al-Khawwas. Verses describing ecstasy 
by Sumnun al-Muhibb. Two more verses by Sumnun. 

251 Some verses which Sari al-Saqati often used to recite. 
Verses which Sari recited while he was engaged in sweep 
ing his room. Another verse frequently quoted by Sari. 
Verses spoken by Shibli on his deathbed. Verses by the 

252 Verses composed or quoted by Shibli on various occasions. 

253 Two verses by Shibli. Verses on patience which are said 
to have been composed by Sahl b. c Abdallah. Verses by 
Yahya b. Mu c adh al-Razi. Verses on thanksgiving (shukr] 
by Abu V Abbas b. c Ata. 

254 More verses by Ibn c Ata. Verses by Abu Hamza (al- 
Khurasani) on being rescued by a lion from a well into 
which he had fallen. 

255 Verses by Bishr b. Harith (al-Hafi), Yusuf b. Husayn al- 
Razi, and Abu Abdallah al-Qurashi. Verses written to the 
last-named by Abu c Abdallah al-Haykali. 

256 Verses by Abu Sa c id al-Kharraz. Verses written in reply 
to al-Haykali by Abu c Abdallah al-Qurashi or, according to 
others, by Abu Sa c id al-Kharraz. Verses written by Abu 
1-Hadid to Abu c Abdallah al-Qurashi. Reply of al-Qurashi. 

257 CHAPTER XCIII: "Concerning the prayers and invocations 
which the most eminent of the ancient Sufis addressed to God." 

Two prayers by Dhu 1-Nun. 

258 A prayer by Yusuf b. al-Husayn (al-Razi). Prayer of a 
certain sage which was overheard by Yusuf b. al-Husayn. 

259 Verse recited by a Sufi Sheykh in the hearing of Yusuf 
b. al-Husayn. A prayer of Junayd, extracted from the Kitdb 

260 A prayer of Abu Sa c id al-Dinawari which the author heard 


him utter at Atrabulus. A prayer of Shibli. Prayers of 
Yahya b. Mu c adh (al-Ra/i). 

261 A number of prayers by the same. Answer given by a 
certain Shaykh to c Umar al-Malati who had begged him to 
invoke God on his behalf. Mow Ibrahim b. Ad hum refused 
to pray for his fellow-passengers when they were overtaken 
by a storm at sea. 

262 Anonymous saying on the effect of sincerity in prayer. 
Prayer of Sari al-Saqati. Prayer of Sari in answer to the 
request of Abu I him/a. A prayer which Ibrahim al-Marastanf 
learned from al-Khadir, whom he saw in a dream. A prayer 
which Abu c Ubayd al-Husn learned from c A isha who ap 
peared to him while he was asleep. Prayer of a Sheykh 
whose name is not mentioned. Answer given to the author 
by a certain Sheykh whom he questioned concerning the 
real purpose of prayer. 

A prayer of Junaycl. 

263 CHAPTER XCIV: "Concerning their precepts (was<ij><i) to 

one another." 

Precepts by Ruwaym and Yusuf b. al-Husayn (al-Razi). 

264 Precepts by Sari al-Saqati, Abu Bakr al-Barizi, Abu l- c Abbas 
b, c Atii, Junayd, and Abu Sa c id al-Kharraz. 

265 Precepts by Dim 1-Ni m, Junayd, Abu c Abdallah al-Khayyat 
al-Dinawari, and Abu Bakr al-Warraq. Dim 1-Nun s reason for 
refusing to give a precept to a man who had asked him for one. 

266 Story of Abu Muhammad al-Murta c ish : when dying, he 
gave instructions that his debts should be paid ; and the sale 
of the clothes on his corpse produced eighteen dirhams, 
exactly the amount of his debts. A precept of Ibrahim b. 
Shayban. Precept by an anonymous Sheykh. 

Precepts by Abu Bakr al-Wasiti, by an unnamed ufi, by 
a man whom Dim 1-Niin met on Mount Muqattam, and by 
Dhu 1-Nun himself. 

267 Precept by Junayd. 


OiAi TEK XCV: "Concerning the beauty of the voice, and 
audition, and the difference of those who practise it." 

The Prophet said that all the prophets before him had 
fine voices. 

Further Traditions showing that the Prophet held a sweet 
voice in high esteem and that he liked to hear the Koran 
read with a musical intonation. The author s explanation of 
the Tradition, "Beautify the Koran by your voices." 

Sayings on this subject by Dhu 1-Nun, Yahya b. Mu c adh 
al-Razi, an anonymous Sheykh, Harith al-Muhasibi, and 
Bundar b. al-Husayn. The subtle influence of sweet sounds 
is illustrated by the fact that they lull sick children to sleep 
and restore the health of persons suffering from melancholia. 
Moreover, the camel-driver s chant has a marvellous effect 
upon camels worn out by fatigue. 

Story, related to the author by al-Duqqf, of a negro slave 
whose master had thrown him into chains because the sweet 
ness of his voice excited the heavily laden camels to rush 
along with such speed that all of them, except one, died on 
arriving at the end of their journey. ) 

Definition of the expert singer by Ishaq b. Ibrahim al- 

CHAPTER XCVI: "Concerning audition and the various 
opinions of the Sufi s as to its nature." 

Definition by Dhu 1-Nun. Saying of Abu Sulayman al- 
Darani on the recitation of poetry with a musical accom 
paniment. Definitions by Abu Ya c qub al-Nahrajuri and an 
anonymous mystic. Description of samd c by Abu 1-Husayn 

l) The same story is told by Hujwiri, on the authority of Ibrahim al-Khaw- 
was. See my translation of the Kashf al-Mahjub p. 399. 


272 Sayings of Shibli, Junayd, and an unnamed Sufi. Junayd 
said that audition is one of the three occasions on which 
the mercy of God descends upon dervishes. Audition con 
demned by Abu c Ali al-Rudhabari. Abu 1-Husayn al-Nuri 
defined the Sufi as one who practises audition. Abu 1-Husayn 
b. Ziri used to stay and listen to music (samd c ) if he ap 
proved of it; otherwise he would take up his shoes and 
go. Al-Husri wished for a samd c that should never cease, 
and should be more desired the more it was enjoyed. 

273 CHAPTER XCVII: "Concerning the audition of the vulgar 
(al- c dmmat) and its permissibility when they listen to sweet 
sounds which inspire them with hope or fear and impel 
them to seek the afterworld". 

Saying of Bundar b. al-Husayn on the pleasure and law 
fulness of audition when it is not connected with any evil 
purpose. Quotations from the Koran showing that audition 
is lawful. The five senses enable us to distinguish things 
from their opposites, and the ear can distinguish sweet 
sounds from harsh. 

274 Sweet sounds form part of the pleasures of Paradise which 
are enumerated in the Koran. Audition is not like wine- 
drinking: the latter is forbidden in this world, but the former 
is permitted. The Prophet allowed two singing-girls to play 
the tambourine in his house. 

275 Verses recited by Abu Bakr, Bilal, and c A isha. Many of 
the Prophet s Companions recited poetry. Fourteen verses 
are quoted from the famous poem, Bdnat Su^ddu, which 
Ka c b b. Zuhayr recited in the presence of the Prophet. 

276 The Prophet said, "Wisdom is sometimes to be found in 
poetry". Since poetry may be recited, there is no objection 
to reciting it with musical notes and melodies and with an 
agreeable intonation. Various divines and lawyers have pro 
nounced in favour of audition, e. g., Malik b. Anas. Story 
of Malik and a man whom he rebuked for singing badly. 

7 1 

It is well-known that Malik l ) and the people of Medina 
did not dislike audition. 

277 Shafi c i was of the same opinion. Ibn Jurayj departed from 
Yemen and settled at Mecca in consequence of hearing two 
verses of poetry. He declared that audition is neither a 
good nor an evil act, but resembles an idle word (laghw) 
for which a man will not be punished hereafter (Kor. 2, 225). 
The author sums up the discussion by stating that audition 
is lawful, if it has no corrupt end in view and if it does 
not involve the use of certain musical instruments forbidden 
by the Prophet. 

CHAPTER XCVIII: "Concerning the audition of the elect 
and their various degrees therein." 

Description by Abu c Uthman Sa c fd b. c Uthman al-Razi of 
three kinds of audition: (i) that of novices and beginners; 
(2) that of more advanced mystics (siddiqin) ; and (3) that 
of gnostics ^drifin). 

278 Three classes of auditors described by Abu Ya c qub al- 
Nahrajuri. Three kinds of audition defined by Bundar b. 
al-Husayn: some hear with their natures (tafr], some with 
their spiritual feelings (hdl), and some through God (haqq}. 
The author s explanation of this saying. 

279 The author s explanation continued. Three classes of aud 
itors distinguished by an anonymous Sufi: (i) the followers 
of realities (abnd al-kaqd iq) ; (2) those who depend on their 
spiritual feelings; (3) the poor (fuqard) who are entirely 
detached from worldly things. 

280 CHAPTER XCIX: "Concerning the different classes of aud 

Those who prefer to listen the Koran. 

i) The contrary opinion is attributed to Malik and the Medina school by 
Ghazali (Ihya, Bulaq, 1289 A. IL, II, 247, 17), but cf. Goldziher, Muhamm. 
Studien, II, 79, note 2. 


Verses of the Koran and Traditions of the Prophet which 
prove that listening to the Koran is allowable. 

281 Further Traditions on this subject. The Koran condemns 
those who listen only with their ears and praises those who 
listen with attentive minds. Examples of the emotion pro 
duced by listening to the Koran. In some cases the listeners 
die. Answer given by Shibli to Abu G Ali al-Maghazili who 
complained that the effect produced by listening to the 
Koran was not permanent. 

282 Abu Sulayman al-Darani said that he sometimes spent 
five nights in pondering over a single verse of the Koran 
and that unless he had ceased to think about it he would 
never have continued his reading. 

Junayd saw a man who had swooned on hearing a verse 
of the Koran. He recommended that the same verse should 
be read to him again ; whereupon the man recovered his 
senses. A certain Sufi repeated several times the verse, 
"Every soul shall taste death" (Kor. 3, 182). He heard a 
voice from heaven saying, "How long wilt thou repeat this 
verse which has already killed four of the Jinn ?" Abu 
1-Tayyib Ahmad b. Muqatil al- G Akki describes the terror 
and anguish of Shibli on hearing a verse of the Koran. 

283 Those who lack the spiritual emotion which accords with 
the hearing of the Koran and is excited thereby are like 
beasts: they hear but do not understand. 

CHAPTER C: "Concerning those who prefer listening to 
odes and verses of poetry". 

Traditions of the Prophet in praise of poetry. The con 
siderations which lead some Sufis to listen to poetry rather 
than to the Koran are stated by the author as follows. The 
Koran is the Word of God, /. e. an eternal attribute of God, 
which men cannot bear when it appears, because it is un 
created. If God were to reveal it to their hearts as it really 

284 is, their hearts would crack. It is, however, a matter of 


common knowledge that a man may read the whole Koran 
many times over without being touched with emotion, whereas 
if the reading is accompanied by a sweet voice and plain 
tive intonation he feels emotion and delight in hearing it. 
These feelings, then, are not caused by the Koran, but by 
sweet sounds and melodies which accord with human tem 
peraments. The harmonies of poetry are similar in their 
nature and their effects and easily blend with music. Since 
a certain homogeneity exists between them and the spirit 
of man, their influence is much less powerful and dangerous 
than that of God s Word. Those who prefer listening to 
poetry are animated by reverence for the Koran. 

"It is more fitting", they say, "that so long as we retain 
our human nature we should take delight in poetry instead 
of making the Koran a means of indulging ourselves". Some 
theologians have regarded with dislike the practice of trill 
ing the Koran, but if this is done, the reason is that men 
shrink from hearing and reciting the Koran because it is a 
reality (haqq), and they intone it musically in order that the 
people may be drawn to listen when it is read. 

CHAPTER CI: "Concerning the audition of novices and 

Story of a young man, a pupil of Junayd, who used to 
shriek whenever he heard any dhikr. Junayd threatened to 
dismiss him if he did so again, and after that time he used 
to put such restraint on himself that a drop of water trickled 
from every hair of his body, until one day he uttered a 
loud cry and expired. A saying of Junayd related by Abu 
1-Husayn al-Sirawani. 

Story related by al-Darraj of a youth who died on hearing 
a slave-girl sing two verses of poetry ! ). Another story of 
the same kind related by Abu c Ali al-Rudhaban. 

i) This story occurs in my translation of Hujwiri s Kashf al-Mahjub, p. 
408 seq. 


287 Abu c Abdallah b. al-Jalla mentions two marvellous things 
which he saw in the Maghrib: (i) a Sufi begging for alms; 
(2) a Sheykh named Jabala, one of whose disciples had 
died on hearing a passage of the Koran, came to the reader 
on the next day and asked him to a recite part of the Koran. 
While he was reciting, Jabala gave a shriek which caused 
him (the reader) to fall dead on the spot. Anecdote of Ja c far 
al-Mubarqa c . The author states the conditions under which 
it is proper for novices to practise samd c . 

288 If the beginner is ignorant of these conditions, he must 
learn them from a Sheykh, lest he should be seduced and 

CHAPTER CII : "Concerning the audition of the Suff Sheykhs." 
Israfil, the teacher of Dhu M-Nun, asked al-Tayalisi al- 
Razi whether he could recite any poetry. On receiving a 
negative answer, Israfil said to him, "Thou hast no heart." 
Ruwaym described the state of the Sufi Sheykhs during 
audition as resembling that of a flock of sheep attacked by 
wolves. Abu 1-Qasim b. Marwan al-Nahawandi, who had 
taken no part in the samcf for many years, attended a 

289 meeting where some poetry was recited. The audience fell 
into ecstasy. When they became quiet again, Abu 1-Qasim 
questioned them concerning the mystical meaning which they 
attached to the verse, and finally gave his own interpre 
tation. Story of Abu Hulman, who swooned on hearing 
the street-cry of a herb-seller. The author points out that 
the influence of same? depends on the spiritual state of the 
hearer. Thus, the same words may be regarded as true by 
one mystic and as false by another. Story of c Utba al- 

2 9 Ghulam. Anecdote of Dhu 1-Nun al-Misrf, who was over 
come by ecstasy on hearing some verses recited, but rebuked 
a man who followed his example. Some Sheykhs possess 
insight into the spiritual state of those below them; in that 
case, they should not permit them to claim a higher state 


than that which really belongs to them. Account of Nuri s 
ecstasy a few days before his death. The ecstasy of Ali b. 

2Q 1 Description of a visit which Abu 1-Husayn al-Darraj paid 
to Yusuf b. al-Husayn at Rayy. The latter burst into tears 
on hearing two verses which al-Darraj recited, though he 
had previously read aloud to himself a large portion of the 
Koran without any such sign of emotion. 

292 A verse that used to throw Shiblf into ecstasy. Another 
verse that had the like effect on al-Duqqi. 

CHAPTER CIII: "Concerning the characteristics of the per 
fect adepts in audition." 

During sixty years Sahl b. c Abdallah never changed coun 
tenance when he heard the dhikr or the Koran or anything 
else ; it was only the weakness of old age that at last caused 
him to show emotion. Another similar anecdote of Sahl b. 

293 c Abdallah. The answer given by Sahl to Ibn Salim who 
asked what it is that makes a man spiritually strong and 
enables him to retain his composure. Saying of the Caliph 
Abu Bakr. Sahl b. c Abdallah said that his state during prayer 
was the same as his state before he began to pray. Expla 
nation of this saying by the author. Sahl was the same 
after audition as he had been before it, i. e., his ecstasy 
continued without interruption. Story of Mimshadh al-Dina- 
wari, who said that all the musical instruments in the world 
could not divert his thoughts from God. 

294 The author observes that when Sufis attain to perfection 
their senses are purified to such an extent that they take 
no pleasure in music and singing. Verse of the Koran quoted 
by Junayd in reply to one who noticed how quiet and 
unmoved he was during the samcf. Various reasons which 
induce spiritual adepts to attend musical concerts. 

295 CHAPTER CIV: u On listening to dhikr and sermons and 
moral sayings." 

The profound impression made upon Abu Bakr al-Zaqqaq 
by a saying of Junayd. Answer given by Junayd to the 
question, "When does a man regard praise and blame with 
equal indifference?" Saying on Wisdom (hikmat] by Yahya 
b. Mu c adh. It is said that when words come from the heart 
they penetrate to the heart, but when they proceed from 
the tongue they do not pass beyond the ears. Many further 
examples might be given of the ecstasy and enthusiasm 
caused by listening to dhikr or moral exhortations. Saying 
of Abu c Uthman (al-Hiri). Influences from the unseen world, 
whether they be audible or visible, produce a powerful effect 
upon the heart when they are in harmony with it, i.e., when 
the heart is pure; otherwise, their effect is weak. 

296 The adepts, however, are not affected in this way, although 
sometimes their spiritual life is renewed and replenished by 
hearing words of wisdom. The object of the Sufis in audition 
is not solely the delight of listening to sweet voices and 
melodies, but rather the inward feeling of something homo 
geneous with the ecstasy already existent in their hearts, 
since their ecstasy is strengthened by feeling it. 

CHAPTER CV: "Further observations concerning audition." 
The influence of samcf depends on, and corresponds with, 
the spiritual state of the hearer. Hence the Sufis, when they 
listen to poetry, do not think of the poet s meaning, nor 
when the Koran is read aloud are they distressed by the 
negligence of the reader whilst they themselves are alert. 

297 If speaker and hearer are one in feeling and intention, the 
ecstasy will be stronger; but the Sufis are safe from any 
evil consequences so long as the divine providence encom 
passes them. Stories illustrating this. Muhammad b. Masruq 
of Baghdad was singing a verse in praise of wine when he 
heard some one say in the same metre and rhyme: "In 
Hell there is a water that leaves no entrails in the belly 
of him whose throat shall swallow it," This was the cause 


of his conversion to Sufism. Abu 1-Hasan b. Raz c an(?) heard 
a mandoline-player singing some erotic verses, but a friend 
with whom he was walking improvised a mystical variation 
of them. Here, says the author, we have a proof that verses 
of which the intention is bad may be interpreted in a sense 
that accords with the inward feelings of the hearer. 

Shibli s answer to a man who asked him to explain the 
meaning of "God is the best of deceivers" (Kor. 3,47). 

CHAPTER CVI: "Concerning those who dislike the samtf 
and dislike to be present in places where the Koran is 
recited with a musical intonation, or where odes are chanted 
and the hearers fall into an artificial ecstasy and begin to 

Different reasons for such dislike: (i) samcf is condemned 
by some great religious authorities ; (2) samd c is very danger 
ous for novices and penitents: it may lead them to break 

299 their vows and indulge in sensual pleasures; (3) listening to 
quatrains (rubcfiyydt] is the mark of two classes of men, 
either the frivolous and dissolute or the adepts in mysticism 
who have mortified their passions and are entirely devoted 
to God. Accordingly, some Sufis reject samd c on the ground 
that they are not yet fit for it. They think it better to occupy 
themselves with performing their religious duties and with 
avoiding forbidden things. Saying of Abu c Ali al-Rudhabarf 
on the dangers of samd^. Saying of Sari al-Saqati on the 
recitation of odes. (4) samd^ is apt to lead astray the vulgar 
who misunderstand the purpose of the Sufis in listening to 
music; (5) samd c may bring a man into bad company. 

300 (6) Some abstain from samd c on account of the Tradition 
that a good Moslem leaves alone what does not concern 
him; (7) some advanced gnostics are so fully occupied with 
inward communion that they have no room for the out 
ward experience of audition. 


CHAPTER CVII: "Concerning the different opinions of the 
Sufi s as to the nature of ecstasy." 

Definition of wajd by c Amr b. c Uthman al-Makki. 

301 The meaning of wajd explained by Junayd. It has been 
said that wajd is a revelation from God. In some cases it 
produces symptoms of violent emotion, while in others the 
subject remains calm. One of the ancient Sufis distinguished 
two kinds of ectasy: wajdu mulk and wajdu laqd. Explana 
tion of these terms by another mystic. Abu 1-Hasan al- 
Husri enumerated four classes of men, the last class being 
"ecstatics who have passed away from themselves." Sahl b. 
c Abdallah said that if an ecstasy is not attested by the 
Koran and the Traditions, it is worthless. 

302 Three quotations from Abu Sa c id Ibn al-A c rabi on the 
nature of ecstasy. 

CHAPTER CVIII: "On the characteristics of ecstatic persons." 
The Koran and the Traditions show that fear and trembling 
and shrieking and moaning and weeping and swooning are 
among the characteristics of such persons. Ecstasy may be 
either genuine (wajd) or artificial (tawdjud). The author 
divides those whose ecstasy is genuine (al-wdjidun) into 
three classes: 

303 (i) those whose ecstasy is disturbed at times by the in 
trusion of sensual influences; (2) those whose ecstasy is in 
terrupted only by the delight which they take in audition ; 
(3) those whose ecstasy is perpetual and who, in consequence 
of their ecstasy, have utterly passed away from themselves. 

Also, there are three classes of those whose ecstasy is 
artificial (al-mutawdjidun). 

(i) those who take pains to induce ecstasy and imitate 
others, and those who are frivolous and despicable; (2) 
ascetics and mystics who endeavour to excite lofty states 


(of ecstasy). Although it might become them better not to 
do this, such ecstasy is approved in them since they have 
renounced worldly things, and their ecstasy is the result of 
the joy which they feel in austerities and asceticism. They 
are justified by the Tradition, "Weep, and if ye weep not, 
then try to weep!" (3) mystics of the weaker type who, 
being unable to control their movements or to hide their 
inward feelings, fall into artificial ecstasy as a means of 
throwing off a burden which they find intolerable. The last 
words of Husayn b. Mansur (al-Hallaj). 

304 The criterion of sound and unsound ecstasy according 
to Abu Ya c qub al-Nahrajuri. 

CHAPTER CIX: "Concerning the artificial ecstasy (tawdjud) 
of the Sheykhs who are sincere." 

305 Two anecdotes of Shibli. Story of Nuri. 

He threw a whole company into ecstasy by his recitation 
of some erotic verses. Abu Sa c id al-Kharraz was frequently 
overcome by ecstasy when he meditated on death. 

The reason of this explained by Junayd. Explanation by 
an unnamed Sheykh of the difference between wuj4d and 
tawdjud. Those who dislike ecstasy, because of seeing some 
defect in the person whose ecstasy is induced by artificial 
means, follow the authority of Abu c Uthman al-Hfri. 

306 He said to a man whom he saw in an ecstasy of this 
kind, "If you are sincere, you have divulged His secret, and 
if you are not sincere, you are guilty of polytheism." The 
author suggests what Abu c Uthman may have meant by 
these words. 

CHAPTER CX: "Concerning the mighty power and trans 
porting influence of ecstasy." 

Sari al-Saqati expressed his conviction that if a man who 
had fallen into a deep fit of ecstasy were struck on the face 
with a sword, he would not feel the blow. According to 
Junayd, such a person is more perfect than one who devotes 


himself to the religious law; but on another occasion he said 
that abundance of positive religion is more perfect than abun 
dance of ecstasy. A saying of Junayd to the effect that the 
state of quiet in ecstasy is superior to the transport which 
precedes it, and that the ecstatic transport is superior to the 
state of quiet which precedes it. Explanation by the author. 

307 The ecstasies of Sahl b. c Abdallah described by Ibn Salim. 
Junayd s criticism of Shiblf. A story, related by Junayd, of 
Sari al-Saqati who said that his love of God had shrivelled 
the skin on his arm ; then he swooned, and his face became 
so radiant that none of those present could bear to behold 
it. Description by Amr b. G Uthman al-Makkf of the ecstasy 
which fills the soul and increases its knowledge of the divine 
omnipotence and makes it unconscious of all sensible objects. 

308 Verse recited by Abu c Uthman al-Muzayyin. 

CHAPTER CXI: "Concerning the question which is the more 
perfect, one who is quiet in ecstasy or one who is agitated". 

This question is discussed by Abu Sa c id Ibn al-A c rabi in 
his book on ecstasy. He declares that in some cases the 
proper and perfect condition is quiet, while in others it is 

309 The quiet ecstatics are preferred on account of the super 
ior firmness of their minds, the agitated on account of the 
superior strength of their ecstasies. Quiet would be more 
perfect, if we presupposed two equal minds; but no two 
minds or men or ecstasies are just on the same level, and 
therefore it is useless to assert that quiet is superior or 
inferior to agitation. The superiority or inferiority of either 
depends on the particular nature and circumstances of the 
ecstatic state. 

310 CHAPTER CXII: "A compendious summary of the subject 
from the Book of Ecstasy composed by Abu Sa c id Ibn al- 
A c rabi." 

Various feelings and spiritual states by which ecstasy may 


be produced. Definition and description of ecstasy. It comes 
in a moment and is gone in a moment. God shows His 
wisdom and His lovingkindness towards His friends by 
causing ecstasy to be so transient. 

311 Were it otherwise, they would lose their wits. A further 
description of ecstasy. Some ecstatics are able to give a 
partial account of their experience, and this serves them as 
an argument against sceptics; else they would not divulge 
it. Remarks on the difficulty of distinguishing true ecstasy 
from the similar phenomena which sometimes result from 
sensuous impressions. 

312 Description of the ecstasy of quietists who keep the path 
of Moslem theology, and of those mystics who diverge from 
it. The latter imperil their salvation by leaving this high 
way. Ibn al-A c rabi says that the foregoing observations refer 
to the outward sciences of ecstasy which can be explained 
in ordinary or symbolic language; the rest is indescribable, 
since it consists of immediate experience of the Unseen, 
self-evident to those who have enjoyed it, but incapable of 

313 The essence of ecstasy and of other mystical states is 
incommunicable, and is better described by silence than by 

314 Those who are fit to receive such knowledge do not ask 
questions, inasmuch as they feel no doubt. 

Ecstatic states are a gift from God and cannot be acquired 
by human effort, though some of them are the fruit of good 
works. Any one who begs God to grant him an increase 
(of ecstasy) has thereby strengthened the capital that ren 
ders increase necessary, and any one who neglects this duty 
runs the risk of being deprived of the capital which he has. 




CHAPTER CXIII: "Concerning the meanings of divine signs 
(ay at) and miracles (kardmdt), with some mention of persons 
who were thus gifted." 

Saying of Sahl b. G Abdallah on ay at, mifjizdt, and kardmdt. 
Sahl said that the gift of miracles would be granted to any 
one who sincerely renounced the world for forty days; if 
no miracles were wrought, his renunciation must have been 
incomplete. Saying of Junayd on those who dispute about 
miracles but cannot perform them. Saying of Sahl on one 
who renounces the world for forty days. Four principles of 
Faith, according to Ibn Salim. One of these is faith in the 
power (qudrat) of God, i. e., belief in miracles. 

316 Sahl said to one of his companions, "Do not consort with 
me any more, if you are afraid of wild beasts." The author 
relates that he visited Sahl s house at Tustar and went into 
a room called the Wild Beasts Room where Sahl used to 
receive and feed the wild beasts. Story of a negro at 
c Abbadan who turned earth into gold. Story of a donkey 
which spoke to Abu Sulayman al-Khawwas when he was 
beating its head. Ahmad b. c Ata al-Rudhabari tells how his 
prayer for forgiveness was answered by a heavenly voice. 

317 How Ja c far al-Khuldi recovered a gem which had fallen 
into the Tigris by means of a prayer for lost property. 
Text of the prayer. Abu 1-Tayyib al-Akki showed the 
author a long list compiled by him of persons who, in the 
course of a short time, had used this prayer with success. 
How Abu 1-Khayr al-Tinati read the thoughts of Hamza 
b. c Abdallah al- c Alawf. The author declares that all these 
men were famous for veracity and piety, and that their 
evidence is above suspicion. 


318 CHAPTER CXIV: "Concerning the arguments of theolog 
ians who deny the reality of miracles, and the arguments 
in favour of miracles wrought by the saints, and the distinction 
between the saints and the prophets in this matter." 

Some theologians hold that the gift of miracles is bestowed 
on the prophets exclusively, and assert that its attribution 
to others involves their equality with the prophets. The 
object of this doctrine is to confirm the prophetic miracles, 
but it is mistaken, because there are several points in which 
the two classes of miracles differ from each other: (i) the 
prophets reveal their miracles and use them as a means of 
convincing the people, whereas the saints ought to conceal 
theirs; (2) the prophets employ miracles as an argument 
against unbelievers, but the saints employ them as an argu 
ment against themselves for the purpose of strengthening 
their own faith. 

319 Saying of Ibn Salim illustrating the use of miracles as an 
aid to faith. Story of the advice given by Sahl b. c Abdallah 
to Ishaq b. Ahmad who came to him in great anxiety lest 
he should be deprived of his daily bread. The lower soul 
(nafs) is satisfied with nothing less than ocular evidence. 

320 (3) While the prophets are perfected and encouraged in 
proportion as a greater quantity of miracles is bestowed 
upon them, the saints in the same circumstances become 
more dismayed and fearful, because they dread that God 
may be secretly deceiving them and that the miracles which 
He bestows upon them may lead to loss of spiritual rank. 

CHAPTER CXV: "Concerning the evidences for the reality 
of miracles wrought by the saints, and the unsoundness of 
the doctrine that miracles are wrought by none except the 

It appears from the Koran and the Traditions that many 
persons who were not prophets had the gift of miracles, 
e. g., Mary, the mother of Jesus, the Christian anchorite 

8 4 

Jurayj, and the three men who took shelter in the cave 
(as is related in the Hadith al-ghdr}. 

321 Further Traditions concerning persons endowed with mira 
culous powers: c Umar b. al-Khattab, G Alf, Fatima, Usayd b. 
Hudayr, c Attab b. Bashir, Abu 1-Darda, Salman al-Farisi, 
al- c Ala b. al-Hadrami, c Abdallah b. c Umar, al-Bara b. Malik, 

322 c Amir b. Abd al-Qays, Hasan al-Basri, Uways al-Qarani 
and others. These miracles are related and attested by the 

3 2 3 greatest religious authorities, whose evidence on this sub 
ject is no less worthy of credit than their evidence, which 
is universally accepted, on matters of law and religion. All 
miracles that have been manifested since the time of the 
Prophet and all that shall be manifested until the Resur 
rection are granted by God as a mark of honour to Muhammad. 
Some Moslems, however, consider miracles a temptation, 
and dread the loss of spiritual rank, and do not reckon 
amongst the elect those who desire them and are satisfied 
with them. 

324 CHAPTER CXVI: "On the various positions occupied by 
the elect in regard to miracles, together with an account of 
those who dislike the miraculous grace manifested to them 
and fear lest it lead them into temptation." 

Sahl b. c Abdallah said that the greatest miracle is the 
substitution of a good quality for a bad one. Abu Yazid 
al-Bistami declared that when he paid no attention to the 
miracles which God offered to bestow on him, he received 
the gnosis. Other sayings of Abu Yazid. Junayd said that 
the hearts of the elect are veiled from God by regarding 
His favours, by taking delight in His gifts, and by relying 
on miracles. 

325 Warning given by Sahl b. G Abdallah to a man who boasted 
of a miracle which took place when he performed his ablu 
tions. How Abu Hamza opened a door. Nuri found the banks 
of the Tigris joined together in order that he might cross 


the river, but he swore that he would not cross except in 
a boat. Story of Abu Yazid al-Bistami and his teacher, Abu 
c Ali al-Sindi. Story of Abu Turab al-Nakhshabi and a youth 
who was in his company. 

326 Story of Ishaq b. Ahmad, who died in debt although he 
could transmute copper into gold and silver. Discussion be 
tween Ibn Salim and Sahl b. G Abdallah, and between the 
author and Ibn Salim, as to the reason why Ishaq b. Ah 
mad refused to exercise the miraculous power which had 
been conferred upon him. 

327 Story of Abu Hafs or another, who wished to kill a 
sheep for his disciples, but when a gazelle came and knelt 
beside him he wept and repented of his wish. Saying of 
an anonymous mystic to the effect that equanimity in mis 
fortune is more admirable than thaumaturgy. Story of Nuri, 
who swore that he would drown himself unless he caught 
a fish of a certain weight. Junayd s remark on this. Saying 
of Yahya b. Mu c adh al-Razi. 

328 CHAPTER CXVII: "Concerning those who, on account of 
their veracity and purity and spiritual soundness, reveal to 
their companions the miraculous grace vouchsafed to them." 

Story of a sparrow which used to perch on the hand of 
Sari al-Saqati. Story of a mysterious person who appeared 
to Ibrahim al-Khawwas when he had lost his way in the 
desert. Story of Abu Hafs (al-Haddad) of Naysabur, who put 
his hand into a furnace and drew out a piece of red-hot iron. 

329 The reason why Abu Hafs revealed this miraculous gift. 
Story of Ibrahim b. Shayban s encounter with a wild beast. 
Anecdote of Dhu 1-Nun related by Ahmad b. Muhammad 
al-Sulami. How Abu Sa c id al-Kharraz, when faint from want 
of food, was miraculously strengthened, so that he journeyed 
twelve more days without breaking his fast. A miracle 
related by Abu c Umar al-Anmati. 

330 A man stole two dirhems from Khayr al-Nassaj : he could 


not open his hand until he came to Khayr and confessed 
what he had done. 

CHAPTER CXVIII: "Concerning the states of the elect 
which are not regarded as miraculous, although they are 
essentially more perfect and subtle than miracles". 

Sahl b. G Abdallah used to fast for seventy days, and when 
he ate he became weak, whereas he became strong when 
he abstained from food. Saying of Abu 1-Harith al-Awlasi. 
How Abu c Ubayd al-Busri fasted during the month of Ra 
madan. Saying of Abu Bakr al-Kattani. 

331 The meaning of security (amn) explained to Abu Hamza 
by a man of Khurasan. How Junayd tested one of his dis 
ciples who was able to read men s thoughts. 

Story of Harith al-Muhasibi, who could not swallow any 
food that was not legally pure. 

332 Story of Abu Ja c far al-Haddad and Abu Turab al-Nakh- 
shabi. Three persons endowed with extraordinary powers 
whom Husri had seen. Why Ja c far al-Mubarqa c did not make 
any vow to God during a period of thirty -years. Story of 
Isma c il al-Sulami who fell from the top of a mountain and 
broke his leg. 


CHAPTER CXIX: "Concerning the interpretation of the 
difficult words which are used in the speech of the Sufis." 
List of Sufistic technical terms. 

334 Continuation of the above list. 

CHAPTER CXX: "On the explanation of these words". 
(i) al-haqq bi l-Jiaqq li l-haqq. Al-haqq signifies Allah. 
Sayings of Abu Sa c id al-Kharraz and Abu c Ali al-Sindi. 

335 (2) al-hdL Definitions by the author and Junayd. 

(3) al-maqdm. Definition by the author. 

(4) al-makdn. The author defines the term and illustrates 
his definition by quoting an anonymous verse. 

(5) al-mushdhadat. This term is nearly equivalent to al- 
mukdshafat. Definition by c Amr b. c Uthman,"al-Makki. 

(6) al-lawaih. Definition by the author. Saying of Junayd. 
336 (7) al-lawdmf. Almost synonymous with the preceding. 

Derivation of the term. Saying of c Amr b. c Uthman al- 

(8) al-haqq. Allah, according to Kor. 24, 25. 

(9) al-huquq. These are states , stations , mystic sciences, 
etc. As al-Tayalisi al-Razi said, huquq are opposed to 
huzuz, which are associated with the lower self (nafs). 

(10) al-tahqiq. The author s definition. Saying of Dhu 

(u) al-tahaqquq. This term is related to al-tahqiq as al- 

tcfallum (learning) is related to al-ta c lim (teaching). 

(12) al-haqiqat and its plural al-haq&iq. Definition. The 
337 answer given by Haritha to the Prophet s question, 

"What is the haqiqat of thy faith?" Saying of Junayd. 

(13) al-khusus. Definition of ahl al-khusus. 

(14) khusus al-khusus. Definition. Both classes, khusus and 
khusus al-khusus, are referred to in Kor. 35, 29. A 
Saying of Junayd to Shibli. 

(15) al-ishdrat. Definition. Abu c Ali al-Rudhabarf said that 
the science of Sufism is an is karat. 

(16) al-ima. Definition. Anecdote of Junayd and Ibn al- 
Kurrini (al-Karanbi). According to Shibli, Imd? in refe 
rence to God is idolatry. 

33^ Two verses by an anonymous poet. 

(17) al-ramz. Definition. Verse by al-Qannad. It has been 
said by a Sufi, whose name is not mentioned, that 
those who wish to understand the symbolic utterances 
of eminent mystics should study the letters and epistles 
which they have written to one another, not their 

(18) al-safd. Definition. Sayings of Jariri and Ibn c Ata. 


Definitions of safd and safd al-safd by al-Kattani. 

(19) safd al-safd. Definition. Three verses explaining the 

(20) al-zawd id* Definition. Saying of c Amr b. c Uthman al- 

339 (21) al-fawaid. Definition. Saying of Abu Sulayman al- 


(22) al-shdhid. Definition. Verse (by Labid). Another mean 
ing of al-shdhid. Definition of the term by Junayd. 

(23) al-mashhud. Definition. Abu Bakr al-Wasiti said that 
al-shdhid is God, and al-mashhud the created world. 

(24) al-mawjud and al-mafqud. Definitions. Saying of Dhu 

(25) al-ma^dum. Definition. Distinction between al-mcfdum 
and al-mafqud. A certain gnostic said that the universe 
is an existence bounded on either side by non-exis 
tence i^adam). 

(26) al-jam c . A term denoting God without the created 

(27) al-tafriqat. This term denotes the created world. 

340 The two preceding terms are complementary to each 
other. Unification (tawkid) consists in combining them. 
Verse on this subject. 

(28) al-ghaybat. Definition. 

(29) al-ghashyat. Definition. 

(30) al-hudur. Definition. Verses by al-Nuri and another 

(31) al-sahw and al-sukr. These terms are nearly synonymous 
with al-hudur and al-ghaybat. Verses by a Sufi whose 
name is not mentioned. Explanation of the difference 
between al-sukr and al-ghashyat. 

34 J The difference between al-hudur and al-sahw. 

(32) safw al-wajd. Definition. A verse illustrating it. 

(33) al-hujum and al-ghalabdt. The former is the action 

8 9 

of one who is under the influence of the latter. De 

(34) al-fand and al-baqd. These terms have been mentioned 
in a previous chapter. Definitions. 

(35) al-mubtadi 1 . Definition. 

(36) al-murid. Definition. 

342 (37) al-murdd. Definition. This term denotes the gnostic in 
whom no will of his own is left. 

(38) al-wajd. Definition. 

(39) al-tawdjud and al-tasdkur. Definitions. 

(40) al-waqt. Definition. Saying of Junayd. 

(41) al-bddi. Definition. Saying of Ibrahim al-Khawwas. 

(42) al-wdnd. Definition. The difference between al-wdrtd 
and al-bddi. Saying of Dhu 1-Nun. 

(43) al-khdtir. Definition. 

(44) al-wdqf. Definition. Saying of a certain Sheykh which 
the author heard from Abu 1-Tayyib al-Shfrazi. Ex 
planation of the words mcfa awwali khdtirika which 
were used by Junayd in speaking to Khayr al-Nassaj. 

The thought that occurs first (awwalu l-khdtir) is 
said to be the true one. Other meanings of al-khdtir. 

(45) al-qddih. This term is nearly synonymous with al- 
khdtir but there is a difference in respect of its ap 
plication. Derivation and primary meaning of al-qddih. 
Saying of a mystic whose name is not recorded. 

(46) al^drid. Definition and scope of the term. It is always 
used in a bad sense. An illustrative verse. ) 

(47) al-qabd and al-bast. These terms denote two lofty 
states peculiar to gnostics. The author explains what 
is involved in each state. Junayd identifies al-qabd v\^ 
fear and al-bast with hope. 

44 Verses describing the gnostic in the state of al-qabd 

I) By AM c Abdallah al-Qurashi. See p. teo 1. if . 


and in the state of al-basL The author explains that 
three classes of gnostics are distinguished in these 
verses. He adds that al-ghaybat and al-hudiir and al- 
sahw and al-sukr and al-wajd and al-hujum and al- 
ghalabdt and al-fand and al-baqd are mystical states 
belonging to hearts which are filled with a profound 
recollection (dhikr) and veneration of God. 

(48) al-makhudh and al-mustalab . These terms are synony 
mous although the former denotes a more complete state. 
The persons to whom they refer are described in two 
Traditions of the Prophet and in a saying of Hasan 
(al-Basri) concerning Mujahid. 

345 A verse in which both terms are used. 

(49) al-dakshat. Definition. Story of a mystic who swooned 
after having asked God to grant him spiritual rest, and 
who excused himself by pleading that he was distraught 
by Divine Love. Verse on the dahshat caused by love. A 
saying of Shibli. 

(50) al-hayrat. Definition. Saying of al-Wasiti. 

(51) al-tahayyur. Definition. A certain Sufi said that al- 
tahayyur is the first stage of gnosis (mcfrifat), and al- 
hayrat the last. Verse on al-tahayyur. 

(52) al-tawdlf. Definition. 

346 Verses by Husayn b. Mansur al-Hallaj. 

(53) al-tawdriq. Definition. An unnamed mystic said that he 
would not let tawdriq enter his heart until he had sub 
mitted them to (the test of conformity with) the Koran 
and the Sunna. The primary meaning of al-tawdrtq. 
A Tradition of the Prophet in which the word occurs. 

(54) al-kashf. Definition. Saying of Abu Muhammad al- 
Jariri. Saying of Shibli. 

(55) al-shath. Definition. A saying of Abu Hamza which 
a man of Khurasan described as shath. Meaning of the 
expression shath al-lisdn. Junayd wrote a commentary 

on the shatahdt of Abu Yazfd al-Bistamf, and he would 
not have done so if, in his opinion, Abu Yazfd was 
to be condemned for indulging in shath. 

Two verses by al-Qannad. 

347 (56) al-sawl. Definition. The practice denoted by this term 
is a blameworthy one. Saying of Abu c Ali al-Rudhabarf. 
Reasons why sawl should be avoided. The term is also 
used in reference to advanced mystics who yasMna 
billdh, and the Prophet said in his prayer, O God, 
by Thee I spring to the assault" (bika asulu). A similar 
expression quoted from the writings of Ibrahim al- 
Khawwas. An anonymous verse. 

(57) al-dhahdb. Identical in meaning with al-ghaybat but more 
complete. Definition. Junayd, in his commentary on the 
ecstatic sayings of Abu Yazfd al-Bistamf, explains the 
words laysa bi-laysa as being equivalent to al-dhahdb 
^an al-dhahdb. Other mystical terms used in the same 
sense are fand and faqd. 

(58) al-nafas. Definitions by the author and by an unnamed 
Sufi. A synonym is al-tanaffus. 

Verses by Dhu 1-Nun. Here al-nafas is Divine, but 
it is also employed in reference to mankind. Saying 
of Junayd. An anonymous verse. 

(59) *t-/itss. Definition. Saying of c Amr b. c Uthman al-Makkf 
concerning those who assert that they feel no sensation 
(kiss) in ecstasy. 

(60) tawhid al^dmmat. Definition. 

(61) tawhid al-khdssat. This term has been mentioned in 
the chapter on Unification. Definition. Explanation of 
the term by Shiblf. 

(62) al-tafrid. Definition. A certain Siiff said that there are 
many muwahhidun but few mufarridun. Husayn b. 
Mansur al-Hallaj, when he was about to be killed, said, 
hasb al-wdjid ifrdd al-wdkid. 

9 2 

(63) al-tajrid. Definition by the author. 

349 Definition by an unnamed Sheykh. The terms al- 

tajrid, al-tafrid, and al-tawhid coincide in their mean 
ings but are distinguished from each other in various 
ways by mystics. Anonymous verse on al-tajrid. 

(64) al-hamm al-mufarrad and al-sirr al-mujarrad. These 
terms mean the same thing. Definition. A saying of 
Ibrahim al-Ajurri addressed to Junayd. A saying of Shibli. 

(65) al-muhddathat. A term describing the state of adepts. 
Saying of Abu Bakr al-Wasitf. The Prophet said that 
among the Moslems there are muhaddathun and that 
c Umar was one of them. Sahl b. G Abdallah declared 
that God created His creatures in order that He might 
converse with them in secret (yusdrrahum) and they 
with Him. 

(66) al-mundjdt. Definition. An example of Junayd s mundjdt. 
35 (67) al-musdmarat. Definition by the author. Verse by al- 

Rudhabari. Definition by an unnamed Sheykh. 

(68) ru yat al-qulub. Definition. A saying of c Ali affirming 
spiritual vision of God in this world. A Tradition of 
the Prophet. 

(69) al-ism. Definition. Two sayings of Shibli. Verse cited 
by Abu 1-Husayn al-Nuri. Two more sayings of Shibli. 

(70) al-rasm. Definition. 

351 Saying of Junayd concerning one who has no rasm. 

The rusum of a man are the knowledge and actions 
which are attributed to him. An anonymous verse. 

(71) al-wasm. Definition. Saying of Ahmad b. c Ata. 

(72) al-riih (al-rawh) and al-tarawwuh. Definition. Two 
sayings of Yahya b. Mu c adh al-Razi. A saying of Sufyan. 

(73) al-naft. Definition. The terms al-na^t and al-wasf may 
be synonymous, but the former is a detailed description, 
while the latter is a summary description. 

(74) al-sifat. Definition. 


(75) al-dhdt. Definition. Relation of the ism and na c t and 
sifat to the dhdt. 

352 Saying of Abu Bakr al-Wasiti. Two verses (by Abu 
c Abdallah al-Qurashi) ! ). 

(76) /-/jVtf. Definition. Saying of Sari al-Saqati. The author s 
explanation of a saying of Muhammad b. c Ali al-Kattani. 

(77) al-dcfwd. Definition. Saying ofSahl b. c Abdallah. Verse 
on the pretence (dcfwd) of love 2 ). The author explains 
a saying of Abu c Amr al-Zajjajf. 

(78) al-ikhtiydr. Definition. 

353 Saying of Yahya b. Mu c adh. 

(79) al-ikhtibdr. Definition. Explanation of the Prophet s 
saying ukhbur taqlah. 

(80) al-bald. Definition. Saying of Abu Muhammad al-Jarfri. 

A Tradition of the Prophet. Verses on the subject of 

(Si) al-hsdn. Definition. The use of the term exemplified in 
a letter written by Nurf to Junayd. 

354 Shibli s explanation of the difference between lisdn 
al- c ilm, lisdn al-haqiqat, and lisdn al-kaqq. 

(82) al-sirr. Definitions by the author and another Sufi. 

The meaning of sirr al-khalq and sirr al-kaqq. 
The meaning of sirr al-sirr. A saying of Sahl b. 
c Abdallah. Two verses. 3 ) 

(83) al-^aqd. Definition. Saying of a sage (hakim) on gnosis. 

The reason why Muhammad b. Ya c qub al-Farajf 
refrained from making an <aqd with God. Distinction 
between verbal promises and spiritual vows. 
55 (84) al-hamm. Definition. Saying of Abu Sa c fd al-Kharraz. 

Saying of an unnamed mystic. 

1) See p. tel, 1. I! 

2) Cf. p. rot, 1. f 

3) cf. P . rrr, 1. 1 


(85) al-lahz. Definition. Verses by al-Rudhabari. 

(86) al-mahw. Definition. Al-mahw distinguished from al- 
tams. A saying of Nuri, with explanation by the author. 

(87) al-mahq. Almost synonymous with al-mahw. Saying of 
Shibli in reply to a man who asked, "Is not He with 
thee and art not thou with Him r" 

356 Verse of an anonymous poet. 

(88) al-athar. Definition. Saying of an unnamed mystic. 

Anonymous verse. A verse inscribed on the palace 
of a certain king. A saying of Ibrahim al-Khawwas on 
the taw hid of the Sufis. Verse. 

(89) al-kawn. Definition. 

(90) al-bawn. Meaning of the term. Explanation of a saying 
of Junayd in which the terms al-kawn and al-bawn are 
used. Verses on the same topic. 

(91) al-wasl. Meaning of the term. Saying of Yahya b. 
Mu c adh. 

357 Saying of Shibli. Anonymous saying and verse. 

(92) al-fasl. Definition. Anonymous sayings and verse. 

(93) al-asl- Definition. Meaning of al-usul. 

(94) al-far\ Definition. The relation of the furu c to the 
asl. Saying of c Amr b. c Uthman al-Makki. Saying of a 
certain theologian. 

(95) al-tams. Definition. Quotation from a letter written by 
Junayd to Abu Bakr al-Kisa i. 

358 Quotation from the Koran. Saying of c Amr b. c Uthman 

(96) al-rams and al-dams. Meaning of these terms. Extract 
from a letter written by Junayd to Yahya b. Mu c adh, with 
explanation by Sarraj. Saying of Sahl b. c Abdallah. 

(97) al-qasm. Meaning of the term. Saying of Abu Bakr 
al-Zaqqaq. Saying of al-Wasiti. 

(98) al-sabab. Definition. Saying of Ahmad b. c Ata. 

359 Verses by Abu c Ali al-Rudhabari. 


(99) al-nisbat. Definition. Saying of Ja c far al-Tayalisi al-Razi. 
Definition of al-gharib by al-Qannad. Saying of Nuri. 
Al-nisbat is equivalent to al-tirdf. Saying of c Amrb. 
c Uthman al-Makki. 

(roo) fuldn sahib qalb. Meaning of the expression. Junayd 
used to apply it to the people of Khurasan. 

(101) rabb hdl. Definition. 

(102) sdhib maqdm. Definition. Junayd said that true gnosis 
cannot be attained until one has traversed the *ahwdl 
and maqdmdt. Saying of an anonymous Sheykh con 
cerning Shibli. 

(103) fuldn bild nafs. 

36o Meaning of the expression. Description of such a 

person by Abu Sa c id al-Kharraz. 

(104) fuldn sdhib ishdrat. Meaning of the expression. Verse 
by al-Rudhabari. 

(105) ana bild ana and nahnu bild nahnu. Meaning of these 
expressions. Explanation of Kor. 16, 55 by Abu Sa c id 

(i 06) ana anta wa-anta ana. The meaning of these words 
is explained in a saying of Shibli which describes the 
love of Majnun and how he used to say, "lamLayla." 
A story of two lovers, related by Shibli. 

361 A story of Shibli and a youth. Three citations 
of verse 1 ). 

(107) huwa bild huwa. Meaning of this expression. A saying 
of Junayd on taw hid. 

362 (108) qaf al^ald iq. Definition of * a Wiq. A saying of Abu 

Sa c id al-Kharraz. 

(109) bddi bild bddi. Meaning of the expressions bddi and 
bild bddi. Quotation from the Kitdb ma^rifat al-mtfrifat 
by Ibrahim al-Khawwas. 

I) The verses beginning ^| ^ lil (1 . ||) are commonly attributed to 
al-Hallaj. Cf. Massignon, Kitdb al-Tawdsin, p. 134. 

(no) al-tahalli. Definition. A Tradition of the Prophet on 
the subject of faith. 

363 Anonymous verse. 

(in) al-tajalli. Definition. A saying of Nun. Mystical inter 
pretation of Kor. 64, 9 by al-Wasiti. Another saying 
of Nuri ). 

Anonymous verse. 

(112) al-takhalli. Definition. Saying of Junayd. Explanation 
by the author. Saying of Yusuf b. al-Husayn. 

Anonymous verse. 

(113) al-^illat. Definition. A saying of Shibli. The author s 
explanation of a saying of Dhu 1-Nun. 

364 Anonymous verse. 

(114) al-azal. This term is equivalent to al-qidam. The 
terms azal and azaliyyat are applied to God only. 
Saying of an ancient Sufi, which some condemned on 
the ground that it involves the eternity of things 
(qidam al-ashya). 

(115) al-abad and al-abadiyyat. These are attributes of God. 
Distinction between azaliyyat and abadiyyat. Defi 
nition of al-abad by al-Wasiti. Definition of al-wasm 
and al-rasm by al-Wasiti. Saying by an unnamed 
mystic. Sayings of Shibli and c Amr b. Uthman al-Makki. 

(116) waqti musarmad. Meaning of this expression. 
/ 365 A verse by Shibli. 

(117) bahri bild shdti . This expression has almost the same 
meaning as waqti musarmad. It was us ed by Shibli 
in concluding one of his discourses. Explanation by 
the author. Anonymous saying and verse. 

(118) nahnu musayyarun. Meaning of this expression. Saying 
ofYahya b. Mu c adh concerning the ascetic (zdhid] and 
the gnostic ^drif], with explanation by Sarraj. 

I) Cf. p. 1% 1. A foil. 


Two verses by Shibli. 

(119) al-talwin. Definition. According to some mystics, al- 
talwin is a mark of al-haqiqat, while others hold the 
contrary doctrine. The latter refer to tahvin al-sifdt, 
whereas the former refer to talwin al-qulub. Verse on 
talwin al-sifdt. Saying of al-Wasiti. 

Anonymous verses describing the musayyariin. 

(120) badhl al-muhaj. Meaning of this expression. Saying 
of Ibrahim al-Khawwas. 

Anonymous verse. Meaning of al-muhaj. 

(121) al-talaf. Equivalent in meaning to al-katf. Story of 
the Sufi Abu Hamza (al-Khurasani) and verses by him x ). 
Saying of al-Jarfri. 

(122) al-laja\ Definition. Saying of al-Wasiti. Mystical inter 
pretation of Kor. 17, 82. 

(123) al-inzfdj. Definition. Saying of Junayd. Answer given 
by a certain Sheykh (Ibrahim al-Khawwas, in the 
author s opinion) to one who found fault with his 
disciples for asserting that they received their food 
from God. 

(124) jadhb al-arwdh. The meaning of this and similar 
expressions, such as sumuww al-qulub and mushdhadat 
al-asrdr, etc. Sayings of Abu Sa c id al-Kharraz and 

(125) al-watar. Definition. Anonymous saying and verse. Two 
verses by Dhu 1-Nun. How a certain sage answered 
the question, "What place does one love best as a home?" 

(126) al-watan. Definition. Saying of Junayd. Verses by 
Nuri. Explanation of a saying of Abu Sulayman al- 
Darani on the superiority of al-imdn to al-yaqin. 

(126) al-shurud. Definition. Sayings of Abu Sa c id b. al- 
A c rabi and Abu Bakr al-Wasiti. 


9 8 

(127) al-qusud. Definition. Sayings of Ibn c Ata and al-Wasitf. 

370 Explanation of the latter. 

(128) al-istindf. Definition. According to some, al-istind c is 
a degree that belongs to none of the prophets except 
Moses, while others maintain that it is shared by all 
the prophets. Saying of Abu Sa c id al-Kharraz. An 
onymous explanation of al-istina . 

(129) al-istifd. Definition. Saying of al-Wasitf. 

(130) al-maskh. Meaning of the term. 

(131) al-latifat. The author says that the meaning of this 
term is too subtle to be expressed. Saying of Abu Sa c id 
b. al-A c rabi. 

371 Verse by Abu Hamza al-Sufi (al-Khurasanf). 

(132) al-imtihdn. Definition. Saying of a certain youth ad 
dressed to Khayr al-Nassaj, who relates it. Three 
kinds of imtihdn. 

(133) al-hadath. Definition. An anonymous saying. 

(134) al-kulliyyat. Definition. Two anonymous sayings and 
a verse. 

(135) al-talbis. Definition. Explanation of a saying of al- 
Wasitf. Saying of Junayd. 

372 Verse by al-Qannad. 

(136) al-shirb. Definition. Saying of Dhu 1-Nun. Two an 
onymous verses. 

(137) al-dhawq. Definition. Saying of Dhu 1-Nun. Anony 
mous verse. 

(138) al-^ayn. Definition. Saying of al-Wasitf. 

Junayd said that the anecdotes related of Abu 
Yazfd al-Bistami show that he attained to the *ayn 
al-jam^, which is one of the names of al- taw kid. Verse 
by Nuri. 

(139) al istildm. Definition. Anonymous saying. 
273 Two verses by an unnamed author. 

(140) al-hurriyyat. Definition. A saying of Bishr (b. al- 


Harith al-Hafi) to Sari (al-Saqati). Junayd said that 
al-hurriyyat is the last station of the gnostic. An 
anonymous saying. 

(141) al-rayn. Definition. A certain theologian includes al- 
rayn among four kinds of spiritual veils. The reason 
why the father of Ibn al-Jalla was called al-Jalla. 

(142) al-ghayn. The term occurs in a Tradition of weak 
authority, according to which the Prophet saidyugMnu 
c ata qalbi. This ghayn is compared by some to the 
momentary dimness of a mirror when it is breathed 
upon. Others deny that the Prophet s heart could be 
subject to any such creaturely invasion. 

374 No one is entitled, the author says, to describe the 

state of the Prophet s heart either directly or sym 
bolically. Verses on ighdnat by Abu c Ali al-Rudhabari. 
The author professes to have explained the fore 
going technical terms according to what God revealed 
to him of their meaning at the time. Desire for brevity 
has compelled him to leave much unsaid. 
(143) al-wasait. Definition. Three kinds of wastfit disting 
uished by a certain Sheykh. Saying of Abu c Ali al- 






CHAPTER CXXI: "Concerning the signification of al-shath, 
with a refutation of those who condemn it." 

Definition and derivation of the term. Four anonymous 
verses, in the first of which mishtdh denotes "a barn where 
flour is stored". Explanation of the word mishtdk. The 
meaning of al-shath as applied to ecstasy. It is wrong to 


censure expressions of this sort instead of trying to remove 
the ground of offence by consulting those who understand them. 

376 Just as a river in flood overflows its banks (shataha l-ma 
fi l-nahr), so the Sufi, when his ecstasy grows strong, can 
not contain himself and finds relief in strange and obscure 
utterances, technically known as shath, which express his 
real mystical experience and truly describe what God has 
revealed to his inmost self. Mystical experiences differ in 
degree, though not in kind, and the language in which they 
are shadowed forth must not be judged by ordinary stand 
ards. In such matters no one but an eminent theosophist 

377 has the right to criticise. The uninitiated will adopt the 
safe course if they abstain from faultfinding and ask them 
selves whether they may not be mistaken in regard to those 
whom they blame. 

CHAPTER CXXII: "Concerning the sciences in general, 
and the difficulty which the mystical sciences present to 
theologians, and the proof that these sciences are true." 

Knowledge (^ilm) is not bounded by the intellect. Let any 
one who doubts this consider the story of Moses and al- 
Khadir (Kor. 18,64 foil.), and the Tradition of the Prophet, 
"If ye knew what I know, etc.", which shows that the Prophet 

378 was endowed with a knowledge peculiar to himself. Three 
kinds of knowledge possessed by the Prophet. Hence no one 
ought to suppose that he comprehends all the sciences, and 
consequently he ought not to charge the elect with being infidels 
or freethinkers when he has never experienced their states. 
The sciences of the religious law (al-sharfat) fall into four divis 
ions: Tradition, Jurisprudence, Scholasticism, and Mysticism. 
The last-named is the highest and most noble. Description of it. 

379 Questions connected with any one of these four sciences 
are decided by the experts in that science, but whereas the 
possessors of the other three sciences can have only a limited 
knowledge of mysticism, the mystics may possess all those 


other sciences of which mysticism is the crown and goal: 
hence the former often deny the sciences of mysticism, but 
the latter do not deny any brauch of the science of religion. 
Whoever has acquired a profound knowledge of one branch 
of religious science is recognised as the supreme authority 
in his department. 

380 Similarly, a person who unites in himself all the four 
divisions of religious science, is the perfect Imam, the Qutb, 
the Proof of God in this world, to whom c Ali b. Abi Talib 
refers in a saying addressed to Kumayl b. Ziyad. 

To return to al-shath. It is characteristic of those who 
have reached the end of self-will (which is the beginning of 
the state of perfection) and are advancing towards the goal 
but have not yet attained it. In the adept who has finished 
his mystical journey al-shath is very seldom found. 

CHAPTER CXXIII: "Concerning some ecstatic expressions 
related of Abu Yazid al-Bistami and explained in part by 

The author says that since Junayd has explained a small 
portion of the shatahdt of Abu Yazid, it is impossible for 
himself to neglect that explanation and put forward one of 
his own. He quotes some remarks of Junayd upon the reason 
why so many different stories are told of Abu Yazid, upon 
381 the difficulty of understanding his sayings, and upon the 
character of his mystical experience and attainments. The 
author observes that although the sayings of Abii Yazid 
which he is about to mention are not recorded in books 
(musannafdt), their meaning is much debated and commonly 

CHAPTER CXXIV: "Concerning an anecdote related of 
Abu Yazid al-Bistami." 

The author says that he does not know whether Abu 
Yazid really spoke the following words which many people 
attribute to him: 


382 "Once He raised me up and caused me to stand before 
Him and said to me, O Abu Yazid, My creatures desire 
to behold thee . I answered, Adorn me with Thy Unity 
and clothe me in Thy I-ness and raise me to Thy Oneness, 
so that when Thy creatures behold me they may say that 
they behold Thee, and that only Thou mayst be there, not I ." 

Junayd s explanation of this saying. The author points out 
that Junayd has not explained it in such a way as to meet 
the objections of hostile critics. Accordingly, he proceeds to 
interpret it himself. The words, "He caused me to stand 
before Him", signify spiritual presence, and the words, "He 
said to me and I said to Him", allude to inward communion 
and recollection (dhikr) when God is contemplated by the heart. 

383 When a mystic feels and realises the nearness of God, 
every thought that enters his heart seems, as it were, to be 
the voice of God speaking to him. Anonymous verses on this 
subject. The remainder of Abu Yazid s saying refers to the 
ultimate degree of unification and passing-away (fand) in 
the Oneness that is anterior to creation. All this is derived 
from the Apostolic Tradition that God said, "My servant 
ceases not to draw nigh unto Me by works of devotion 
until I love him; and when I love him, I am the eye by 
which he sees and the ear by which he hears, etc." 

384 The poet uses similar language where he says, in describing 
his love for a mortal, 

"I am he whom I love and he whom I love is I." l ) 
If human love can produce words like these, what feelings 

must not Divine Love inspire! A certain sage said, "Lovers 

do not reach the height of true love until one says to the 

other, <O thou who art I! " 

CHAPTER CXXV: "Concerning the explanation of another 

story told of Abu Yazid." 

i) The two verses quoted here are usually ascribed to Hallaj. 

io 3 

It is related that he said, "As soon as I attained to His 
Unity, I became a bird with a body of Oneness and wings 
of Everlastingness; and I continued flying in the air of 
Quality for ten years, until I reached an atmosphere a million 
times as large; and I flew on, until I found myself in the 
field of Eternity, and I saw there the tree of Oneness." 
Then, after describing its soil ands roots and branches and 
foliage and fruit, he said, I looked, and I knew that all 
this was a cheat." 

385 Junayd s explanation of this saying. The author defends 
the phrases "I became a bird" and "I continued flying" by 
quoting instances in which tdra is used metaphorically. 

386 He shows that in applying the attributes of Oneness and 
Everlastingness to himself Abu Yazid follows the familiar 
practice of ecstatic lovers, like Majnun, who could think of 
nothing but Layla, so that on being asked his name he 
answered, "Layla". Verses by Majnun and an anonymous poet. 

387 The words I knew that all this was a cheat" signify that 
those who regard phenomena are deceived. If Abu Yazid 
had been far advanced in theosophy, he would not have 
thought of such things as birds, bodies, atmospheres, etc. 

A hemistich by Labid, which the Prophet described as 
the truest word ever spoken by an Arab. 

CHAPTER CXXVI: "On the interpretation of a saying 
attributed to Abu Yazid." 

Text of the saying. 

388 Explanation by Junayd. The subject of this saying is fand 
and fand "an al-fand. 

389 Remarks by the author on the difficulty of understanding 
topics of this kind without a profound knowledge of mystical 
theology, and on the uninterrupted progression of mystical 
experience from lower to higher states. The latter point is 
illustrated by the interpretation which c Abdallah b. c Abbas 
gave of a passage in the Koran (41, io). 


39 Explanation by a certain gnostic of the tradition, which 
occurs in some unnamed book, that God threatened to burn 
Hell with His greatest fires if it disobeyed His command. 
The author s explanation of what Abu Yazid meant by 
the words laysa bi-laysa fi laysa. 

CHAPTER CXXVII: "Concerning the interpretation of cer 
tain expressions attributed to Abu Yazid, on account of 
which Ibn Salim declared him to be an infidel, together 
with the author s report of a discussion of this question 
which took place between Ibn Salim and himself at Basra." 

How Ibn Salim denounced Abu Yazid for having said, 
"Glory to me!" (subkdni). 

391 The author s controversy with Ibn Salim. He contends 
that if the whole saying of Abu Yazid had been recorded, 
it would be clear that he used the phrase subhdni in refer 
ence to God. The author adds that when he visited Bistam 
and asked some descendants of Abu Yazid about this story, 
they asserted that they had no knowledge of it. Other say 
ings of Abu Yazid which, according to Ibn Salim, could 
only have been uttered by an infidel. The author s further 
apology on behalf of Abu Yazid. 

392 His explanation of Abu Yazid s saying, "I pitched my 
tent opposite the Throne of God". His explanation of Abu 
Yazid s saying, when he passed a cemetery of the Jews, 
"They are forgiven" (mcfdhiiruri}. 

393 His explanation of Abu Yazid s saying, when he passed 
a cemetery of the Moslems, "They are duped" (maghrururi). 
The Prophet said that salvation does not depend on works, 
but on the divine mercy. Theologians have no right to crit 
icise the obscure sayings of mystics who keep the religious 
law. Such words of profound wisdom are commonly mis 
understood and misreported. 

394 Junayd said that in his youth he used to associate with 
Sufis and that although he did not understand what they 


said, he bore no prejudice against them in his mind. The 
author relates that some time after the controversy mentioned 
above, he heard Ibn Salim quote in public two sayings of 
Sahl b. c Abdallah; whereupon he remarked to one of Ibn 
Salim s pupils that Ibn Salim would have condemned Sahl 
b. c Abdallah and Abu Yazid with the same severity, if he 
had not been so favourably disposed towards the former. 
The sayings of Sahl are equally open to criticism, and if a 
satisfactory explanation can be found in the one case, why 
not in the other? 

395 Unless Moses had been divinely guided, he must have 
exacted the due penalty from al-Khadir when he slew the 
youth (Kor. 18,73). Anecdotes showing the piety of Abu 

CHAPTER CXXVIII: "Concerning some sayings of Shibli 
and their explanation". 

396 Shibli said to a number of his friends who were taking 
leave of him, "Go: I am with you wherever you may be; 
you are under my care and in my keeping." The author 
explains that Shibli meant to say, "God is with you", but 
al that time he was regarding himself as non-existent, and 
he spoke as one who contemplates the nearness (qurb) of God. 
Nevertheless, on another occasion Shibli referred to the 
vileness of the Jews and Christians and said that he was 
viler then they. These two sayings do not contradict each 
other but are the expression of different states. Yahya b. 
Mu c adh al-Razi said that the gnostic is proud when he thinks 
of God, and humble when he thinks of himself. Similarly, 
the Prophet once said, "I am the chief of mankind", and 
he also described himself as the son of a woman who used 
to eat qadid *). 

397 Another anecdote of Shibli. He said that his flesh (nafs) 

l) Meat cut into strips and dried in the sun. 


felt a craving for bread, though his spirit (sirr) would have 
been consumed with fire if it had turned aside, even for a 
moment, from contemplation of God. A saying of Shibli 
concerning Abu Yazid al-Bistami, with explanation by Sarraj. 
Shibli, according to a certain Sheykh, discoursed exclusively 
on states and stations , not on unification (taw hid). 

398 CHAPTER CXXIX: "On the meaning of an anecdote which 
is related of Shibli". 

He is reported to have said, "God ordered the earth to 
swallow me if, for one or two months past, there were any 
room in me for thought of Gabriel and Michael"; and he 
said to Husri, "If the thought of Gabriel and Michael 
occurs to your mind, you are a polytheist." Inasmuch as 
the Prophet acknowledged the superiority of Gabriel, these 
sayings have given offence, but they would not give offence 
if instead of being presented in an abridged form they were 
related with their whole context and circumstances. 

399 The complete version of the anecdote to which the former 
saying belongs, as related by Abu Muhammad al-Nassaj. 

400 CHAPTER CXXX: "Concerning various actions of Shibli 
which were regarded with disapproval." 

He used to burn costly clothes, ambergris, sugar, etc., 
although wastefulness is forbidden by the Prophet. Once he 
sold an estate for a large sum of money, which he immed 
iately distributed amongst the people, without reserving 
anything for his own family. Here he is justified by the 
authority of Abu Bakr. Money is not wasted unless it is 
spent for a sinful purpose. 

401 As regards his burning of valuable goods, he did this 
because they distracted his thoughts from God. Solomon 
acted on the same principle when he slaughtered three 
hundred Arab mares which had engaged his attention so 
deeply that he neglected to perform the evening prayer 
(Kor. 38, 29 32). The Prophet cursed the Jews for a like 

reason. The author explains why the sun was turned back 
for Solomon, but not for the Prophet. 

402 Mystics believe that whatever takes their thoughts away 
from God is their enemy, and they endeavour to escape 
from it by every means in their power. Traditions of the 
Prophet on this subject. 

CHAPTER CXXXI: "Concerning the explanation of a saying 
uttered by Shibli which is hard for theologians to understand, 
and of various conversations between him and Junayd." 

Shibli said, "I go towards the infinite, but I see only 
the finite, and I go on the right hand and the left hand 
towards the infinite, but I see only the finite; then I return 
and I see all this in a single hair of my little finger." 

403 The author s explanation of this saying. Another saying 
of Shibli, with the author s interpretation. Verses composed 
or recited by Shibli. 

404 He also said, "I studied the Traditions and jurisprudence 
(al-fiqh] for thirty years until the dawn shone forth. Then I 
went to all my teachers and told them that I desired 
knowledge (fiqh) of God, but none of them answered me." 
Explanation of this by the author. A question addressed by 
Shibli to Junayd, and the latter s reply, with explanation 
by the author. A remark by Junayd concerning Shibli. 
Another saying of Junayd to Shibli. Report of a conversa 
tion between Shibli and Junayd. Sayings of Shibli on the 
subject of waqt. 

405 Further ecstatic expressions of Shibli in prose and verse, 
with explanations by the author. Such expressions are the 
product of a temporary state. If that state were permanent, 
all religious, moral, and social laws would be annulled. 

406 A Tradition of the Prophet bearing on this question. 
Shibli said that if he thought that Hell would burn a single 
hair of him, he would be guilty of polytheism. The author 
explains Shibli s meaning and declares that he agrees with 


it. Another saying of Shibli, to the effect that Hell consists 
in separation from God. Two more sayings by him, the 
latter of which is supported by a Tradition of the Prophet. 

407 CHAPTER CXXXII: "Concerning the explanation of the 
sayings of al-Wasiti" ). 

A passage referring to c A isha. When her innocence was 
revealed (Kor. 24, 1 1 foil.), she praised God, not the Prophet. 
Explanation of the saying of al-Wasiti, "Bless them (the 
prophets) in thy prayers but do not attach any value to it 
in thy heart." He means, "Do not think much of the bles- 
ings which thou bestowest upon them" or "do not let rever 
ence for them have any place in thy heart in comparison 
with the veneration of God". 

408 This refers to the mystical doctrine of unity (tawhid). The 
reverence due to the prophets, and the superiority of Muham 
mad to all other prophets, has been discussed above 2 ). Sayings 
of Abu Yazid al-Bistami on the pre-eminence of Muhammad. 
The Sufis believe that God granted to him whatever he 
asked. His prayer for light. 

409 Every peculiar excellence with which a Moslem is endowed 
belongs to the Prophet. Criticism of the saints is the result 
of habitual turning away from God. 

CHAPTER CXXXIII: "Concerning the errors of those who 
call themselves Sufis and the source and nature of their errors." 

Saying of Abu c Ali al-Rudhabari. The author enumerates 
three principles which are the basis of all true Sufism : 
(i) avoidance of things forbidden, (2) performance of religious 
duties, (3) renunciation of this world, so far as it is possible 
to the believer. 

410 The Prophet mentioned four things which are in this 

1) Between Chapters 131 and 132 there were originally five chapters which 
do not occur in either of the MSS. See note on p. fv. The beginning of 
this chapter is also lost. 

2) See Chapters 53 and 54. 

io 9 

world, but not of it: a piece of bread, a garment, a house, 
and a wife. Worldliness in other respects is an absolute 
barrier between God and man. 

CHAPTER CXXXIV: "Concerning the different classes of 
those who err and the variety of errors into which they fall." 

Three classes of the erring: (i) those who err in the 
fundamentals (uM)\ (2) those who err in the derivatives 
(furtf), i. e. in manners, morals, spiritual feelings, etc. Their 
error is caused by ignorance of the fundamentals, by selfishness, 
and by want of a director who should set them on the 
right way. Description of them. 

411 (3) those whose error is a slip or a lapse rather than a 
serious fault, so that it can easily be repaired. Verse on 
affectation (tahalli). The Prophet s definition of faith. 

CHAPTER CXXXV: "Concerning those who err in the 
derivatives, which does not lead them into heresy; and in 
the first place, concerning those who err as regards poverty 
and wealth." 

Some Sufis declare that wealth is superior to poverty, 
using the word wealth in a spiritual sense. Others, however, 
have argued that worldly wealth is a praiseworthy state, 
and this is an error. 

412 It is wrong to suppose that the faqir who lacks patience 
and does not acquiesce in the divine will is not superior to 
the man who is rich in worldly goods for the soul hates 
poverty and loves riches ; but the faqir who bears poverty 
with patience shall receive a recompense without end. Poverty 
is essentially praiseworthy, though it may be accompanied 
by some defect that incurs blame. Wealth, on the contrary, 
is essentially blameworthy and can only be praised in virtue 
of some good quality, e. g. pious works, that accompanies 
it, but not for itself. Some mystics hold that poverty and 
wealth are two states which must be transcended. 

413 This is an advanced doctrine. It does not, as some have 


maintained, imply that there is no spiritual difference between 
poverty and wealth. Those who pretend that there is no 
difference are proved to be in error by the fact that they 
dislike poverty but do not dislike wealth. True poverty 
consists, not merely in indigence, but also in patience and 
resignation and in having no regard to one s poverty and 
in taking no credit to one s self on account of it. 

CHAPTER CXXX VI: "Concerning those who err in respect 
of luxury or frugality and asceticism, and those who err in 
respect of gaining the means of livelihood or of neglecting 
to do so." 

Only a prophet or a saint has the right to live in abund 
ance, because they know when God permits them to spend 
and when He permits them to refrain from spending. Until 
a man regards much and little as equal, he relies upon the 

4H worldly goods which he possesses. If his heart is not empty 
of desire to obtain a worldly good that he lacks and of 
desire to keep the worldly goods that he has, then he is 
a worldling; and any one who imagines himself to be an 
exception to this rule is in error. Others, again, devote them 
selves to austerities and find fault with those who are less 
strict; but as luxury is unsound, so too is extreme asceticism 
when it is habitual and ostentatious and is not specially 
adopted for the purpose of self-discipline. Others of the reli 
gious insist on earning their daily bread and hold that no 
food is legally pure unless it is earned, but this is an error, 
since the Prophet and all mankind are commanded to trust 
in God and to feel assured that He will give them their 
appointed portion. To seek the means of livelihood is an 
indulgence granted to those who are too weak to trust in 
God absolutely. Conditions to be observed by those who 
seek the means of livelihood. 

415 Others sit still and wait eagerly for some one who will 
attend to their wants, and they believe that this is the right 


spiritual state. But they are mistaken. Any one who abstains 
from seeking a livelihood ought to be inspired by strong 
faith and patience; otherwise, he is commanded to seek a 
livelihood. The latter course is permissible, but the former 
is more excellent. 

CHAPTER CXXXVIII: "Concerning the different classes 
of those who become remiss in their quest and err in respect 
of mortification and betake themselves to self-indulgence." 

There are some who submit to austerities in the hope of 
gaining a reputation for sanctity and of being endowed with 
miraculous powers; and when they fail in their object, they 
discard asceticism and hold it in contempt, and this they 
call languor (futur). 

Languor , however, is only a temporary intermission which 
refreshes the hearts of mystics, whereas the conduct of the 
persons referred to here is properly described as laziness 
and negligence. Saying of Abu c Ali al-Rudhabari. Others 
travel and boast of the number of Sheykhs whom they have 
met and deem themselves in a privileged position. They are 
wrong, for the purpose of travel is moral improvement. 
Others spend money and bestow gifts and cultivate liberal 
ity, but this is not Sufism. The Sufis regard worldly goods 
as an obstacle which prevents them from attaining to God, 
and their object in giving is the removal of that obstacle, 
not the desire to appear generous. Others indulge them 
selves unrestrainedly and claim that their spiritual state (waqt) 
justifies them in their license. 

Such a belief is erroneous and leads to perdition. 

CHAPTER CXXXVIII: "Concerning those who err in respect 
of abstaining from food, retirement from the world, soli 
tude, etc." 

Some aspirants and novices, supposing that hunger is the 
most effectual method of self-mortification, have abstained 
from food and drink during long periods of time, without 


having consulted a spiritual director. They are wrong, since 
the novice cannot dispense with the guidance of a teacher, 
and it is a mistake to think that the wickedness of human 
nature can be eradicated by means of hunger. Sayings of 
Ibn Salim and Sahl b. Abdallah. The author says that he 
has seen a number of persons who, on account of ill-regul 
ated abstinence from food, were unable to perform their 
religious duties! 

418 Others retire from the world and dwell in caves, fancying 
that solitude will deliver them from their passions and cause 
them to share in the mystical experiences of the saints, but 
the fact is that hunger and solitude, if self-imposed and not 
the result of an overpowering spiritual influence, are posit 
ively harmful. The author recalls instances known to him of 
young men who reduced themselves to such a state of 
weakness that they had to be nursed for several days before 
they could perform the obligatory prayers. Others castrate 
themselves in the hope of escaping from .the lust of the 
flesh. This is useless and even injurious, inasmuch as lust 
arises from within and is incurable by any external remedy. 
Others imagine that they show sincere trust in God (tawakkul) 
when they roam through deserts and wildernesses without 
provision for the journey, but real tawakkul demands pre 
vious self-discipline and mortification. 

419 Another erroneous belief is that Sufism consists in wearing 
garments of wool and patched frocks and in carrying leathern 
water-buckets, etc. Such imitation avails nothing. Others 
vainly suppose that they can become Sufis by learning 
mystical allegories and anecdotes and technical expressions, 
or by fasting, praying, and weeping, although they have 
already provided themselves with food and money. All Sufis 
renounce worldly things in the initial stages of their spirit 
ual progress and enjoin their disciples to do the same. If 
any of them acted otherwise, it was for the sake of his 

family or brethren. According to others, Sufism is music 
and dancing and ecstasy and the art of composing mystical 
ghazels. This is a mistake, because music and ecstasy are 
impure when the heart is polluted with worldliness and when 
the soul is accustomed to vanity. 

CHAPTER CXXXIX: "Concerning those who err in the 
fundamentals and are thereby led into heresy; and in the 
first place, concerning those who err in respect of freedom 
and service." 

Some ancient Sufis held that in spiritual intercourse with 
God one should not be like a free man, who expects recom 
pense for his work, but like a slave, who performs his 
master s bidding without expectation of wages or reward, 
and receives whatever his master may bestow upon him as 
a bounty, not as a right. A certain eminent Sufi has written 
a book on this topic. There are heretics, however, who 
assert that as the free man is higher than the slave in 
ordinary life, so the relation of service ^ubudiyyat) to God 
only continues until union with God is attained; one who 
is united with God has become free and is no longer bound 
to service. They fail to recognise that no one can be a true 
servant (of God) unless his heart is free from everything 
except God. The name of servant ^abd] is the best of all 
the names which God has given to the Faithful. 

Passages from the Koran and the Traditions in support 
of this statement. Had it been possible for any creature to 
gain a higher dignity than that of service to God, Muhammad 
would have gained it. 

CHAPTER CXL: "Concerning those c lraqis who err in 
respect of sincerity (ikhlds)" 

The heretics of c lraq declare that no one is perfectly sin 
cere who regards created beings or seeks to please them by 
any action, whether good or bad. Now, certain mystics have 
held the doctrine that true sincerity involves the complete 


absence of regard for created beings and phenomenal objects 
and, in short, for everything but God. The heretics in ques 
tion have taken over this doctrine in the hope that by 
following it mechanically and deliberately, instead of letting 
it develop in themselves as the gradual result of spiritual 
experience, they would attain to perfect sincerity. Therefore 
it has produced in them recklessness and want of manners 
and antinomianism. 

422 Sincerity must be sought by shunning evil, by devotion 
to pious works, and by cultivating morality and spiritual 
feelings. These pretenders are like a man who cannot distin 
guish a precious jewel from a glass bead. 

CHAPTER CXLI: "Concerning those who err in respect of 
prophecy and saintship." 

Some assert that saintship is superior to prophecy, an 
error which is caused by their arbitrary speculations on the 
story of Moses and al-Khadir (Kor. 18, 64 foil.). 

423 God confers peculiar gifts and endowments in accordance 
with His inscrutable will. Examples of prophets and other 
persons who were thus distinguished. The miracles of the 
saints are granted to them in virtue of their obedience to 
the prophet of their time. How, then, can the follower be 
pronounced superior to the leader? As regards the argument 
that the saints receive inspiration directly from God, whereas 
the prophets receive it through an intermediary, the truth 
is that the inspiration of the prophets is continuous, while 
the inspiration of the saints is only occasional. 

424 Al-Khadir could not have borne a single atom of the 
illumination which Moses enjoyed. Saintship is illumined by 
the splendour of prophecy, but it never equals prophecy, 
much less surpasses it. 

CHAPTER CXLII: "Refutation of those who err in respect 
of permission and prohibition." 

Those who err in this matter hold that all things were 

originally permitted, and that prohibition refers only to ex 
cessive license. They justify their conduct by the example 
of the communism which prevailed amongst certain ancient 
Sufis, who helped themselves to their brethren s food and 
money and gave extraordinary pleasure to the owner by 
doing so. Anecdote of Path al-Mawsili. 

4 2 5 A story of Hasan of Basra and a saying of Ibrahim b. 
Shayban. These heretics ignorantly suppose that the above- 
mentioned Sufis allowed themselves to transgress the religious 
law: consequently they go astray and follow their lusts and 
do not abstain from what is forbidden. Why should they 
not believe that all things were originally prohibited and 
that their use was only permitted as an indulgence? al 
though, in fact, lawfulness and unlawfulness depend on the 
ordinance of Allah. That which He has forbidden is like a 
preserved piece of ground : whoever roams around it is in 
danger of trespassing, and the proprietor does not permit 
any one to take possession of it without establishing his 
claim. The case of purity and impurity is different, since, 
according to lawyers and some theologians, a thing is pre 
sumed to be pure until the contrary has been proved. The 
cause of the distinction is that purity and impurity fall within 
the category of worship ^ibdddt), while permission and pro 
hibition refer to property (amldk). 

426 CHAPTER CXLIII: "Concerning the doctrines of the In- 
carnationists (al-Hululiyya}." 

The author is careful to state that he is not acquainted 
with any of this sect and has derived his information from 
other sources. 

Some of the Hululis assert that God implants in certain 
chosen bodies the attributes of divinity and that He removes 
from them the attributes of humanity. This doctrine, if 
it is really professed by any one as a revelation of the 
divine Unity, is false. That which is contained in a thing 


must be homogeneous with that thing, but God is separate 
from all things, and all things are separate from Him in 
their qualities. God manifests in phenomena only the signs 
of His working and the evidences of His omnipotence. The 
Hululfs have erred because they make no distinction between 
the power which is an attribute of the Almighty and the 
evidences which demonstrate His power. Various Hululi 
doctrines. The author says that whoever holds any of these 
opinions is an infidel. The bodies chosen by God are the 
bodies of saints and prophets. God s attributes are beyond 
description, and there is nothing like unto Him. 

427 The Hululis confuse divine attributes with human. God does 
not dwell in men s hearts, but creaturely attributes dwell there, 
such as faith, and belief in the unity of God, and gnosis. 

CHAPTER CXLIV: "Concerning those who err in respect 
of the passing-away of human nature (fand al-bashariyyat)" 

This is a perversion of the mystical doctrine of fand. It 
is based on the notion that when the body is starved and 
weakened its human nature will disappear and that in this 
way a man may be invested with divine attributes. But 
human nature is inseparable from man, although its qualities 
are transmuted in the radiance of Reality. Human nature 
must be distinguished from the qualities of human nature. 
Definition of fand as the term is understood by true mystics. 
Fand does not involve the destruction of the self (nafs) 
or the absence of change (talwiri), inasmuch as change and 
corruption are inherent in human nature. 

428 CHAPTER CXLV: "Concerning those who err in respect 
of spiritual vision (al-ruyat bi l-qulub)" 

The author says he has heard that some Syrian mystics 
claim to have spiritual vision of God in this world, resembling 
the ocular vision of Him which they shall enjoy hereafter. 
He adds that he has never seen any of them himself, nor 
received information that any man among them, whose 


mystical attainments could be regarded seriously, had been 
seen by others ; but he formerly perused a letter written to 
the people of Damascus by Abu Said al-Kharraz, which 
refers to these persons and mentions a doctrine closely akin 
to theirs. The vision of true mystics is contemplation (mu- 
shdhadat), which is the result of real faith (yaqin), as in the 
case of Haritha. Some Basrites, followers of al-Subayhf, went 
astray in this matter. Exalted by their austerities, they fell 
a prey to Iblfs who appeared to them, seated on a throne 
and robed in light. Some of them were undeceived and 
brought back to the truth by their teachers. Story of a pupil 
of Sahl b. c Abdallah. 

429 Anecdote of some disciples of c Abd al-Wahid b. Zayd. 
They imagined that every night they were transported to 
Paradise. On one occasion c Abd al-Wahid accompanied them, 
and at daybreak they found themselves on a dunghill. The 
mystic must know that all lights (anwdr) seen by the eye 
in this world are created and bear no likeness to God. Yet 
the vision of faith is real, as the Apostolic Traditions and the 
sayings of holy men attest. The Prophet s vision (Kor. 53, n) 
was peculiar to himself and is not granted to any one else. 

CHAPTER CXLVI: "Concerning those who err in respect 
of purity." 

Some pretend that their purity is complete and perpetual, 

430 and hold that a man may become purged of all defilements 
and defects, in the sense that he is separated from them. 
This is an error. No man is at all times free from all im 
purity, e.g. thought of phenomenal objects, sin, vice and 
human frailties. One must turn to God and continuously 
pray to be forgiven in accordance with the practice of 
Muhammad, who used to ask pardon of God a hundred 
times daily. 

CHAPTER CXLVII: "Concerning those who err in respect 
of illumination (al-anwdr). 

There are some who assert that their hearts are illuminated 
by divine light the light of gnosis and unification and 
majesty -- and this light they declare to be uncreated. They 
commit a grave error, since all the lights that can be perceived 
and known are created, whereas the light of God does not 
admit of description or definition and cannot be comprehended 
by human knowledge. 

43 1 The correct meaning of the light in the heart is know 
ledge, derived from God, of the criterion (furqdn), which 
the commentators on Kor. 8, 23 interpret as "a light put in 
the heart in order that thereby truth may be distinguished 
from falsehood." 

CHAPTER CXLVIII: "Concerning those who err in respect 
of essential union ^ayn al-jam c )" 

They refuse to attribute their actions to themselves, and 
they justify their refusal by the plea that the unity of God 
must be maintained. This doctrine leaves them outside the 
pale of Islam and leads them to neglect the laws of religion, 
inasmuch as they say that they act under divine compulsion 
and are thefore clear of blame. Their error is caused by 
inability to distinguish what is fundamental from what is 
derivative, so that they connect with union (janf) that which 
belongs to separation (tafriqat}. Sahl b. c Abdallah was asked 
what he thought of a man who said, "I am like a gate: I 
do not move until I am moved." Sahl replied, "This is either 
the speech of a saint (siddiq) or the speech of a freethinker 
(zindiq)" He meant that the saint regards all things as sub- 

43 2 sisting through God and proceeding from God, but at the 
same time recognises the obligations of religion and morality, 
while the freethinker only holds this doctrine in order that 
he may commit as many sins as be pleases without incurr 
ing blame. 

CHAPTER CXLIX: "Concerning those who err in respect of 
intimacy (uns) and unrestraint (bast) and abandonment of fear." 


Some imagine that they are very near to God and stand 
in a close relation to Him, and when they believe this, they 
are ashamed to observe the same rules of discipline and 
keep the same laws as before. Hence they lose all restraint 
and become familiar with actions from which they would 
formerly have shrunk in horror; and they fancy that this 
is nearness (qurb) to God. But they are much mistaken. Rules 
of discipline and states and stations are the robes of 
honour which God bestows on His servants; if they are 
sincere in their quest, they merit an increase of bounty, but 
if they disobey His commands, they are stripped of these 
robes of good works and driven from the door. They may 
still deem themselves to be favourites, but in truth they 
have been rejected: the nearer to God they seem in ima 
gination, the farther from Him are they in fact. Saying of 
Dhu 1-Nun. 
433 Saying of an anonymous sage. 

CHAPTER CL: "Concerning those who err in respect of 
the doctrine of passing-away from their qualities (al-fand 
^an al-awsdf}" 

Some mystics of Baghdad have held the erroneous doctrine 
that in passing-away from their own qualities they enter into 
the qualities of God. This involves the doctrine of incarna 
tion (hulul) or the Christian doctrine concerning Christ. The 
belief in question is said to be derived from one of the 
ancient Sufis. Its true meaning is that when a man passes 
away from his own will, which is given to him by God, he 
enters into the will of God, so that he no longer regards 
himself but becomes entirely devoted to God. The doctrine 
in this form is strictly Unitarian. Those who give it a false 
interpretation suppose that God is identical with His qualities, 
and are guilty of infidelity, inasmuch as God does not be 
come immanent in men s hearts. What becomes immanent 
in the heart is faith in God, and belief in His unity, and 


reverence for His name; and this applies to the vulgar as well as 
to the elect, although the former, being in bondage to their 
passions, are hindered from attaining to the divine realities. 

434 CHAPTER CLI: "Concerning those who err in respect of 
the doctrine of loss of sensation." 

This doctrine is held by some mystics of c lraq. They 
assert that in ecstasy they lose their senses, so that they 
perceive nothing and transcend the qualities which belong 
to objects of sensible perception. But this is wrong, since 
loss of sensation cannot be known except by means of sensa 
tion ; and sensation is inseparable from human nature : it may 
be obliterated in ecstasy, just as the light of the stars is 
rendered invisible by the sun, but it cannot be altogether 
lost. Under the influence of ecstasy a man may cease to be 
conscious of sensation ; as Sari al-Saqati said, a person in 
this state will not feel the blow of a sword on his face. 

CHAPTER CLII: "Concerning those who err in respect of 
the spirit (al~ruk)" 

There are many theories as to the nature of the spirit, 
but all who speculate on this subject go astray from the 
truth, because God has declared that it is beyond human 

435 According to some, the spirit is part of the essential light 
of God : others say that it belongs to the life of God. Some 
hold that all spirits are created, while others regard the 
spirits of the vulgar as created, but the spirits of the elect 
as uncreated. Some think that the spirit is eternal and im 
mortal, and does not suffer punishment hereafter; some 
believe in the transmigration of spirits; some give one spirit 
to an infidel, three to a Moslem, and five to prophets and 
saints; some hold that the spirit is created of light; some 
define it as a spiritual essence created of the heavenly king 
dom (al-malakut), whither it returns when purified; some 
suppose there are two spirits, one divine, the other human. 


All these manifestly erroneous doctrines are the result of 
forbidden speculation (Kor. 17,87). In the author s opinion, 
orthodox Sufis believe that all spirits are created ; that there 
is no connexion or relationship between God and them except 
in so far as they belong to His kingdom and are subject 
to His absolute sway; that they do not pass from one body 
to another; that they die, like the body, and experience 
the pleasures and pains of the body, and are raised at the 
Resurrection in the same body from which they went forth. 





abad, 96. 

abadiyyat, 96. 

c abd, 113. 

Abddl, 47. 

Ablution, manners of the Sufis 

in, 39, 40. 
abnd al-haqaiq, 71. 
abrdr, 13, 24. 
Abstinence, 13. 
adab, 39. See Manners. 
c adam, 88. 
ahl al-khusiiS) 15, 18. See 

Elect, the. 
ahwdl, 12, 37, 95. See States, 

altfiq, 95. 
alif, 26. 
Allah, the greatest name of 

God, 25. 

Almsgiving, 42, 43. 
amldk, 115. 
c dmmat, 17, 18. 
amn, 86. 

anta iva-anta ana, 95. 

bild ana, 95. 
Antinomianism, in, 114, 115, 


anwdr, 117. 
c aqd, 93. 
C ^V> 89. 

C r2/, 10, 1 8, 71, 96. 
asbdb, 47. 
Ascension of Muhammad, the, 

Asceticism, no, 1 1 1 . S** Stat 

ions, mystical, and zuhd. 
ashdb al-kadith, 3. 
as!, 94. 
asrdr, 63. 
athar, 94. 

Audition, 50, 51, 69 77, 78. 
aw sat, 1 8. 
tfy^/, 82. 

c ayn al-jam", 98, 118. 

al-yaqin, 20. 
, 96. 
azaliyyat, 96. 



B in Bismillah, the, 25. 
badhl al-muhaj, 97. 
bddi, 89, 95. 
bahri bild shdtf, 96. 
bald, 64, 66, 93. 
baqd, 59, 89, 90. 
bashariyyat, 6 1 , 1 1 6. 
#.$/, 89, 90, 1 1 8. 
bawn, 94. 
&y/0, 37. 

Begging, 52, 53, 74. 
bild bddi, 95. 

nafs t 95. 

, 64. 


Communism, 115. 
Companions of the Prophet, 

the, 35 foil. 
Companionship, of Sufis with 

one another, 47, 48. 
Contemplation, 20, 106, 117. 

See mushdhadat. 
Creation, the mystery of, 37. 


dahshat, 90. 
dams, 94. 
dcfwd, 93. 
da wat, 21. 

Death, manners of the Sufis 
at the time of, 58, 59. 

Dervishes, manners of, 46, 47. 
dhahdby 91. 

dhdt, 93. 

dhawq, 98. 

dhikr, 19, 23, 24, 34, 60, 73, 

75, 76, 90, 102. 
al-dhikr al-khafi, 13. 
Directors, spiritual, 109, 112. 

See Sheykhs. 
Doctrine, Sufistic, differences 

of, 59 foil. 
Dress, of the Sufis, 7, 8, 51. 


Earning a livelihood, manners 

of the Sufis in, 54, 1 10, 1 1 1. 
Eating, manners of the Sufis 

in, 49, 50. 
Ecstasy, 50, 51, 76, 7881, 

91, 99 1 08, 113, 1 20. See 

Elect, the, 5, 6, 7, 15, 16, 18, 

20, 21, 22, 27, 30, 39, 84, 

85, 120. 

Errors, of the Sufis, 108 foil. 
Evil, 11, 25. 


Faith, 23, 36, 37, 82, 83, 87, 

96, 109, 117. 
fand, 59, 63, 89, 90, 91, 102, 

103, 116. 

fand c an al-awsdf, 1 1 9. 
fand al-bashariyyat, 1 16. 

I2 4 

fand a I- f and, 103. 

faqih, 6. 

faqir, 109. 

al-faqir al-sddiq, 31, 61. 

faqd y 91. 

, 14, 43, 6 1. S^ Poverty. 
far\ 94. 
/*j/, 94. 

Fasting, 43~ 45> 8 5> 86. 
fawd^id, 88. 

Fear, 18, 23, 24, 35, 37, 89. 
yz^r, 64. 
/^ fi l-din, 6. 
fir as at, 36, 63. 
Food, lawful, 13, 14, 44, 49, 

86, 1 10. 

Freedom, 113. See hurriyyat. 
Friendship, manners of the 

Sufis in, 58. 
fuqahd, 3. 
fuqard, 9, 14, 71. 
furqdn, 1 1 8. 
fur if, 94, 109. 
futur, IT i. 


Generosity, 64. 
ghalabdt, 88, 90. 
gharib, 95. 
ghashyat, 88. 
^//^, 23. 
ghaybat, 88, 90, 91. 
ghayn, 99. 
ghayrat, 63. 

ghind, 61. 

Gifts, bestowed on Sufis, 53, 54. 

Gnosis, 26, 27, 77,93,95- See 

ma c rifat. 

God, the nature of, II, 37, 60. 
Grief, 63. 


hadath, 98. 
/^/, 13, 53, 71, 86. 
hamm, 93. 

al-hamm al-mufarrad, 92. 
haqd^iq, 59, 87, 
haqiqat, 59, 60, 87, 97. 
, 60, 71, 73, 86. 
al-yaqin, 20. 

hay rat, 57, 90. 

Hell, spiritual conception of, 


hiddyat, 21. 
yh)tf, 93. 
hikmat, 57, 76. 
,to.y, 91. 

Hope, 1 8, 35, 89. 
hubb, 64. 
hudur, 88, 90. 
hujum, 88, 90. 
/mlul, 119. vSV*? Incarnation. 
Hunger, 56, in, 112. 
huquq, 87. 
hurriyyat, 98, 99. 6><? 


//ww <z7tf huwa, 95. 
huziiz, 87. 


c ibddat, 36, 115. 

ifrdd, 91. 

ighdnat, 99. 

i/isdn, 3. 

ikhlds, 3, 23, 60, 113. 

ikhtibdr, 93. 

ikhtiydr, 93. 

ilhdm, 36. 

c z /to, 96. 

Illumination, 61, 117, 118. 

^ilm, 60, 100. 5^ Know 

c ilm al-yaqin, 20. 

imd\ 87. 

^^w, 97, 

Imitation, 112. 

imtikdn, 98. 

Incarnation, 115, 116, 119. 

Indifference to praise and 
blame, 63, 76. 

Indulgences, 28, 29, 115. 

insdniyyat, 60. 

Interpretation, mystical, 22 
27, 30 foil., 74, 76, 77. 

inzfdj, 97. 

ishdrat, 26, 48, 62, 87, 95. 

ishfdq, 23. 
m//, 92, 93. 
istifd, 21, 98. 
istildm, 98. 
istind c , 98. 

istinbdt, 24, 26, 34. 5^ Inter 
pretation, mystical. 
istiqdmat, 1 1 . 
ftibdr, 64. 
z -c /z>4/; 95. 
itmcfninat, 20. 


jadhb al~arwdh, 97. 
>^ c , 59, 88, 98, 1 1 8. 
Jurists, the, 3, 4, 7. 


kardmat (generosity), 64. 

kardmdt (miracles), 82 foil. 

karim, 64. 

kashf, 90. 

kawn, 94. 

khashyat, 23. 

khdtir, 89. 

khawf, 1 8. 

khusus, 87. 5^ Elect, the. 

khusus al-khusus, 15, 16, 87. 

Knowledge, esoteric, 4 9, 22, 

23, 30. 
Knowledge, religious, three 

kinds of, 3. 

Knowledge, three sources of, I. 
Koran, conformity with the, 

21 foil., 90. 
Koran, hidden meaning of the, 

21, 22. 

Koran, mystical interpretation 
of the, 22 foil, 30 foil. 


Koran, recitation of the, 22, 

26, 69 foil. 
kulliyyat, 98. 

laghw, 22, 71. 

lahz, 94. 

lajd , 97. 

latifat, 98. 

lawtfih, 87. 

law ami , 87. 

/tfj/.*-<2 bi-laysa, 91, 104. 

Letters, written by Sufis to 

one another, 65 foil. 
Liberality, in. 
Light, the inner, 117, 118. 
lisdn, 93. 
lisdn al-haqiqat, 93. 

# al-haqq, 93. 
*/- c *70*, 93. 
Longing, 19. 
Love, 17, 1 8, 32, 36, 64, 80, 

90, 93> 95. 102. 


ma^dum, 88. 
mafqud, 88. 
mahabbat, 17. 
mahq, 94. 
mahw, 94. 
makdn, 86. 
ma^khudh, 90. 
malakiit, 10, 120. 

Manners of the Sufis, the, 

maqdm, 12, 86, 95. 

maqdmdt, 12, 37, 95. 
Stations, mystical. 

ma^rifat, 10, 11, 12, 90. 

mcfrifat al-haqiqat, 1 1 . 

md rifat al-haqq, \ I . 

Marriage, 55. 

mashhud, 88. 

maskh, 98. 

mawjud, 88. 

Miracles, 82 foil. 

mishtdk, 99. 

Mosques, sitting in, condem 
ned, 55. 

mubtad?, 89. 

mufarridun, 91. 

mukddathat, 92. 

muhaddath, 36, 92. 

muhaj, 97. 

mifjisdt, 82. 

mukdshafatt 20, 87. 

mundjdt, 92. 

muqarrabim, 13, 24. 

muqtasid, 63. 

murdd, 89. 

murdqabat, 16. 

muraqqcfdt, 5 1 . 

murid, 89. 

muruwwat, 55, 62. 

musdmarat, 92. 

musarmad, 96. 

musayyarun, 96, 97. 
mushdhadat, 20, 87, 117. See 

mushdhadat al-asrdr, 97. 
Music, 113. See samd c . 
mustalab, 90. 
mustanbatdt, 30, 31. 
mutasabbir, 15. 
mutawdjidun, 78. 
mittawakkilun, 36. 
muwahkidun, 91. 


nafas, 91. 

*/j, 10, 34, 38, 44, 83, 87, 

95, 105, 116. 
nahnu bild nahnu, 95. 
nahnu musayyarun, 96. 
Names, the Divine, 25. 
^ c /, 92, 93. 
nisbat, 95. 
niyyat, 41, 64. 
Novices, Sufi, manners of, 57, 



Patience, 15. 
Pilgrimage, the, 45, 46. 
Poetry, mystical, specimens of, 

66, 67. 
Poetry, recitation of, 70, 72 

77. 79- 
Poverty, 14, 15, 37, 43, 52, 

61, 109, 1 10. 

Prayer, 24, 37, 4042, 75- 
Prayers, specimens of, 67, 68. 


Precepts given by Sufis, 68. 
Predestination, n, 16, 24. 
Prophet, imitation of the, 27 

Prophets, the, 6, 22, 29, 69, 

83, 98, 108, 114, 116, 120. 
Purification, manners of the 

Sufis in, 39, 40. 
Purity, 115, 117. See safd. 


qabd, 89. 

qddih, 89. 

qalb, 8, 95. 

qalb salim, 21, 26. 

qasm, 94. 

qaf al-^altfiq, 95. 

qidam, 96. 

qurb, 17, 18, 105, 119. 

qusud, 98. 


rabb hdl, 95. 
rabbdni, 35. 
rajd, 1 8. See Hope. 
rams, 94. 

rasm, 92, 96. 
rawh, 92. 
rayn, 99. 
Recollection, 60. See 


Repentance, 13. 
ridd, 1 6. 
rizq, 62, 63. 

ruh, 61,92, 120. See Spirit, the. 
al-ruh al-bashariyya, 62. 
al-ruh al-qadima, 62. 
rusum, 92. 

ruyat al-qulub, 92, 116. S>* 
Vision of God. 


sabab, 94. 
sab bar, 15. 

j0&y, 15. 

^^, 63. 

sdbiqun, 24. 

j#r, 1 5 . 

sadaqa, 42. 

sddiqun, 17- 

.ytf/tf, 9, 62, 87, 88. 5^ Purity. 

safd al-safd, 88. 

safar, 52. 

jfl/w al-wajd, 88. 

j^/t^ is karat, 95. 

sahib maqdm, 95. 

^/ ^/^, 95. 

^w/, 88, 90. 

Saints, the, 83, 114, 116, 118, 

Saints, criticism of the, 104, 

Saintship, asserted to be supe 
rior to prophecy, 1 14. 

saldmat al-sadr, 63. 

Salvation, 104. 

sawd c , 50,69 foil. See Audition. 

samadiyyat, 25. 

sawdb, 64. 

saw I, 91. 

Self-sacrifice, 52. 

Sensation, loss of, in ecstasy, 

79, 91, 120. 

shafaqat c ala l-khalq, 64. 
shdhid, 64, 88. 
shahid, 20. 
sharfat, 100. 
shatahdt, 91, 101. 
shath, 90, 91, 99 foil. 
jAtf/// al-lisdn, 91. 
shathiyydt, 99 foil. 
shawq, 19. 
Sheykhs, manners of the, 57, 

74, 79- 
.?/>, 98. 
shirk, 23, 62. 
shukr, 48. 
shiiriid, 97. 
Sickness, manners of the Sufis 

in, 56. 

siddiq, 18, 71, 118. 
j-^, 60. 
j(/itf, 92, 93. 
Sin, 13, 63. 

Sincerity in devotion, 64. 
Singing. See samd c . 
sirr, 64, 65, 93, 106. 
al-haqq, 93. 
al-khalq, 93. 


al-sirr al-mujarrad, 92. 

sirr al-nafs, 63. 

sirr al-sirr, 93. 

Sitting, manners of the Sufis 

in, 55, 56. 

Solitude, 57, 58, 112. 
Spirit, the, 61, 62, 120, 121. 

See ruh. 
States, mystical, 12, 13, 16 

21, 37, 64, 103, 1 06, 119. 

See hdl. 
Stations, mystical, 12 16,37, 

106, 119. See maqdm and 

subhdni, 104. 

Sufi, derivation of, 7, 8, 9, 62. 
Sufism, definitions of, 9. 
Sufism, founded on the Koran 

and Traditions, 2 foil., 8, 22, 

27 foil. 
Sufism, principles of, 47, 60, 


sukr, 88, 90. 
sumuww al-qulub, 97. 
Symbolism, 10, 63, 87, 100. 

See ishdrat. 


tafakkur, 64. 
tafrid, 91, 92. 
tafriqat, 59, 88, 118. 
tahalli, 96, 109. 
tahaqquq, 87. 
tahayyur, 90. 

tahqiq, 87. 
tajalli, 96. 
tajrid, 92. 
takhalli, 96. 

tahvin, 97, 116. 
tamannif 63. 

tamkin, 36, 37. 
tawj, 94. 
tana ff us, 91. 
taqiyyat, 64. 
tarawwuh, 92. 
tasdkur, 89. 
tashdid, 24. 
tawdjud, 78, 79, 89. 
tawakkul, 15, 48, 112. 

Trust in God. 
tawdlf, 90. 
tawdriq, 90. 
taw bat, 13. 
tawhid, 9, 10, 35, 88, 92, 94, 

95, 98, 106, 108. 5^ Uni 


tawhid al- c dmmat, 91. 
taw kid al-bashariyyat, 10. 
tawhid al-ildhiyyat, 10. 
tawhid al-khdssat, 91. 
Terms, technical, used by the 

Sufis, 86 99. 
Thought-reading, 82, 86. 
Traditionists, the, 3, 4, 7. 
Travel, manners of the Sufis 

in, 51, 52. 

1 3 o 

Travel, the purpose of, in. 
Trust in God, 15, 16, 34, 54, 

IIO, 112. 


"ubiidiyyat, 59, 113. 

c ulamd, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 22, 30. 

Unification, 36, 59, 102, 103, 

107. See taw hid. 
Union, 118. See jam c and 


uns, 19, 20, 1 1 8. 
Unseen, the, definition of, 23. 
nsu/, 60, 109. 


Veils, spiritual, 84, 99. 
Vision, of God, 116, 117. 


wahddniyyat, 10. 
wahm, 63. 
wahy, 6. 
wajal, 24. 
wajd, 78, 89, 90. 
wajdu liqd, 78. 
wajdu mulk, 78. 
wajh Allah, 3. 
wdjidun, 78, 

waqty 89, 107, in. 
waqti musarmad, 96. 

^, 13, 61. 
wdrid, 89. 
wasd^it, 99. 
wasdyd, 68. 

, 92. 

w^/, 94. 
wasm, 92, 96. 
Wastefulness, 106. 
waswasat, 40. 
watan, 97- 
^vatar, 97. 
Wealth, worldly and spiritual, 

61, 109, 1 10. 
Weeping, eighteen causes of, 


wuddy 64. 
wujiid, 79. 
wusul, 60. 


yaqin, 20, 21, 97, 117. 


zdhid, 14, 96. 
tf/#7, 42. 
zdlim, 63. 
^r/, 62. 
zawtfid, 88. 
zindiq, 118. 

14. 5^ Asceticism. 


Jo!. Juljf, "wilds, wildernesses" (240,2). 

f , G - 

* = Jof in an affirmative sentence (195,14). 
_j of person and C< J], "to take any owe to a place" 

(178, 16). WW ace. and *, "to take a person with owe" 
(192,9; 429,6). 

>L II ^St ^Lf (37,18). 

^4^7 (37,19; 364,11). 
>L III ^[5 (140,10; 165,16; 198,20). 
1. II "to sing," Verbal noun iuotj (276,16). 
L>|. Apparently used as an interrogative particle (225, 18). 
(168,12) is the water-spout of the Ka c ba. 

III = 

G o j i 

i, feminine (217, 17), but perhaps j*d) should be read. 

yiL iLUf, "an evil impulse". L^bj^p^ LfjLUj) 

(14,10); ol^iJIj ^1 o^U (77,12), 
|. (157,13). Cf. Wright, II, 376. 

^1. Synonymous with *Lil (255, 11; 386, 15, 16). fe Massi- 
gnon, Jf*7a& al-Tawdsin, p. 162. 

ijf, "essence" (32,10). 
(98,22). Dozy. 


G o > 

ajl. X V_AJ UAA^, "a beginner, a novice in Sufism" (142, 18). 
jji. II j^f 3j? (37,18). 

*I? (37,19; 364,4,10). 
Jj. jLjt (18,6; 50, 14; 60,19, etc.). U JL>i (188, 20; 190, 15), 

Ujj, interrogative (308,5; 329,17). 
bj, after prepositions. <s)bb (34,5); b| ^Xl (405,17). 


jkj, "good fortune" (188,12). 

bo. IV with ^1, "to manifest" = ^j3 (254,17). 
^XJ), a class of the saints (177,23). 

The Persian words \^>c<u_Xj LJ , "0 unfortunate one !" 
occur in the reply made to Abu Hamza by a native of 
Khurasan (331,4). 

j^Xyo, "common, profane" (10, 18). 
fy. V J^ for V. Of. 14,12; 87,1; 386,5. 
LJ. IV jif in verse (251,18). 

, "to neglect, to abandon the observance of 
religious laws 1 (406,2). 

X-oLLJ! (168, 14) is mentioned as the name of a place 
where pilgrims were surrounded by an Arab brigand- 
chief (Ibn al-Athir, IX 129, 16). It belonged to the terri 
tory of the Banii Asad and lay on the road from Baghdad 
and Kiifa to Mecca. Cf. Bibl Geogr. Arab., VII, pp. 175 
and 311. 

(146, 3 = 188, 15), "pieces of cloth inserted in a garment 
for the purpose of widening it". Persian jj^o and jj-j. 


See the Lexica under (joy>o and Jawaliqi s al-Mu c arrab 
(ed. by Sachau), p. If, 1. i". I have not found any other 
example of the word written with \ in Arabic. The usual 

O Cl O - 

forms are (jo>o, &o>j> and J^U>L>, pi. (jL>o, and 

\j, pi. 
, "a drop of spittle" (79,6; 240,5). 

K,gj, "a foul smell". Shibli said, "What think you of 
a science in comparison with which theology stinks?" 

G - 

(182, 13). The words JU^j jus in this passage differ in 

meaning from the same phrase as cited in the Lexica. 

~ ~ 

^ opposed to <3. (340, 4). 

VIII ecy^-t (409,14). 

Y uto be satisfied", j^uilj ^UiiJL, (237, 3). 

UJL> JJi (211,10). 

^wrrt/ of (jl^b> (204, 15). 

UJL^u j, i5 (150,4; 211,4), where 

jLJLS BL\>i_j isjeJ . >See Dozy. 
X > g it t*j$TJC^xi, "concentrating my thoughts" (168, 19). 

w ^^ same sense (297, 1). 

G - o _ - o - 

^u, "a box or chest". -*-^uJl is enumerated 

among the possessions of the Prophet (101, 9). 

IV l^o = L>| (224,15= 180,7), but the reading 
is doubtful. 



3b-, of ecstasy, " violent" (306,7; 434,9,11). 

^ O > 3 3 

IV iCJj(A^uJi Qk-otJl (27, 16). Does this mean "the 
that are fixed intently"? Cf. Dozy under OL\> II and IV. 
With LJ, "to throw" (193,22). 

G O 3 3 O 3 

QL\>=.f^i Bj^o, "the end of the izdr or the part 

"* & 

of the izdr where it is tied or folded round the waist" 
(136, 18). Freytag renders IM<-^> by "conclave domus", an 

03 03 

error caused by his having mistaken j^\:> for -JTJ>. 
See Lisdn XVI, 264,17 foil. 

G _ o } 

VIII ^yjL^^Aj of language, "guarded", "safe from criti 
cism" (398,16). 

With Q^, "to refuse obstinately to do anything". Used 
of the nafs of a Sufi who shrank from making an ablution 
in water that was intensely cold (146, 4). 

IV "to be able". Followed by ^ and the Imperfect 
(131,4; 156,5; 166,10; 291,14). Followed by the Imper 
fect without *.j (50,19; 288,12). 

(181,18), "I should have had a desire 

for his sake to walk " See Dozy under _*a>. 

yto 1 ^ = "objects of sense" (388, 6). 
Ji^-ki<Jf, "the desires and interests of the lower soul 
(nafs)". Whatever appertains to the nafs is Ja=>. The 

term J^Ji^> is opposed to vJj^Ji->. See especially 47, 1 
foil, and 336,12 foil.; also 15,17 Ouy^Jf J>^k>); 18,7; 
39,6; 77,11; 102,9; 164,8,10; 413,17; 414,3. 


or B^li, "sweetmeat" (101,12). 
, "confectioner" (185, 16). 
, w ecstasy, "the state of quiet succeeding rapture" 


(306, 15). J^> in used in the same sense (306, 18). 

, of aw ecstatic person, "one who has passed 
into the state of quiet" (306,17; 307,1). 

G- o _ 

, verbal noun (284, 16). 

noun from &xc ^r>, "he turned 
away from him" (229, 4). 



L>. X "to hide" (139,17). 
x>. V "to be agitated in ecstasy" (278,6; 292,4). 

_ OG 

Persian L\Jjy>, "a man in charge of an ass". 

VIII "to be disordered in mind, to dote" (410, 21), if 
the reading is sound. 

O o 

X-i^>. Muzaffar al-Qarmisini (191,12) and Abu Hafs 
al-Haddad* (194, 11) wore two khirqas at once. See Dozy 


under xiy>. 

M^j "a rag" (188,23). 

O o - 

^a.v*:> (329, 21) "a hole (in the roof of a mosque)". 

G o ^ 

*~>. x&L<Uk> (325, 5), something given to a crying child to 

o - 

amuse it, a rattle (?). Cf. x^uxi.^ui (Dozy). 

, "the elect, the Sufis who have enjoyed 
mystical experiences" (46,4; 52,16; 67,12 et passim). 


r>, "the Sufi s of the highest grade" 
(46,5; 52,17; 67,16 etc.). See under 

~>, "intimacy". L> JJ ^bu *ili Sl^l (400, 1). 
VIII wcwn o/" p/ace. gJ&xJi ysLxJi o/" </<e ocean o/ 1 Deity 
(240, 5). 

VIII to draw in the breath 1 (248,18; 271,6). 
V "to save, to rescue" (240, 15). See Glossary to Tabari. 

c, _ 

l> m ^ J, "mingled with" (256,11). 

>, "controversial" (106,14). 

?. w " G - - 

oi-v_L>, diminutive of oUL>, "a worn-out garment" 

(249, 2). 

o r 

(J**A>, "withdrawn or concealed from the mind" (233, 15; 
344, 8). 


, "discussion" (394,9). 

habitually, ordinarily" (391,5). 
, o/" /ot?e, "corrupt, spurious" (208, 19). 
V with v> u to wrap one s self in a garment" (38,14). 

X "to induce ecstasy voluntarily or by means of music, 
etc. (187,5; 277,19; 303,9; 336,16; 342,6). 

. IV (358, 6) = u*^ IV, q. v. VII ^Loji, used mystically 
(358,7). ^Ali, "obscure", "occult" (240,2). 

" G io_ 

JJ*UA>, explained as = a -Jlo (358,5). 

. The Siifis do not travel Q^JJJ, "for the purpose of 
making a tour" (190, 4). 


The Persian words c>^_j<-> [> , "O friend !" were used by 
Sahl b. Abdallah of Tustar in speaking to the father 
of Ibn Salim (326,18). 

(33,11; 243,3; 384,14). 

/J> pi. (14,17; 42,7; 54,15; 296,10; 335,3). 

o _ 

W*7A J*c or Q, "to escape the notice of any one" 
(128,10; 423,3; 426,8). 

IV with uj, to transport the mind" (344, 17). 

VI "to affect the state known as ^Uo (see the defi 
nition, 347, 13) or to induce it by artificial means" 
(187,6; 291,1, where the correct reading is 

II "to let any one taste" (372,10). 

s. ft^ 

(266, 5). When dying, Murta c ish desired Abii 


Muhammad al-Muhallab al-Misri to pay his debts, which 
amounted to eighteen dirhems. After his funeral, the 
clothes which he wore were valued at eighteen dirhems 

t ft ___ 
and were sold for that sum, y*Lj UK __j^i, i.e. the 

amount of money obtained by selling his clothes tallied 
exactly with the amount of his debts. 

The phrase bears another meaning in the sentence 

= o,, ,0.- 

Jj ^A UAoJl~> U-LJ (272, 11), "Would that we 

were rid of it (the samd c ) on even terms", i. e. with 
neither loss nor gain. See Dozy. 

IV <jp (252,19 m verse; 317,6; 404,9). &?e Dozy 
under IV. 


AJli! opposed to ilitjAS. (368, 9). 

O w 5 

oUeb,, "quatrains" (299,3). 


^ with j, "giving more hope to any one" (62, 9, 

where the MSS. have L>J and the text, wrongly, L>.l). 
Y t0#A uj, to be characterised by anything (6,17; 
7, 1, etc.). 

III sUJj-*, "adjustment of rival claims", opposed to 
alJyo (425,6). 

0~ J 3 

The meaning of (j^a/J! ol3>^ is explained by the author 
(61,13) as L^ilcLb if L^kij ^c^ L0^Xj. 


VIII with ^, "to seek profit for one s self from 
one" (200,14). 

IV used mystically in reference to Jus^jJi 

(358, 7; 385, 5). VIII in the same sense (358, 7; 388, 11). 

Jj>^x (358,7). Cf. ^o. 

) .<& 

with JbC, "most refreshing to Me heart" (217,2). 

o bjJ! ^v&J), "the dancing Sheykh" (290,19). 
UftW with j, elative of oJ: IV (142,6). 
iC-oUj opposed to XJL\/O_AW (29, 12). 

_ JO- 

The words ,*&jJ) o^xXiJ (397, 8), "I should have bound 
the girdles", appear to mean, "I should have caused my 
hearers to depart from the true doctrine of unification 

tawhid)". The .0: is the badge of dualism. 



u (329, 11) .UJf ^ *-X^-. according to the com 
mentator on Qushayri, 194,11. 


Ill .fj**, "secret converse", feminine (344,8). 

iXojj*. Axyli (364,19). >XxyL (29,12). 

3 w , S _o> 
JCx*w . ^5y r^*^> "wild marjoram" (289,9). In the street-cry 

(^j JjJot-Av LJ the redundant a^ /" is probably correct, 

though Kalabadhi in his Kitab al-Ta c arruf has ^5^ yJu* L 
(Massignon, Notes sur le dialecte Arabe de Bagdad [Bul 
letin de Vlnstitut frangais d arche ologie orientale, vol. XI], 
p. 11, n. 1). 

VI ylJcJi defined (342, 5). See also under <-*&> VI. 
Ill w^/t j^J], to rely upon amjthing" (347, 8; 413, 4, 10). 

VI with ^j, "to affect reliance upon anything 1 1 (187, 6), 
but see List of Addenda et Corrigenda. Instead of 
OJl (291,1) read yi*jjf. 

is used as a Persian adjective in the words 
L*. "Poor Yahya!" (188,12). 

III passive, with j of person and uj, "to be pardoned 

o _ 

for a mistake 11 (7, 16). 


Xj^Ujw (317,2), "a kind of boat". See Dozy. 

IV ver& of surprise (404, 20). 

II with ace. of person, "to permit" (177,13). 


iCx^, "just measure, due proportion" (417,22). 
II "to let go, to leave unharmed" (327,3). 



G oi . -- Goo 

^i. V c^-^j , "inattentiveness" opposed to cU^JUJ (297, 1), 
Ui (44,11; 412,19). 

J . II (_X-jJs.xiJcJi , "the command that religious obligations 
should be rigorously and perfectly fulfilled" (86,13; 
87,6, etc.). 

. V with ^Ij, "to expect impatiently" (415,6); with J*c, 

_ o 

"to be acquainted with anything" = J^ oy*I (404, 0). 


X LJl-XCOCwl, -eager expectation" (159,7). 

0~,~ _, < ) G _ 

LJj = iLsyfc (47,18). See Lane under ou-&. 
^yi, "price" (131,11). 

_ o > 

i. (317, 3), "a handkerchief used as a purse . Persian 

- ^ O } 

The Arabicised form X^JLAV^ occurs in the Burhdn-i 
Qdtf (Vullers, Lex. Pers. II, 426). 

ii, "something unjust or tyrannical" (254,5); "trans 
gression" (410,20). 

j-xJa in a non-mystical sense (375, 6 ; 376, 3) ; in a 
mystical sense, with ^ (385, 12). See Dozy. 

- G 

w, mystical term (346,11; 375,5, etc.)] pi. 

(346,17; 380,12); ol^ (374,11; 380,5). 


fc, adjective: o b^kii oUl^ (380,10). 

, "a barn where meal is sifted and stored" 

(375,6 14). This word is unknown to the lexico 

&. II (284,20; 345,18; 346,1). The last instance occurs 

in a verse by Hallaj and alludes to his ^LxA; 

Cf. Massignon, Kitdb al-Tawdsln, p. 138, n. 3. 

VIII with ^j-c, "to be concealed from" (225,3), but 
probably the correct reading is 

V with J^e, of a saying, "to be unseemly or abominable 
in the opinion of any one 11 (398, 17). 

w^, "an ingot of gold or silver" (326, 11 foil.). Persian 

w (177,2). 

V with Js j of a saying, "to be altered to the detriment 
of any one, to be perverted in such a way as to excite 
suspicion against its author" (393, 14). 

V "to beg for alms" (197, 3 ; 210, 15). 

XjJuJLo (72, 2 ; 424, 6). Cf. Dozy under xJbuX,^, which 

is incorrectly vocalised. 

3 > 3 > 

IV ^oxi (43, 6) = u 

The phrase ^Ji^s^o AJ ^_aA-ji (generally used in a bad 
sense = B^kXaJL *suM) means, I think, with j of person 
and uj, "to reveal anything to aw^/ owe", in a passage 
(426, 7), which may be rendered: "If any one really 
professed this doctrine and supposed that his teaching was 
revealed to him by Unification (tawhid), he is in error". 

jbo. ...LsdxD, "parasite" (192,7). See Dozy. 
, "crown-lands" (169,18). 

VIII "to bewilder, to distract" (296, 19); mystical term, 
"to transport, to deprive of consciousness" (228, 12 ; 
372, 19 foil.). Cf. my translation of the Kashf al-Mahjub, 
p. 390. 

&ft\M (162, 6). 

of sounds, "composed into a melody" (285,8). 


wto . L:Lui3 el/to used mystically = *LLs (j^ or L_jL&3 
(387,14 foil.; 389,11,12). 

G o - 

.*.*/nV, mystical term (ibid.). 

VI o/" *Ae eyelids, "to become closed" (251, 1). VII 
J^c, "to cover" (240,3). 

G _ > 

^Juko, a garment worn by Siifis" (27,13; 38,15, 

G =:> 

where it is joined with iotiyo). Not in the Lexica. 


vJJpLL, mystical term (294,3). See under \3j (346,3). 
>=r^ J > (303,3). 

"a tumour caused by plague" (135, 17). 


, "occasion of censure" (385,13; 394,20). 

IV (185,21; 406,16). 

V with if, to look forward to, to desire" (108,5). 
jJLb. In the phrase exX^wJl ^JLLJI (349,13) the 
meaning of the former word is uncertain. Read, 

o o 

^J, "with a cheerful countenance" (161,9). 
otjj! (52,1; 66,10 foil.; 412, 5, 8) = LuJLi (14, 2). 
JLlL, mystical term, 228,14; 357,20 foil. 

G o 

(j*ULjf, ^ f r^ a mystical sense (388,11). 
, "object of desire" (98,2; 147,18; 158,17). 
, "a female player on the ttmbur" (298, 6). 

(344, 6), "reserved or morose in disposition". 

G J 

Ill JL*->LL-* (303,12) appears to signify "cheerfulness, 

xb, purity of heart (279, 20). 

G w - 1 ^ 

u^yJax), of saZ/, "mixed with^f, seasoned" (328,9). 

IV "to make dark" (411,6). 

G o ^ G o^G-o 

xJLLo . KjUa* (*-^ 5 "a dirhem wrongfully obtained" 
(210, 15). 
VI ir7A V) /^ ^^ (225,6). 

^, "in absence" (265,13). See Lane 


X passive, with L->, "to have anything imposed upon 

one by God as an act of service" (116,11; 195,19; 


X with Q, "to become effaced" = (J Jo (214, 5). 

VIII ^eJJiit, "keep the c iddat" (139,19), used as d 

formula of divorce. 

X "to seek alms" (171,7). 

Ill "to present one s self to, occur to" (30, 15, 17; 71, 17; 
83,11); of a dervish, "to put one s self in the way ot 
any one, to approach any one in the hope of receiving alms 
(48,21; 175,1; 184,13). 


oLtoJjw, "objections to an argument" (9,11); "doubts", 
"evil suggestions" (71,2). Cf. AnsarPs commentary 


on Qushayri, II 150,25 and the definition of ^.Lc 
(348,8 foil.). 

-c. "to know God, to bo or become a gnostic" (353,3); 
V "to seek to know God" (353,2). 

pt**, "the acquaintances of God" = ^.^LjtJI, 

"the gnostics" (344,3). 

->i, . - 
jt. VI sjfc uUJ, in a verse recited by Shiblf (405,5). 

j.jc. .+-;! jc , "an obligatory religious ordinance", opposed to 

L^ (144,15). 
. VIII of the mind, "to wander, to be distracted" (344,6). 

&lic . V with Jj, "to have a thirst for mystical experiences" 
(289, 3, 4). " 

Jdac . V M>fYA Q, "to cease from practising rules of discipline 1 
(406, 2). 

Joe. VI "to find the vision of God or the like too awful to 
be borne" (373,2). 

Sc. VIII "to form a thought in the mind" (331,8 foil.). 

ic . JJifi, "fortress" (265, 3). According to Lane, this meaning 
is of doubtful authority. 

, with ace. and [y>, "to know (distinguish) one person 
from another" (159,20). 

*iJL*Jo , "a means of livelihood on which one can 

o - 

reckon" (326, 6 ; 419, 13, 15). Such ol^JL*-x> are in 
consistent with real trust in God (tawakkul). Cf. 
Richard Hartmann, Das Sufitum nach al-Kuschairt, 
pp. 29 and 110. 


T., ; opposed to ^joj-^L^J.j nthe Stiffs of the lowest 
grade, the novices who have not yet entered upon the 
mystical stations and states " (46,4; 70,16, etc.). 

Ou kglc cJui, "his hand festered" (304. 10). The same 

phraae ig used by Abulfeda, Annales Muslemici, vol. Ill, 
p. 420, 1. 16 (cf. Freytag under Jw-c) in reference to 
an Ami r who was wounded in the hand by an arrow 
and died of blood-poisoning. X with ace. of y^r^n and 
^, of God) "to cause any one to be occupied with 

actions of a certain kind, to predestine any one to do 
good or evil" (26, 19, where w must be understood after 

^ jc; 38,18; 392,17). 

, "blind" (255,6). 


^ . V "to become strange or extraordinary" (247, 10). 
~.i JJb, a foreign country" (192,21). 

O-- . o > 

r. . VIII ^sJow, <c a source of inspiration" (381,2). 
. J- . II "to plunge any one in ecstasy" (381, 8). 


^c, a term denoting absorption in ecstasy (381,9). 

lx3tf, "erotic poems" (419,21). 
., "bleached" (187,13). See Dozy. 

^ic.. II with ace. and ,ji, "to conceal any thing from awy 
one" (290,21). 

^. i^c, "senselessness caused by ecstasy" (311,5). 


^Uc, o/* a mystical saying, "abysses, profundities" 



i 4 6 

X with ^JJ, "to implore the help of God" (173,12; 
184, 16). 

o - 

yi, of mystical language^ "depth, profundity" (381,1). 
L^lli, "absence" (387,16,17; 388,16 foil.). 
IV and V used in a mystical sense (374, 4, 6). Cf. the 
definition of (373, 16 (foil.). 

:^03. o~CJ, "gruel" (183, 10). 

55 5 o 

X3 . _yi-ftj> Jlc, "the science of mystical revelation" = Siifism 

(18, 16). 
>3. I do not know the meaning of <3_s> in the phrase o_3 

sjj.Lsrj xi/ (146,3; 188,15). 

Kl&>5$i "the Absolute Oneness of God" (348,19). 

^AVO . V "to become disordered in intellect, to lose one s wits" 
(285, 20). 

aJ. V M?^A ace. and vj, "to provide awi/ owe with food" 
(415,4). VIII iw the same sense (415,6). 
mystically = ^ (388,10). 


}J5. YV with ace. of person and U^L>w, "to deliver a greeting 
to any one from (^) any one" (375, 1 1). See Dozy and 
the Glossary to Tabari. 

y ~<& 

j;i. v-jJsJ w/^/t j^JJ, "bringing awy one nearer to God" (142, 6). 


_y>. IV "to fill any one with anguish" (266,15), where the 
verb is parallel to, and apparently synonymous with, 

3 . Of a crude mystical saying, "to adapt for use, to soften 
it in order that it might be communicated to others" 
234,4). The reading, however, is doubtful. 

*3. V of clouds, "to be cleared away" (343,5). 

. V "to practise austerities", used of material as opposed 
to spiritual asceticism (5, 2 ; 56, 1 ; 413, 13 ; 414, 4). 

. V of ecstasy, "to come to an end, to pass away" (310, 15, 16). 

(j-^t , elative of yl5 (120, 12). 
, with ^ of person, "to block any one s path, to prevent 

any one from going on his way" (62, 14). V "to be 
unable to continue one s journey" (189, 21 ; cf. Dozy 
under the seventh conjugation of <r \-t 5). VII "to be 
reduced to silence" (225, 18). X "to make one s self an 
obstacle to any one" (109,11). The tenth conjugation 
does not seem to occur elsewhere except in the sense 
given by Dozy, which is inappropriate here. 

XxLS, "a piece of money, the fare paid to a boatman" 
ja*5 . II of gates that are opened quickly, "to rattle" (267, 5). 

JJLi. V "to eat little, to live frugally" (166,9; 191,17, etc.). 
X "to become capable of doing anything, to find one s 
strength restored" (329,19). 

) s. <;& o Z-Z 

8 V O^ CT* J^ ^i "^ ne ^ ea8 ^ I can ^ * s * see 

? "a professional chanter of poetry, which was gener 
ally erotic in character and was recited for the purpose of 
throwing the hearers into ecstasy" (186, 11; 290, 1; 292, 5). 

-li signifies "to rise to one s feet under the influence 


of ecstasy" (186,15,16); |.U3 is used in the same sense 
(187, 5). 

, "the Sufis" (186,16, etc.). 
s, "diarrhoea" (150,1). 

5 G 

j>, pi. of /*-jl5, "the attendants in a hammdm" 
(147, 18). 

G*. o- 

xyo^xi , "subsistence" (243, 3). 

, "acts of self-mortification" = oL\L^ (415, 14). 
VI yl&dl vlo, "love of amassing riches" (410,3). 
VI with (^Ic , "to throng round any one" (233,16). 
II "to beg" (191,18; 199,15). 

G o _ J 

, "a small fragment or crumb of bread" (205, 16). 
, pi. i*hf t of limbsj "clothed with flesh" (251,4; 

352, 18). 

-O 5 

. "the hidden vices of the soul, the secret feelings 
of the heart" (171,4; 172,22; 296,16). 


(M^-JL^ (242,14) appears to signify "arcana, mysteries". 
The saj c j however, suggests that the true reading may 

be ^U^j, "metaphorical description". 

G o 

^Ju5 , "a bag or satchel used by Sufi s for storing 
small articles" (194, 20 ; 266, 6). According to the Lisdn 
(XI, 221, 10 foil.) the U& is sbl 


>\xJi cbCo &*3 ^^J Jsj^b ^Lcj Lii ^5 

Cy. Jawaliqi under &uU3j and Vullers Persian 
Dictionary under &LuJ: . 

- o- O 

tf . V ^yo seems to bear the same relation to Ux-Lo as j 
to ote (355,8). 

, wse^ as a wown, "nature (?)", 241,19; 363,18. 
*ixJI Lbl^, "subject to change" (365,1). 

^ U $ in verse (255, 13). 
ftt. II vl^l vjlf (37,17). 


^. ^3 is equivalent to 3 f (399, 17). Cf. 398, 5, where B reads 


*$} instead of ^. 

L\J. JuJ, felt" w;orw as a garment by Sufis (188, 19). 
in the text is a mistake. 

O ^ 5 > 

L\J. Ill oUo^U (222,8). Perhaps olk>^x> should be read. 

iiJj. xJuftH oLcJJ (222,2). 
v3jJ. II to delight" (368,7). 

. Ql^vJ feminine (121,18; 411,9). In these passages ^UJ 
is equivalent to ^Lo or .U_c. Cf, also 44,2; 62,18; 
and the definition, 353,19 foil. 


. axy, a subtle or spiritual influence", such as resides 
in music (269,13; 284,13). 

. IV "to cause any one to lick (taste) anything 11 (253, 6 ; 
372, 10). 


i&S . V with ^ , "to receive inspiration from God" (423, 22 ; 
424, 1). 

& . II "to give awy owe a mouthful of food" (184, 6). Cf. 
Dozy tmcfcr IV. 

L<? sJ. IV M>*7A ^J], "to communicate anything to aw/ owe" 
(428, 16). 

U. IV with vj, o/ ecstasy, "to transport" (245,14). 

^J. i^o^U, "gleams, flashes" (239,19). 

c/ c/ _ 

j with jJ] , "taking refuge with, having the utmost 
need of any one" (235, 15). 

J. II with j of person and v_j, "to indicate or signify 
- _. 1 

anything to am/ owe" (244, 7). 
^1. BJLJ veroa^ noww (100,5; 173,7). 


jJ wsed 1 as a negative particle (26,8; 210,11); as a 
equivalent to ^JJ> (387,13 foil.). 
xLl3 (387,13; 390,5). 

lo relative, followed by feminine pronoun (2,7; 11,8; 123, 
19; 257,2); by feminine verb (320, 8,9). 

G 03 

*. xXx>, "enjoyment" (64,7). 
VIII = ^ (39,5; 297,11). 
Ji^ = l5 (396,5). 
"apricots" (199,16 foil.). See Dozy. 

used figuratively in the sense of "to read the Koran 
laboriously and without pleasure" (43, 3). 

, "adepts in Siifism" opposed to 
fj (404,16). 

j,, "in public", opposed to ^JWl , "in private" 
(262, 18). 

Si = "Si, "full" (194,15). See Dozy. 

O - 

"inaccessibility, secluding one s self from society 

(312, 1). 

c5 >o- 

( ^A . LotXlf X * g A , "the ordinary materials of life" such as 
food, clothing, etc. (11,12). 

oy . II with Q, "to cause any one to die (in a mystical sense) 
to anything" (242,4). IV in the same sense (244,8). 

-yo. V "to discern, to distinguish" (311,19). 

.h>. * . X "to elicit by mystical interpretation the hidden meaning 
of the Koran and the Traditions of the Prophet" (4,10; 
6,3; 9,1; 14,14; 81,2, etc.). 

;Jo . VIII with j , "to comply with a command" (230, 9). 
. IV 2lJu|, of a sweet voice, "melodiousness" (269, 17). 

j. II "to draw a deduction" (306,17); III "to come to 
close quarters with, to have actual experience of any 
thing" (15,2,14; 20,6; 75,13; 77,3; 179,17; 358,4; 
369,12; 379,3; 404,3; 422,4). 

G - J 

o^;^, "mystical experiences of a permanent kind" 

(3,19; 78,3; 378,20). xJJLL^ (345,12), "a mystical 
< state that has become lasting". Of. R. Hartmann, Das 
SfifUum nach al-Kuschair^ p. -86, note 2, and p. 88. 

. VIII in a mystical sense, "to enravish the heart" (228, 
12 ; 239, 18). 

&cio . X of spiritual delight (217, 3). 

. (joJJ! *Li\Jf, "that which is absolutely and unquestion 
ably unlawful" (221,14). 

. v ^) "to be intent, to concentrate one s faculties to 

the utmost in prayer" (153, 15). Of. the Glossary to 

^laj. ^fej, "mystical speculation, disputation" (239,12,13). 

G G w J 

jbli, pi. jUai, "one who speculates and disputes on 
mystical subjects (239, 12). 

&xj. IV "to refresh, revive, exhilarate" (106,3); VIII "to 
be refreshed with joy" (303, 4). 


^sj. Ill t0#fc jj-,, "to be averse to anything" (164,10); VI 

o - 

with ^, in the same sense (169,11; 285,7). 
*^3. xliU&ft, <ithe sensual nature" (368,13), 
iaSi. VIII o/" purity, "to be destroyed" (341,2). C/. Dozy. 


t, elative, with J, "making ^n e/ 1 more poignant" 
(261, 16). 
. JsLo, of those who are dumbfounded by fear of God, 


>J. V j, "elegance" (5,2). 
. Ill 8t 3 lu ojpp. ^o B^ (2,14). 

^. X passive, with ^, "to be possessed by ^e thought of 

God" (398,13). ^y^wlt, ^.A^yi (386,7). 
&&. V M>t7A J,, "to plunge into sin" (265,7). 


, "error, mistake, slip" (7,16; 156,11; 393,13; 
410,20; 411,3, where it is opposed to ^>). 
V < i^S ==LL^J , with t^, "to rejoice in contemplation 
of God" (372, 3). 

13 10 or ^cO j>, used for the purpose of calling attention 
or for emphasis (65,18,19; 117,3; 153,19; 159,11; 
171,7; 177,23; 183,11; 325,6; 404,15,21). The phrase 
must be translated in different ways according to the 
context. Cf. the Glossary to Tabari under y. 

Xj-0, "essence or absolute nature of God" (81,13; 
255, 16). 

A>10, "my eye became inflamed" (174,3). 


,010, contrasted with ^10 (349,11). 
10 , explained as meaning (j>jCxM (350, 1). 


V L\^ii AXJ (356, 18). 

. IV See J\ r 

. Ja^, "a waist-belt or girdle", in which money was 
carried (194, 12). 

- \J&&\ X*L, "largeness of nature, generosity of dispos 
ition" (294,18). 

- II w* ^, "to re g ard with suspicion". 

L^Ivj in ritual religion is defined by the author 
(149,4 foil.). It denotes an excessive zeal for what 


is superfluous, (faffiil), leading to the neglect of 
what is obligatory (fartfid.). Cf. 145,14; 148,16. 

G o _ 

(jJj-**5 in the same sense, 149,3; 154,8; 156,11. 
Cf. Dozy under 

G .- _ 

- .- _ G _ 

. Yl J^ofjj opposed to OiAe a<# xjyj* (340, 4, 5). 
. II ^ (210, 16). 

. V m^A j, "to become settled and established in a 
mystical state or station 1 (369, 2). 

, feminine (282,2). 

. X "to bring to completion" (224, 6 : read s r ^iwj 
wl> = tlie adept in Siifism" as opposed to the novice; 

- O - O ) 

385,9: *xcyU*Ji UJt, "the ultimate goal"); "to take 

entire possession of" (343, 3). 

. VI with Ji, of benefits, to ^e bestowed abundantly 
upon any one" (193, 14). 

, "to make an impression on the mind" (342, 18) = _ 
. O/ 1 . Dozy. 

, "detraction, censure" (2,15; 20,8; 
376,17; 393,12). 

. JU%, "protection given by God" (240,18). 
. IV J$ (30, 6 ; 34, 2 ; 81, 16). 



rvv <u. 

IV \ 


i r . 
m < HA 



\yr t 







M.t M.V-i.o ^o-\^ t\.-A"\ iAY <A--vr <Y. oy 
Mor Mil Mn MVi MW MTi Mil MU MIT 

rro ^r\i <nv <r.v <r.i 



n Y 

irv t 



. O i ^\ 

i rv < 





r AI < 







MA- i\Y 

I H < o. 



l^ Jl>;\ 

<rrv <rro <rrt <rrv<n. <r.\ 

nv ^ 




Jlj JWJ\ 


r o"\ i r 

< 1.1 

-. rrr r 




r AI 







^ \ A 





O < 


r . 1 

r. ; 

- < ru < i n < i 



vv. 1 1 

4 *O\ vJL-t c 

\ ^ 








. <r\y <r.i 

TA. t TVV 

.i <i.r-i. . 



C1\ Jc ^ 




ryc t \\. i JU.J 



r AA 


r \ " 



r \v t r . 

\ ^i 



^\ >\ 


rvy * r.A i 

<v.y it., 

. v < r . r < i AI M IA 

i . 




TA1 t \ oe \ 


pjjH Jc 


r . y ( 

TA < 



\ i \ \ ^r 1 1 n-i ry M r 


r . \ i tij* 
r . 

\ V 

cy. <> 



\V-\ IV 






.y <rAo 

vrr ^ 

Ufc Jl>J\ 


\ .i. 



1TA i 1 1V M \ \ 

r n r \ r 


trv < 

r . 


\ 1 . d 

r \ 



MIA Mil Mit MFA MTV MIA M-i <A1 <AV <Yi 
<n M1V MAI MYl-lYi M1Y Mli Mir Moo Mor 

<rry <ru-r\y <r.i <r.t <r.r MU MIY 

rio ^.y <^. \ 



MAI MAt-Ul Mil 

-rr. (T\i <ru r\. 

ti. .- 


^r.y <r.i MIY MU 



ryi < ryo 



. A ^ 




. i\ \o 

rvr ^ i 

\ \0 i A, 



.l M1V MAi-lAI 







n. ^r. 





MAI MAI < lyi MY? 


l\\0 L?. 

<r.y <r. 

YA < in 


rv MT. ;j 

l.V M. 


o < 4 JUP- 



I V-aSJj J 





t -\v ^oo- 

\A\ \. 

r . v 









m < \ 


<rr < IY 

. I < HA 



\ 1 A 

\ . A 

rr. <ru 


\ < oSj a , 


I A- 



\ V i 



t U* (It-ciVcTo 


i IU t \AA 


\A\ i 111 


I VI t 
T . o 




-r.t r.Y 

M\A M\Y \\o 

m t\\* < ur 


r . l t 


r . "i r . o < m \ At < m < i IA < o \ 

. i 



r AY i 


r . v- < t A 


\VA \V. < IT 



rr ^ < iA 

no ar 

n . 


r . . 

in < i- < 

a 1 - 


rii ^r. 

r . . 



PI < 4tt\ JU 




rvv r . A M . 

r n 

r n < n r 


r . v t u 



a 1 - 





oo it5?>-V\ 

IYA ni 

Mil tot <i.1 <1V <u^ 
M1"\ Ml. MAt MA. MV1 MVo MVi MY^ MY 

lAi < IYA 

nv cni <nr 

. t \"U i \o\ < 


r . 

nr MAI 


4^9 i Ju\ Mj iV^i ^ 

j t-V;V\ J.; 


(\) J, J i\. (0 oo,. If il^L^l is the plural of dilj\ (see Dozy), 

either o^vw (cf. Kor. 79, 3) or c^tu, would be possible. () ^^ 



a - LJ 


0) Snppl. in marg. (0 Kor. 17,87. 

f \j u^ 0\ 

JUS flc ^ _ 

J\ ^ ii, 



^lj. J\ (J iJ\ A.\s>\c>\ 

word is almost obliterated. 


Jp Up < ^iU j ^ ti L-L A*5 vilila) 

i u-)^.^alVj ic\ 

J ^ V) - 

:>* JjVsJ < uj\Af.l92?> 


0) \y>Ua. ( r ) Text om. () A*$> . (*) Suppl. in marg. The 

marginal passage reads ^ i^Wc- (J> Joni\ oli^. () (jV*x_j . ("^) ^V^^. 

( A ) UM_^C-. (^) ^Ui^ ^r.. 




\j\ 5 

r- ^j J A-*JL; ^ iclA\\ J\j\ 



iyv V 

J.J ^kbrAf. 

Jp ti^J 

" \* &* 


o r- 

Suppl. in marg. ( r ) 5jL^\. 

Text om. 

J^l \S jJ> 


ii j^\ C^ (j 


< ui\ ^,0 *^ JS (jr^ .oil 



Kor. 8, 23. (0 .ix^j.. 


A, <ji\ 

Jp cu5j jj^ Qj 

j- y 

> <a\ 

j\ JL^ ^ci\ 

iiiV^_j U\ <*~j \ JU 

dili [ \]( f > ^ \ J \y\ V Ci5 

Vklc dili J . 


(0 Kor. 24, 31. (?) Suppl. above. (M Text om. 

ls JVs 

5 V- * 

fr -. .0i 

^ ^b *^ i^r O 

U ^ ^^J ^u 3 C \ ^ 




Kor. o3, 11. 








j. Vc 




O" 4 V^ C (3"* 

"* i 


^ Jc 

is A*aJ\ 
J\ JiailV. JV$ 

.^ \> A-oJ 4.. v i.^ 

(0 Text om. 

i 40.V>V\ C^Wlc i\ UlHfS v_A> 


^Jc JJ jl\ 

> __ i 


V 4il 




.. ii,\U\ 

J,j>(n \ 



u \ u 4\ 4\L> u 

0) Text om. < r )\>. (^) Je> 

Ul\ ^ * 


" s* 

xtt ^ ^$>- W ^*j i 4.-JL 

J*\ UTir^ti t^V "^ 4*0^" 

-* VJ * Uj Cii Ji ^ Jo^ ^ij 


(M Snppl. in marg. (0 r L . (^) Kor. 80, 2732. 


Jp Lj\ 

*. i\ 

& ff*J\J U\J\J 



AX^lJVt LJ\ 





JV, ll^ 

(0 Uaii. (^) Kor. 19,25. (M 

text and J^L is suppl. above, () Suppl. in marg. 

o \ is om. in the 


Lj V.jl^ ^ i^J ^C: \ VoU- cr 6 , 

l u 


(\) Kor. 24, 40. (0 Suppl. above. (^) Suppl. in marg. C 1 ) QJ. 
() Kor. 18, 64, 0) Kor. 7, 142, ( v ) Kor. 18, GQ. ( A ) Kor. 18, 72. 

tr i 



. i 4^ diSi 


CVi^ JW 

1-1 \ 

GG, igw J\a 

^ > - 

J j ^ ac; ^ J > 

U , ^ , i\ L-* ^^ , 1V$ 4j\Af.l86& 

L> , ^\ 

(^) Kor. 25, 64. (0 Kor. 15, 49. (?) Kor. 21, 26. (*-) Kor. 38, 45. 
() Kor. 38, 40. 0) Kor. 38, 44. (Y) Kor. 15, 99. ( A ) Suppl. in 

marg. (^) ^^ written above as a variant. ) J j--_^ - 





. i > j ^. A V. 


cs**^ cr 9 *^J ^-^J ** - r ^ ii ^ O 
< dil j J ialc Ai* dlta 


(\) Suppl. above. (0 Here the text adds: J^\ ^ UjJ\ J^>.\ J. 

Jf these words are genuine, there must be a lacuna in the text. 

< OP f v*y\ 





ci\ jVi 
Jj\ . J <> 

i V. 



Text om. 


J. ak 



i i Vo 



^ .Y\ o 
) O J^ \5j 

j\ U _^5 Jp jjy JU\ 5^5_j J\ J-\J 4_J^ lj dili Jt 

So text, but probably we should read ^v^a* ^ 

it v 


Jlo ti\ J^j ^^ V J* 

vi\U\ U 


cH \ 

, \ 



o \ 

4 _ ,J\ ^fttA* 

VI s __ j\ 

vfiij J C 

A Mfll 

l (3 



V:Vj V, ^ f >- VJ ^ ^ cAs 



r \y \ jrl 




Jc c^-o\Jj 


() So in marg. Text \ 

A, c 

^-^ iJsj i ialc (j ^ di! 3 

u-^ -a- o 




^J > 


The last two letters of 
by conjecture. (M 

( Suppl. in raarg. 
have been cut away in binding and are restored 


\ oA* oy^- ^ 0) V;\T U US 


ac \* J^ * 

V\ oUJ\ d Jy^A\\ -. ^1 4a\ <^ \ J\5 

U J\ ^ A) 

i \ r 

^ x __ ^ 4 ^ s-*^ 


.)A.) oJJ.JtA 4.A^- ^/V^iJl v*)>^ L^-_5 J*&\ OJ\^A \^ oj^al (J"to ^y 

^> > Afl82ct 

^y-^ v ^*^ ^ 4>: 

j L t 

^U Jl\ -\ L 


* Ji 

0) JaM. ( r ) Suppl. in marg. The words <u^ and ^ have been cut 

away in binding and are restored by conjecture. (^) Kor. 6, 161. 

(*) Kor. 39, 13. 

in < u, j\ j U 

diii O-.V ^^ S^-j ic ^1 5yA^ ilj <J 



JAdl JU ^ 

\ M I * " " 


JU <j\ J^ ^J\ a ^ (5/j V- 
1^ cJd\ J ^ U 
V\ j A/US ^ ^ x\^U\\ ^ r U> 

\ .UjAf.1816 

J ^ J 

p U\ 

/u\ v^Jiai t^vu ^Ui3]() gji\ ^ <j 


o r- 

Oey^V (0 J-Juy. (*) ^j,- t 1 )*-.^. Suppl. 

in marg. 

u . 

U U\i 

J\5 Q 

> U J i 

i J rb f- ^u- > J - 


<J,\ 3, ,5JJ 

ft 1 ^l U^>- Uj>- V\ 4jt* Jcsi U 

0) J-Ju. (0 ]i>^L. (?) Cri.A^. (*) C^>x^. ()^.^. 

^ iaVc ,j. jTl> J u-Aj 


; 1 


ajij i^ 4il\ J^-*"j uJ^ viU.A3 jtX^ 


4,1 5 


f . 

.y^ H*"* O" ^" -k > ** Yi ^J Jr^ 

( r ) ^. (^) Suppl. above. 

j \i - 

VJ y\3 ^yL\ Ju^ 

Jp vilJj ^ ^9 V^ ^ 

(^) Oj jyi. (0 Suppl. in marg. ( 

() Text om. from Aj*\ to Uj <d^9_j. The words suppl. in marg. have been 
partially cut away in binding. In marg. ,jVi\ ^j$\ V_j. 0) Jcj^. 


^ \ ^a>.^L J** ^ 4tt 

, v\ 

P- A., ^o Ls\ j^i 

(^) At this point there is a considerable lacuna in the text (A), five whole 
chapters and a portion of a sixth chapter having fallen out. Their titles are 
given in the table of contents at the beginning of the MS. as follows: 
(1) viiii 


(5) ot *- <UC. o c &.* 

j Ttu,^a 

\s \, 




i J^ w j\ ^X ^-^ i/*^ 

i\ jw:\ 

U ^JO, j 
i ^r V^ 31^ J - 

^%> \r 



U, r- 

0) Kor. 23, 110. 



-^_|_jy\ <u-*r ^ ~ 

J\3 Ai 

<^\ V\ J\ ^1 dl^L ^ 

X? ^J t3 ^J ^ v_^^>- Jp 4^ J->P ^ 

. f 

-y0 f? 

4W l\ .-, 

It \ * I I 

..- . U-X\ \o 

V;\ Al ^l i\ V,\ \ U J *. V;\ 


CAd A=. (^) <y^.*\. (^) ^c- written above as variant. (*) Kor. 35, 11, 
\\. 0) Suppl. above. 


|l 4J53. O^ ^y ^^-a i^/XJ^ jW ^J"! 4.LAP- A-l 

e" s~ " 

iC& ^J&j ^y. JS J JVJ 4JU\ a^rlj ^\ Oir! 

y; U r i\\ U]^ 4\ u- 

i JVii 

o & ^/^* O ^^ ^-^J -V^ O 

Sly ^^^ 4j)\ o^O- A O^ Jyi ^ tfj^-^M ^ 4.A& ^^4 U \ 


\i <-VC J AU A. 

U. , Aft ^.3 AJU- \o 

\ \;\ oJ^ 

lj^i ^ U JaP Ja>- di A diU, ot}. 4tt\ dl^ V^ 4ll\ 

\i AU\ c5>- *cS^ ^ oVulV\ ^ AHI\ dlly J AAJ\ r- 

U\ A^J j|Iii\Af.l786 

(^) Here B proceeds (fol. 131a, last line): A ^>( -^a j_j. This passage 
occurs in the chapter entitled ^^ u oj \^ ^j^ J.^ f\\*>j J ^>V ( f l- 119ct > 
penult, in A). (0 Text ora. (^) Snppl. in marg. (*) Suppl. in 

marg. The words \j\ and <\i\ ^o have been cut away in binding and are 
restored by conjecture. () c ^ . 0) AJ . ( Y ) Suppl. above, 

o U ji\ ( 


5 \ di\A. a.., (ji xp- sti 4.0 Uto 

O* 4 

* * 4 


<j^V u ) 


0) A in marg. adds j Juu ^ . (OB om. j\j \ ^ . CO B om. 

() B J V,As. 0) B \jT". ( Y ) B om. 4\JU ^J^T^ii olj- ^ A ^^ 
s* > * 

(^) B adds jTj> ^J. (VO Kor. 58, 8. Kor. has *y> N\. () B fiilj V 

(^) B V,iu\ \i> O^T.? Y ) B (5^^\j. (\A) B adds ^-aU ^J.a ^j. 

Oi) A U>. (r-) AV,y. W AB \k^. (rr) A ^Urt. 

. r 

Vl: f \/\ 

# U; Ji\ \ 1,^^ 
^ Vj^i\ ^ J 
A^J U ^Ju ^( Y) Vj al\ JV5 A5 

^,\ ^) jV *.;\ jJU*^ 

U ^ ij^i Vj^ \^9O J.~,Af.l776 

I iiiyo iX* <ui\ J^- ^,j 


rb A 4/ju O 4p- ( A ) 

JV^^*r-/ . 

f. -f & 

jb *>. ,\ r ,\., V\ L$*\ ^ ( ^ * )i* 2 U ti\ ^WL* \o 

B om. (0 B adds vilU. (^) A }U>. ( l ) A ojy-. () B om. 
\,j. 0)Bj\y. (V)B ^L. ( A )A^-. 0) B VtJc *a\ ^j. 
(^) B om. <li\ ^j ^J\ J\5. (^) B ^. (\0 B om. from >^ to 

*^j W (5j\ ^- ^ The words M^^ 5l t5j^ ^ are suppl. in marg. A. 

(^) The passage beginning fcr 1 ! jVa and ending A) iV^ ^ is omitted in B 
and suppl. in marg. A. Several words have been mutilated by the binder. 

. J 

AiU J\ 

o^ VijSi JVs ^ U Ai 

> 4\ SL 

J\a L L o^V^ j\ ^ > or) - . 

0) Kor. 38, 2032. (0 B orn. (f) B 5_,. (*) A 

(") B j^U. 0) B adds k\ \,. (V) A 51L,. ( A ) B 

0) A J,^3\. (^)B^.. () B \. OOB 

0^) B ^AH ij i^. ( ll ) B adds j_,\i o,. 



*: ,/ 



Jt^j V^^> r AX^ Uw 



JVU 4tU>\ 

0) B om. 

) B 4 lip 

(0 B om. 
() A Jii. 

0) A jib, 

B om. ^^ ^ g^ ] \ J\5 
( y ) B adds ^l 

jl;VC ^ Ji^- 


J ^J ^ A 5 J^ "^ i i J o^.- ^ M ^.-w^ A.\ 

0) B o\i\. (0 B om. (^) B OsW- (l) B VUi \f_,ii 

^iH ^-JV, \U^ jyi\ U^V,. () B ^WJ. 0) B ^^ (V) B csi. 

( A ) B J^. 0) B V,xU;_,. (> ) Unpointed in the MSS. (") A j-^A 
( ( A Jj,. B Jj. Of) B ^\. (>i) B JJJ\. (*") B U. 

<!"*) B ^\. (W) B ^c. (W) AB oa . (t) A o^ uU. 

(f-) B o>s- <n > 





0) B app. yV^l. (0 Kor. 57,21; 62, 4. W 
-j ^\ J\i. (") B om. 0) B }!_,. 

B ,i.J/\. 0) B dl_^. 0-)B 1. (H) B 
) B U\. (^) A &,. B U-. ( (0 ) B ^.i 

Y > B oV.Ji\.\. (A) K Oi-. (*1) B 


(i) B 


B JiU. 

4S\ 4, (1) 

\ V, 

U \ 

If _, 

^\ JV5 

- > ^- 

to-lj J* 




, \il 

J.J, ^ 


0) r> 

) B om. 

B B-r- oU 

0) A om. 

(A) B AS. 0) B < jj. 00 B tfJu. 

() B ju*.^. 

( Y ) B ^J\>. 






>j JJ^ 


B oui. 

() B 

(A) B 

AB o 
AB ^Jy. 

J to jV 
B B U5. 

(^) A 5-X-i and so app. B. iuo is a correction in A. 
B ^\. () B jp. 0) A Jj^\. ( y ) B 

(^) B ^. A \. (^) B 

^) A^Jj^. B 0^\j. O 1 ) AB 

A ^St. (\ Y ) ABcu^. ( u ) A 0111 from 

c. . (^) B \x-. ( r ) A U. (^ ) B 

ilLJJ, f 



\ V\ 




i^^ J>. o v .W a 

0) B om. (0 B 

() B adds 
18, 75. 0) 

(^) B lc . 


^ di^b. (^) B &\jf> 

I 1 ) Kor. 18, 73. ( Y ) Kor. 18, 74. ( A ) Kor. 

(^ ) A 0111. (^) B ^\. (\ r ) AB ^T. 

B adds AM\. 0) A^. ( n ) B J ^.. 

i. (^ B om. 4\ ^- \ \5. 


5 \ 


iiv. c.u , 


tf Jl\ IJ* ^ ( li-( A > U 

^y^\ ^ -A*! s^^ailV, 1L 

0) A om. (V) A L 

from J r ^ to y. 
(\0 B VL (\^) B 

(A) B 
- f. 
\i) B 

0) B ^ . 
B om. ua\ 
0) AB 

(") B om. 
) B om. 

<U1^ Jut ,V . 


4\r^ ^ (7) \ (r) ^ OsJJU ^ 


-) VI 

J^> U 

) ^ j^.;, ^. ; \ vij yu< ir > * "!\ \l, yj jy, 

i, ^ a \ j *^ V\ V;\ 

WV. A,i. 

l a jj ^jjS\ j 

:j V.-J JiU\ 


Jt t^f 

, __ ^t -J_/^i ,i_J *JM iAt Jfxlijj <-<_/> .>. _jU; i 

(\) Kor. 21, 23. (0 AB Oijj)>- ^ B ^ dUj>. I 1 ) Here B 

(fol. 232a, 1. 6) proceeds: -^ j^\ iLi^ J\ ^i^j o \ <J\^ ^V^T j. These words 
form part of the chapter entitled ^^ J\ ^a*j oV::^C <j u-V. and occur 
in A on fol. 105?;, 1. 12. The continuation of the present passage <u\c. uu 
/\ CA^\ occurs in B on fol. 122a, 1. 10. () B ^^U . C 1 ) B J* r . 

(V) B om. (A) A om. (^) B ^ ^. (\") B V^A,. (\\) A V 
(\ r ) B JJ. (\^) B J\5. 0*0 A S^L^^. B 5j U^U. 0) A 
( n ) B ^?. OY) B x^. OA) B U\. 


i. JW U 

^ * 



U ,i\ 4^ 

-r o 

^ _ *-^ 



r ci\J (n 

>\ > V\ 


0) B 


(0 B oin. (^) AB \^. (M B j3^. () B 

(Y) Kor. 49, 12. (A) B adds iV\. 0) The 

(>. are obliterated in B. ) B ^>.? 00 A \J\. 

B L3fe . J . (^) A om. from 

0) B ^V<T^. 
Kor. 9, 30. ( n ) Kor. 5, 21. 


(H) B adds e /j. 

jl . O 1 ) AB 

OY) B U\. 

-~ Jy; tiUl 4tt 




/>u> ^ 

\ j y j\ j\yl\ ^L \j y> <;\ Uj 

4.^, Jlij.) V.\ U\J U** ^.1 dil JS. 4.^i. ^. v_jl^>j Vt (J,ViJ 

Vc <i^aij ti\J 4ii\ Tcu^i iiA; diuj 1 

i oUi U c 



(\) A <ui,u. (5") Kor. 21, 25. (V B U. ( l ) B oiu. () B o\j 
0) B OJJ ^. (Y) B kj*j 4-Jf J. ( A ) B ji . (^) B 

-) AB iJ**- (U) AB i-- (ir) B ut- (^) The words 

from u*j to Jq\ ^ are obliterated in B. (^) Tlie words from 4a\ to 

U^Vj.; are obliterated in B. (\) B - (U) B 

0V) A^iV,. 



iL ^ di^ j 

Lc 4.Ac j \ dil 

U c^jV- 

\ \ \i r -> ^* \ - *\" s* >" ** -> 
j, u;-xn j.^. 3 jU- ^^6 V^ ^^ Jfc j^j A.--XS 4.^ ^ Sj 

V;\ V5 i ^ ^ 4 J., A V5 U 

*> . , > . , > . 

4tt \Af.l726 

(M B ^. (OB om. (^) B om. from ^-^J\ ^^ to Vc <LaJj 

A. ^i^ (p. ?1l, 1. 1). Tlie following words \jffu ^V\ o^^i? ^^ are the 
beginning of B fol. 230?>. ( l ) A 4$^ Vs. () A 4^VL> , 0) A iVf^V. , 
( Y ) Kor. 2, 246, 


Jlo Jj dilJu j\^a y> c5 Ji\ 


^Uj ^.Ui ^\ ^ ^ 

\i a^ 


P C1-. O ^J^ Ic-V).^ TtU^iu 

(\) B Jx^. ( r ) B di oxi^. B om. () B ^iJ J.S. 

() B o/i Jo.. 0) B o^Vi Jc>. ( Y ) B a ., (A) A JU. 

(^) The words <iA Ji:^ are obliterated in B. (^) B Jy ( u ) Kor. 

41, 10. (\0 B ^J. (^) A l r . (^) A V^lc. (\) A 
( n ) A oin. ( w ) Obliterated in B. 


-^cJ /-\ 

.y\ & } -u\ -. 


Cr j \j "-! Cr j o^-^^ Wi*^ 1 ^ 4;Vj (A) j tV^i .\ 

Jii\\ (j 1 * Ji11 Jis_j ciiii -Xu u-iiil Jii_j ^ Jp Jis iLss- diiij 
^ J J > i U \jb Ji\ 

^JM J AD vfiJj ^ -^\j **Vj ov^ ^^ <up i-^ c^*^ 

A ju j<>i, 

Jp oJ^\ 01\ 

0) AB ti\a. ( r ) B jAj. (f) A om. from ^ to &>. t 1 ) B^U\i\. 

() A J$. 0) B _Ao. ( Y ) A om. Mlii\ ^ ^. ( A ) P. o\x. 

0) B om. jiii\ J. H-) Illegible in B. ( u ) B om. 00 A ^i, 
0?) A *Ac. (^) B (V . ^, (^) B om. .AiA. U. 


4W dJjj 

k O> 

JJi J>\ 


ij^\ J\5 ^ 




A .Vo corr. by later hand. ( r ) B om. (^) B oU\. 

() B 

0) B om. from o^ to ^Ji>. (Y) B 

1 ) B om. JW ,uj^ ^-. ) B om. 

( A ) B adds 

A om. 

SjWJl ^ 4.1 u, U 

o . ^l ^ o" > tf ^<""" 

* **** 



j s^UVV, JkV, ,/> j 

(^) Suppl. in A. B om. (0 B adds ^iV.^. (^) B ^15. (M AB 
() A A^W. B 4^>.\4-. 0) A -G^. B ^ V y. (Y) B app. 

( A ) B om. from j^ to ^. (^) B J\j>. (\0 A ^\ with 

written above. 0*) A Li . (\ r ) B om. 0?) B om. from 

Vi to mi\ ^ 

&^e Jl> 

n > it 

j? ( 

JL iViS^ 




I i^ 

V* ^jl Juid 






(\) B A.W^I. ( r ) So AB. () A 
() B dili\. 0) B *\. (Y) B 

00 A V. B ^. 0\) B di\U. 

to ^ ^ J . (\^) A U 

B <i. (\A) B^.^. 

Kor. 17, 14. 

B app. 

( A ) B 

) B o^ Ji. 
0) P, V. 
) B -. 

B o^U. 

(^ B om. 

om. from 



ill jjj&f. ^ j jAdl JU j^ <^.j^\ j . 

0^ (0) (3^ ^ 
\ M^ \J\3 * V;\ (5a>\ (5>\ ! V,\ 

I i 



^ Jj^ 5 > i> villi Jl 

U \ 4J \1\ 

\) A ^ ji\ with ^\\ written above. (0 B <u. (^) A om. (M B 

ex=j. () B adds oUY\ ola. ("0 B A^\. (Y) B 

A OvUM. B jV>M. (t) B li\. 00 B om. (U) B 

B diii jTj. 0?) B adds ^VW4\. (\i) Bom. uj\ ^, ^\ 

B Ui^ .. (^) B AL-. Y ) B 

lt J\ 

b \i\ 


J\5 ^ 

i^ 4il 



(^) B o. ( f ) B 4lU (^) B ^,. (M B J^ JP. () B >J*> r 
0) B om. (V) B adds ^U ^ j. (A) B A^. (^) B ^\. 

00 B Aii*. (\\) A om. J\3. (^) A o^. (^) B o^o. 

(^) B J)^V\. (\) AB ^>1?- 01) B V" (W) B adds L^ 

\. O A ) B v> ,. (^) B ^aiU. (rO AB tf jj\ but in A 

is written above. ( r ^) B AJ. 

Ito 4il\ 

K " \ v- 
4j \->^ Oj -*U 

(^) v - 

-W U S 


tdSU VA \ ^ 


>j U 3JL3>- Jp JA. ^-^j^ c^-Jj (5**- 

v lis *jlu.\ U j J* V\ sj^\ Jk < 

v. Cu < 

i ay. ^a 

U\ (5 Ji, ^, \o 
J jy^U^j AtoV^j diUl 

i^ J JU 

i J J /\ di\l\ U 


B 4ij\ J-^. (0 A il\j. (?) B om. (M A om. () B app. 

0) B JVi. (Y) AB J J^. (A) B 0-r J. 0) A 

with g^JL\ written above as a variant. O 1 ) B XaiU^. 0^) B A> 
00 B app. _^L. 

1 ,j.^ o\ii^ 

\^i\ Y\ isxtf? ^.^yS\ Ac. 


(\) B om. (0 B adds 
0) B 3W juj, 4^ JW 
) B ij,. 0) AB 

(^) AB yb. 0) A 
B om. ^C.. (\A) A 


(V) A om. 
(10 A 
H) B U for 

A . . 

. B 

B ora. from 

() B J 
(\) A 

(^) B 
( W ) A 

to Vi 

O > 

j^^i Vc\ 

Vp ^a>. V? ^ 

) *e- U 

o^_ ^ JC. 

\. (\A) B W^. 
( r> ) AB ^Ju\,\. In A 4^Ud\ is written above. ( n ) A 

0) B -YU. (0 B i (^) B ^\ D. I 1 ) B o 

B jjj. 0) B ^. (V) B ^^. ( A ) Bom. ( 

)Bi,. (\\)B\. (^)AOj.. (^)Aom. OM B 




iV\ ic 

i JL, 

0) B 

00 A om. 

B ,S4, 


f >J\ 
-U U 

y \ 


B adds V/J ^ Jc. (^) B ^^ i^A\\ J U\ 

(M B J U\. () B lii^J. 0) B 

. 0) B om. 
B oi c>. 

c_j to 
Kor. 18, 109. 

Bt<; t -,\ V\. 





^ O^ ^ f 


l > L lc\ U >J _P J\5 c5\ S\ y.jAf.1676 

il\ Ac 

B adds ^- < r 

() B y,_,. (1) B om. (Y) B 
(>) A^^. B a\ {J ^-. 0) B 
(**) B Jc. (*) B 

) B 

. (A) B 

( l ) B Uy. 

. (">) B JoL 

* ^ fte- 


v. oW 




j LA5 

) B om. (0 B oin. 4a\ ^^ ^ j\3. (^) B O j1> Jr>. I 1 ) B ^\. 
B o/3 J:> J\3j. (^) Kor. 18, 65. A Jut. ( Y ) B i<- J .\\. ( A ) B adds 
<Uc j,-^. (^) Kor. 18, 65. 00 B o Aic-as-^. 00 B <Jc 

00 B Uc. (^) B \*j. 0*0 B J,^. (\) A om. 

(^) B ^ 43^5. OY) Kor. 5, 71. 

>~ ^ < v^x 

J V r) V- 

4-15 Jc ^ U J^- jk;. L Jo.j <5y \J\Af.l666 
.9 Jp ix^x* J^!^^- 6 JtA*^ V^ f*^-^ ^ ^ J ^^ 


\i\il\ it^ 

c VY^*) 

B jij. ( B J. B * ^. B 

B JuJ. 0) BdiijTj. (V) B ^ iU\. (A) B U. (^) B ./ 

00 B -ulJ^^ oiU. 00 A ^. m A 4iU. (^) A 

(^) B ^\. (\) Kor. 12, 76. 0~l) B /3 > J . 

OY) Kor. 43, 31. OA) Kor. 17, 22. (\^) A . (r) B 

t ~il~, 


il I ,j\ diii O^j (AiJtj ijVAe. 

y ii>t \i\ ^bl J\i 

l\ J\5 t 

;* U ;j . 

S^^S ^^^ <-**^> (0*t Vj 



J ^V^ ^j ^V, ^ V*- \i\ \^ ^JalJ, ^VxI^U^) 

0) B oW^i. (0 A i 

(^ A s-JL^. B om. () B S. 
this and the following verse. ( A ) A 
(\\) A Jail. 00 B 

(\) B t 

. B i^LJL-. () AB 

0) A Jo. B bus. ( Y ) B om. 
( 1 ) A o^k-., . 00 A ojf^. 
B >U. (\i) AB <^U. 

r, j 


Go-) V 


- (5 Jl\ 

0) B >j5^. ( r ) Kor. 53, 11. P) AB Ji. . () B om. 

() In B the third verse precedes the second. 0) B ^Ji>_^^>\ (j <it- AJO. . 

( Y ) B app. 4\5J. (A) B^>-^1 U ^li <\. (^) B ^^. 00 A U-. 
B Lp. (^) B JiU\. (\0 B y^. 0*) B Ac^i. O 
(\) A i*UJL^. B A*ioi^. (^) B i<4i ^. (\Y) 

\ L. V 

s " 

\i "^ 

Jp Si \i\ 


(\) B adds Ji\5i\. (0 B om. this verse. (^) B 
() B >,,^. 0) A d\\. ( Y ) A o^. 

0) B om. (\0 B j.\j;. 0\) B dli^. (\ r ) B 
0*0 B o/i Jt>. (\) Kor. 83, 14. (H) A om. 

(\A) B .j,. 0^) B ^\. (r-) B JU. (r\) B 

(^) B \ e . (ri) B om. \5 <?\. (r o ) B o. 

. I 1 ) B 
B (5-r i\ 
. 0^)A 
OY) A 5 

(rr) A 

( n ) B JW 

v\ t 

sliU J\ .lil J\ iilC- ^ * S^ll J. 

V ^ ^ 4.^j (i) jyl\ jJ ( ^ JU 

r \ 

JU io 

0) Perhaps 5yb\Jai\. Cf. p. ^^, 1. \Y. ( r ) A <ui^ with ^li written 

above. (^) A te. B adds ^^U. (M B om. () A JU. B o * ^ 

JyAlT ii\/3. 0)Aoy. (Y) B orn. ^ U* j. (A) B ^3 . 

(^) B j^y\ > y \. (\) B Uy_,. (^) B J\5. 00 A trans 

poses the two hemistichs of this verse. 0^) B V^.- . O 1 ) AB 
(\) B \^. (\-\) A . OY) B 

4.)\ 4JG\ 4^ 9-UMJjl 

JU <;\ 



us j* 

) JVi 

J\j\ i^\^ 

r \ 

U l JU^ J\i 

U, ^.L^yi j > 


(M AB j,\o. Cf. p. ri, 1. 1Y. (OBj^j^. (^)Bom. (M 

() B jf.\ for ^u f ^. 0) B \i^. (V) A ^\. (A) B 

C 1 ) A has AX* with v written above. 00 B <ui\ J&. ( n ) B 

(^ r ) B J..\J\\ J\3. (^) It is not clear how the following words should 

be pointed. B has ^dJJt jT ^ VJfT J. jC. (^) B^. 0) Kor. 6, 7. 

(H) B om. from Uy.\, to ^UVl. (\V) A ^ A^ . B ^bi. (\A) B om. 
lift J. In marg. B *z. 

Jy-^> Jj\ 



^i *~j 

Y ) Jj\ .11^ 

,^ (3> 




0) B A 4 V^. (0 B f "iJ\ ^lc. (^) B c*i.X^. ( l ) B 

^J\ 4.Jfc. () B om. 0) Kor. 20,43. ( Y ) AB ^V. . ( A ) B ^. 
0) B Jt>_5js>. (^ ) Kor. 20, 40. 0\) A ^.5. 00 Kor. 6,87. 

0*) Kor. 22, 74. 0*0 B j^\^\ y \. (\) B i\J\. (H) A 
B ^A^i. (^ Y ) B J*^. (\ A ) A ^b J\. (^) B 

( r ) B iU^.. ( n ) B J\5. ( rr ) B om. B adds app. d))j> ^* J. 


- OP-? * 
-e > -* 



y. -* ^J^j 





0) B V/^Vo. (0 AB ^Jj*. (^) B l, ( J. I 1 ) B om. () B <C^. 
A t^j. ( Y ) A om. this verse. ( A ) A <wL;. (^) B j: . 

) B U><\. ( v -0 B ,-,. (^ r ) A U,. (^) A K^,. (^) B \\3,. 

B ^jatf. y B ^4\ai. (\ Y ) B V^s-. (\ A ) A JaP. 

a, JUi 

: U\ J\S 

7*i * ^U* 



) B >^^ *a 
A j*. B om. 


B ^i,t. 

AB U. 

0) B 


B S. 

(Y) B 

) B 

.l B 
A \i. 

\) B ^,Jc>. 

Kor. 10, 59. 



V- ^* Sj^ 


(\) A Jji\. (H B J*-. (?) B om. (M A ^^. () B ^. 
(1) B jj>. (Y) B \^. (A) B ^^1. 0) B J^ j^. 

00 B a-\^ ^. 0\) B Al. (\0 Kor. 17,82. 0?) B oA- 
AB app. .Uju,. (^) AB ^, 

3\t ^(^ Jc 

JV; , 

0)3^4. (0 B <JW. (^) A ^b. WB. jVi,. (o) Here A 
lias in marg. some words which have been partly cut away: ^ki ^ 

-^6] f y JV^ i.\U[-V^ ^]. (^) B^\. (V) A *. (A) A 
B om. from o ^ to ^V^ ^. (I ) B Je^jF-. (\1) A 

Bu Jj. (^)Bom. O^Aob^^^- 
A adds <**j> j jst. (\Y) A-fiii . (\A) A 

Ba U. (H) B \ \. (rr) A 

rtjj Ai j Jtu ) O\ ui :a rci.U 1 \J\^ o^rJiJU (^ yui 

^ \ * \ 

Ca\ o 


x Af.!G2a 


(\) A om. ^l > I \j>\. (0 E V<Jc. (^ B om. 

() B ^. 0) B om. y=U ^ &jf.. (V) B U. 

W.jf^-O* 5 - )Bdm. (^)B^is.. 00 A f^ (^)ABuo>- 

(^) So AB. (\) A om. (H) A jf\ . (\V) B ^J. ( u ) Kor. 

18,109. (^) B cu^i. ( r> ) Bj^. ( r \) B adds o-J\ \AA. 

(ro B U^. W B J.\j. (ri) B cri.U. (ro) B 

(rv) B ^1 J\>. ( rA ) B adds &\}\. (ri) B 


~ ^ r \ 

j\ ^^ Vi> iU, ^1 Oj^rt 5^ ^.^.V^ iJjV\ 

^ Ju V\ 

,Ji>\ U 

r ^ *^ (t) ^\ <l) a^ oi ^ J V5 J fvJ* 
JAM Jy C\j 

0) B ^\. (H B ^. (^) B ^H.- C 1 ) B om. () B ^ 
0) B J^ pi\\. (Y) B om. from ^ to U ^ . (A) B 

(V A Ju^J^. 00 A \1. 0\) A <u^. (\ r ) It is uncertain 

whether A has AlLi or <^U^. (^) B J.. (^) B app. ^. 

- __ i\ <-i; 

-Xft\ Ixse^Z.? * 4.J > V- yy 

^U JV5 > 





) B J5. (f) B tfj> i\ Oy- ^.. B om. C A 

Kor. 4,9. 0) A Vl^\ altered to \^\. (V) A o-lf. ( A ) V 

i. (^) B iU^. 00 B U. (^\) B Ui. 

J\J \i\j 

<u* O L 

tS^rt y> *!\ 

^\( n ) j\s 


dill, *kij< U 

j,\ J\S 

J J\i *i 

\) A J\c. (0 A ^L^. B ^JVoj. (*) A cJV^. B 

B ^-^-i. () A j^. B Juui. 0) B ^i, . (V) B om. V^ 

^. ( A ) B om. (^) B om. k\ AJJ^. (\-) B ^j^. (\\) B diwi^. 
) B j-J^- 0^) B v. (M)B oW^\^.^U^. (^)A^>^. 
) AB ^ V.. (\Y) A e^. (\A) Kor. 85, 13. 01) B ^,1 

l>^^ ( r- ) A om. (f\) A ^J^ \vitli ^y in marg. as variant. 

A 9 ^. (rv> jj Vc. (rt) B sJl (r) A 


jT\ i-.J*y ^ ^ di; 

ii( l ) V;\ 

* -^ 

I \\ \ \ >"\ \\ \ \ 

L, _ iJu.ii , -^f- <0j\ ir*f * ^XM>- ^^ ^ IAA .j ^ 

*" " s \ " .T << "" > \\ - \ 

(3^ * *J i^ 5 ^ * > ^-*%- l i ^* * 

^ JAsJ\ Jy iL 

0) B om. (0 B LjLJ. (^) B Jj>. (M B J\5. () B om. ^ 
U. 0) B .. (Y) B \^. (A) B Y~JJ. (^) B U 

A i. () B J& ^j J. B 43. B c3 ^jj 

\Io> *+. O 1 ) B oin. 4^ L$-l\ ^ 0) A ^ U^^\ ^.A* "^ _^ _yb_j. 

The missing words have been supplied in marg. but only part of them is 

legible. (H) B . (\Y) A . 

L J,5 


Jy j 

J u\< ( -> v. j\ Sj u 

J V.\ 

0) B om. (H A V<T. 

B r \c J. 0) P, M\ Jc C. 

\ J. 0) A .\i. 00 B OJ 
B \ U,^. 

A diii Jc.^. () B ^xUi\. 

( Y ) Kor. 16,55. (A) B om. 

(^) A om. 00 

i ji\ 

M JW!\ 



^t J[>. i Ala ^>\.^> J JVl 

J All I, 

J\3 AJ 

i^ JU <j\ U 

\i j 

0) B om. (0 B v 

^^i\. 0) B 

) A ^. 00 B 


(*) B 



() A J, 
(A) B adds jxU. 
(\0 ]j om. from 

< JiVilV\ 




(^) B ^V^,. (0 A j\^)\. Cf. p. m , 1. A sitjpra. The following words occur 
on p. ft , 1. r. (^) Kor. 77, 8. (^) B ol^ ^l 3j* (0) B om - (1) B J ^- 
( Y ) B 4iLj. ( A ) B app. ^Ic. 0) B j^a\. ( ) A ^.Jfc with ^ 
written above as a variant. ( u ) Illegible in B. 00 B ^. 0^)B^\J^ 
(^) B J\5. (\) B jW\. (H) B ^ OY) A ^jj. The reading 
of B is doubtful. ( 1A ) U ^L. (^) B dAU. ( r ") B uUj V.. 

( n ) A ^. (fr ) B om. from _uJ\ ^ to JLAl 



0) A V. J\. ( r ) B om. (^) B 
SSas-j. 0) B Ju&. (V) B 
) B om. from 

- (0) A adds 
A Jjo. (^) B J^,. 

to 9-^. J>. u ) B om. from JoV\j to 

( ^ r) A. J^^ji\. A adds J^oj}\ ^-l S\^. d^ 
0*-) A V>. (^) A ^VV ( n ) 

^ cArf 


JAl\\ Jjjdj ^ ^ *^ * ^J 

"\\ " ^ ^ > "* \ \ 

--U23 o^j \ 





0) B ^\ ^\. 
() B om. 0) B 

00 A o. 

s -) A ,0. B om. 

(0 B ^UJ. (^) B \. 

\5. (Y) A om. ( A ) A 

B f>! . OH B ^> 
^) B <u^. 

_ J\j <0 

U \1 

j \ , __ 

s , 



i *tJl C \. 





\j ft**. 

^^ 05 iiV,^ J V. \ *.^ } ^iV\ 

(\) B om. (0 B 

0) B J^. (V) B 

( ) B om. this verse. 

(\M B \i\i. 0) 

A oiJu 

(V A om. () A ^V. 

(A) A 4^%. (^) B Vul 

00 B j^. (^) B ^ 
. (\Y)Bora. V<- J 

(\A) The words from \\3 to <u-v Jcj^ are snppl. in marg. A. (^*) Kor 

13, 39. (r) B ^. (r\) B ^^J. (ro B ^3 for 

(^) A U. B V. ( rl ) So both MSS. 


\ \ 


/\ V\ (V *Jb a "j U 

. JU 4 > J 

V >K 

il ^\ 

o ^ U 

^> 4\ 

, cj^S V;\ J\a 


Jlj_, < (C\J11 


) B om. from J_, to o Vi-. (0 I! om. (f) B j^\ Jl. (*) B jli. 

B j^l. 0) B ji^\. M B j*. W B^^. (t) A om. 

A Ji. () B ,j!-. (^) A A ( t with Jfc snppl. above. 0?) B ^liK 

B J^>- 0) B lj ^ <n) Kor - 5 > ! (W) B V <U) B J\- 
A j.jl\. B lj yi\ ^j. ( r -) B om. from lil to ~0^. 

4U j; ^ A! 4i)\ iVx*) Jlu sa Ju* 4Jll 

V. ^ u-/ r) : 



L. . 

<B\ <^j (r) (Sj.Jr 

C ^J J\; 


( ) B adds tsj\}\. (0 B om. (V B ^U. W B j-y^ . ()B O .. 
("*) B ^.-Xj^H. < v ) B ^ . ( A ) B^yi.1. This saying is explained in 

LMn 5, 308, penult, Cf. Lane under _,_>. (1) B jy-K ) B \>fc . 

() A J^ viJS j$*. oW.% dJb.lyi.\. ( ( B j.X\. ( lf ) B ^ In 

A U has been written above the line by a later hand. 0*0 A ^ . 

0) A __,yj. The reading of B is doubtful. OT> A t?iV;_,. ( w ) A J^W. 
B Jo\i. ( u ) A ^.W. B Vx^,. (^) B ,&._). ( r ) A om. this verse. 

^ \ 

J> j 4.i.iwj 

ii\ s^W J U ^1- \l il 


*j i v^UA 3^ 

JuJ\ i.*. , \ 

B ^ . 

(T) A 

^. 0) B 

A ^\3. 00 B 

(^) B om. (^) P, 

( Y ) A JW. (A) A om 

OM B U,. 00 A 

cAsi ^V 

i V; 


\ * 4Jj 


0) AB 

I 4 -) A om. 
(A) A c**-j 
(\H B JW 
(^) B oU 

. A in marg. 
() AB app. 
(^ B adds 
m B 

( r ) B ^ 
0) B A-\ 

(\0 B 4 
(^) A 

A 5 

( Y ) B om. 
( u ) B <^. 

) AB ^. 






O>^ * T 

jjj\on ^ 2^ 


r . 

(\) B 
() B 
(^) B 

(H B om. 
0) Kor. 53, 11. 

(?) A om. 

( Y ) B_U1. 
(^) AB \Jub A\. 
]J Vc. (\) B S\ 

(A) A 
\) A 

Ja\ilY\ J* 

y-Xiu Jp V^w&Uj Ui 

> J (T ) J\s <ul \ 

4 < t o- C- ^ 5? 


>j > 4\ 



0) B J, (H B J,^^ X^^. (^) AB jU. (^ A ^ with 

_j written above. B \jbj. () B ju^\. C 1 ) B ora. ( Y ) AB -AJ] 

ji, but cf. p. , 1.1 supra and the Nafafat al-Uns of Jami, N 22. 
(A) A W. (^ B i^. 00 Boj^\. (\^ AB om. from J\5 

to J^V^. The words are suppl. in marg. A. 00 B 

(^) B oVU^. (^) B U. 


V. YJ * 


>\ 1 jV j\i 

^ V\ 

^ui O u\\ 5, > u/j ^isii j^^ O uii J \>y\ 

V. oUV, l V. 



4. .^ i-X i 4^ ui 

\ J\y\ 


\ ^\y\ ->>y\ v!Lw>- <;a 4^ JS V- u^* 5 . ci ^^ ^**j 
SJo V.^> \j\ <L&)Y\ JAJ, 4 s_j.ji5 J U 

(\) B om. (0 A \j>. (^) B A, Jii^. (M A Vc . The reading 

of B is doubtful. () A <AxJ. 0) B \L\ U \i,\^. ( Y ) A dS Jo^- . 

(A) Bi5J>. (**) B dUo. 00 B ioW!\. (\\) B jtrt. 

t tY 


,\ ,5 Ji\ \ 


i\Jl (A) 


^ r 



Jy *r* J \ 

.,\AJ^ 4^- 4,0 dilj 


A c^JJ but JJG in niarg. ( r ) B il\.\aL-V\^. 

B om. 

( A ) B i\i. (^) B Jes-jjs. <w \. (\ ) Limn xiii, 200,22 has 

Jj\o\ dl . 0) B J\5. ( ir ) B JW. (^) A 5^U\. (\ 
0) B 


J Ul\ Jlo U*?j u axli\ uJjU\\ Jlo- AA& 


A^ ^1\ 

\) B ^. (H A dJuU\- ( 7 ) B \i^. () B ^. B app. 

\ 4i _,^. 0) A^LJiA*. ( Y ) A ^^A. ( A ) T> om. this verse. 

A ^Ui. (^) A om. 0\) A l^,,. (\0 B ^j! . (^) B ... 

B ^. (\) A U,. ( n ) B ^LO Ji\ J\. Y ) B om. 

B om. 

Ui f 





o) B ^ , ^ u >v^\ ^ j Coi\ j l ^ . (n B ^ ^\ u\ J\L O . 

(^) A ^. (i) B ^15\. () B jt. 0) A ^\I\\ 40 J3 \i^. B om. 

from ^j>\ii^ to AJV (V) A ^UJ^ . ( A ) A ^\ j>J**. 

(^) B ^ di^G. (\0 B jjjj.. 0\) B \i\i. (\0 B J^. 

(^) Kor. 2, 246, (^) B \\5. (\) B om. 

( ^ ) A ^o . B uJyo . This verse is cited (unmetrically) in Massignon s edition 
of the Kitdb al-Tawd*ln> p. 138. ( r ) A jja". (") B ^j Jii. ( L ) 15 J^L 
\c^ li\. () B ^VU. ("^) B oyi\. W Here B proceeds (fol. 122, 

1. 10) iy J 1 ! ^Ws J c^^>^ ^^ O>j These words occur in A on fol. 173a, 
last line. The text of the present passage is resumed in B on fol. 191, 1. 4. 
( A ) B oin. 0) A iliVC. 00 A **. 0) B ii^_5(?)_iu.. 

(H) B ^. 

> "O > ^ * > t ^ J> - 

( -r* | Xl* M< *^ 3y>- Vx> v^JL,. *^ ^J,\ * jjild ^-^ 


^ii J\3 ^i5 U\ jC V- 


,. Jo. 

U ji\ J ^ 

,^^ s-^> Jp. J_^ ij-.-X. S^n/^j i *J [ji 

0) B 
() AB 

(^) B 

(0 A U^y. B 
1 ) A *,. () B 
) AB 
(^) B 


( l ) B om. 
!> (^) B ^ 
^) B om. o>U o 
( W ) B rt 

sjUa* -^>^\5 ^^i ^ V\ ^i>. ^ 


u< v ) 

^ 4>l> Jj\ 

0) B _^u. (o A 

) A ^u. () A ^Ui\j. I" 1 ) AB ^J. (Y) B om. (A) B ^ 
(^) The words from \i\ to Ja*i\ Jlo c^^ ^ are suppl. in marg. 
A. A in marg. \^Vs. (^) A in marg. ^. ( u ) Bj,^^. (\H A j<5. 
(^) AB tfA.. (\i) A ^V,. (\) B ^Ji\. (\") A \i. (W) B adds 
( U ) A cul. (^) A W. <r-) A ^J. 

t JW J a,Jl\ f 
(3 j 



0) A <uij5. B ^x^j\. ( r ) AB o^j. ( ? ) B U OAUJ. C 1 ) AB 4.^. 
() B jp*}, j^\. 0) B CX:>,,. ( Y ) A 4^. B oy.j\k- (A) A 

^^Vi^. (^) B ^\UJ. (^-) B ^V.. (U) B ^U^.. (^) B/3. 
0^) B orn. (^) B om. ^U^ <\U1 J. (\) B f U\. (^) B om. 

from dUi <j to A! <ui\ ^V^. ( w ) B J^ j.t- . (^ A ) A ^^U\. 

(^) A U. ( r> ) B oui r from j3 to l. 

J"- J^j -^j ^^ 



\ jf. 

0) B om. CO B j^. 

() A ^xij. 0) B Jii. (V) B om. 

00 A dlys-. B dl_^s-. 0^) A jkL. (^) B 

(^) B Oj ^. OY) A yi. B ^Ji:. (\A) A S 



(A) B 
\) AB 

i. U 


<C X, 




(^) B ^i. (0 B om. (?) B W. W B in marg. 

*>}> ^ > > ^-^ J ^ J^ ^ (0) B ^ b } A 

( Y ) B of* Jc>. ( A ) Kor. 85, 3. 0) A C^ and so throughout this 

definition. )A^. ( n ) B adds ^A\. (^ B ^yi. 

(\?) B 3^1. (^) B b_jil-. 0) B o.x^. ( n ) B pA~ f j c . 

(\V) A pj*. corr. in marg. B om. (^) A ^U\. ( n ) B . 

(T-) B app. ^.. (H) A JJ. B>. ( r O A o /. (r?) A l 





ic 1 : JUhrt 

j\i\ (U) i;y J 

A om. this verse. It occurs in B after the words ^ ^j V/.~i 

(i."\). (0 B j Jol. (^) A U^. B j V.. (M A 

with AlVoi\ in marg. () A CA^\. B >A 0) B om. ( Y ) A \^. 
(A) B J\5^. (^) B ,. 00 A J*V^. 0*) B \s?\. 00 A O U\. 
(^) B o^\. (^) A \,*\*j\. (\) A om._j VcV^. (H) B app. j, 

** cA* 

4JL2>- ;>. jl. A^U- A* 

CO- -t 



() B om. 0) B jVi. . ( Y ) B om. from 

(A) B . (^) Kor. 35, 29. 00 B 

B W. Y ) B ,.. ( u ) A. J^i. B 

Nafafat al-Uns, p. 93, 1. 2 foil. 



to ousx . 
. ^) A om. 

. (^)AW. 
A J*j. B j*j. Cf. 



r \ 

li> JU 


U ^\5^l 

(Y) Jl\ J 

d \a** (3^\ 

J i J Su5l\ ^ o- 

riOJ u-i*^ ^ JVai Jx^iU r-V4 -V (3 

(\) B ^U. (H B om. 4 CJ LU JK (^) B o^U Jr>, (^) Kor. 3, 127. 

( ) A j^\. 0) B ^Ui. ( y ) B om. (A) p, J.^ ^ . 

0) B ^iutt. 00 B <u^, 0\) B ^_P\. 00 Kor. 24, 25. 

Kor. has <u^ y. (^) B J^aii^ . ( U ) A Lr < ^y\. B ^J^W^. 

0) A \j>. (^) B adds ^U. (\V) B U U\. (\A) B . 


,3 ^ 


U. ij*&\0\ "1\O ,_^JLfl)\ . -UM A ^^)JL\\ 4ji^J \o 

" x ii ."^.C 

J\5 <dJJi ^ ;\ JW J\ JW 

(\) B J>u. (0 B app. ^\. (?) A J\ ^ ^ 9 . (t) B om- 

() A ^. The word is partly obliterated in B. ( n O AB JW. ( Y ) B j^)\. 
(A) B ^. (^) B ^. (1 ) B \i/j>. 0) B ^. (\H B ^ ^ 
Jg3i. (^) B ^. (^) A o^Vb. B app. ^.Jfcj. (\) A 5 JoW. 
(H) B ^ d^U. (W) Kor. 50, 36. (\A) B jl^V). (^) So both MSS. 
f f. p. rn, 1. \"\ *egf. (!") Perhaps Jub, but the MSS read as above. 

( n ) The last two letters are obliterated in B. (IT) B sV^U 

SJ? \4 V,\ 1^ U V;\, itf iT^O) -J 


X)^j> I o 



0) IX om. U ^ ^1 ojj,. (0 B on,. (V) A ^ corr . in marg< 

B ^. (t) AB c^*. () AB ^ilj^. (1) AB 

( y ) A ^\,. (A) B jTu. (t) B adds V^,. 00 om. 

^ ^ ^ JU. (I B UU, (H B o/3 J>. (\^) B j^. 

W B ^. (^ ) Kor. 23, 73. B om. ^. 0") B J^ ^. (W) K om . 
from d)]^j to 4. (\A) B JVi JVi. (\t) A om. (r-) B - lU ,\. 

iuj, f>9 ij, 

iiaJl, JLL}, i/lij, 

jei V.\ ^i V.\ S 

0) B om. fU.^ JV^\ O . (0 B j&\-\. (?) B om. I 1 ) A om. 

() AB VS^ ^_j \j> iu CA_J- 0) B jV-ii-V^*,. ( Y ) B 

( A ) A -u*i\. The word is illegible in B. 0) A ,*&\\ v B 

(^) B 



w JV 

J, J, \V. ^ ^-^ 

5 k di 

J\ii ^JW V; 

J\5 A*. j^ 

0) B o^A-ii \Vs. (0 B e.. (^) B *L-. (*) B om. 


A om. from ^S , to <uU. 0) B c-i^i*. ( Y ) B ^\. ( A ) B om. 

i. (>) B ^A^. (^) B J\jji\. 
) B om. p U. ( n ) B OA . 

Y ) Here the text of B breaks off (f. 191a 1. 4) and proceeds j^f. j\ jVs 

(^ *SjLjT ^ ^ l^ a > 1. 18). The words ^-\ d\tu> ^j^>-^ occur in B on 

f. 1096, 1. 2. ( u ) B adds k\ us^ . 

JV3 L o) v,;\ 


r>^\ fa 

t! V* 

T \ 

i \r jy, 


i U 

I vUa^ JVs r 4il\ 


(5-X-,S- \5 

) B 
(^) B 

. ( B ^A,. . 

0) B jii\. (V) B 

(\\) B om. J. 

B 0111. ( l ) By. 

(A) B JJUP^. 
(\ r ) B . 



" J^*i 

Ji j "i, dJJVwi A, jUj ^ JV ? 


jU ^ 

( ) B cm. (f) B Jj\. m B o-lj. (*) B VjdW. () AB 
0) A ^AL B jJi.1. Perhaps jtiil. ( V )B^J. (A) B j^-l. (^B 
00 B om. from (? to jVJ. (") B jji.\. (^0 ]i J^. J 

(^) B (i\. (i) B ^. (>) H ^jy. (H) B ^Vi. <^ v ) B 
l A ) B 0111. l. 



ex- - 


iku- ^ ^ 

> J\ 

I . 

c<Juj J^Vj5Af.l46a 

\ >; > ^\ JW ^T JV; 


t V;\ \j 

0) B om. (0 B JW. (^) A \j>. () B ClJ^. () The 

commentator on Qushayri, 194,18 gives ^ Js^ - as a variant. 0) A JVs. 

(V) B U,. ( A ) B . (^) B L. (VO 

> ^ Jp iJ-^J JVi 4H 

j\i jjjjj i ^JJ Jc iai-j j^ J^ 

i JJV J.U J\>\ 

, Jc iai~i. \j 

J\5 JUJ 



J ^ Af.l45(, 

^) T, adds 

B om. 

) B 

. ( r ) B om. 411 \ 

B ^-. 0) A om. 

00 B ^ff. 
. (^) A 

-fr ] \ JVi. 
( Y ) B 




A J*\ 



JL o^ Ofj 


0) B om. *\j\. (0 B 

) B ^. 0) B 

B i^. 0-) B 

) B om. 
( Y ) B 
B 4cJl. 

(A) B . 

\ j*\ 

. j 

y \ Jj^ JU 





U ^^ 4.1 
\J\ c 

i J\5 (i : ^ 



iA; a \ JVi 


,i I JU *Jj (Si 

(\) A om. from jjU to JT*\: ^. ( r ) B 

(*) B om. dJii l y. () B ^ . 0) B 

(A) B J p-V\. (^) B ^\. Or)A-4i^-, 

(^) A Cr^^JV,. (^) A ^\^\ J. (\) B 
B OuU^\. ( W ) A . 



0) B ^. 
1 ) A jU\. 
) B ^\. 
^) B oA5, 



^t 53 

j \ 

B om. 
( Y ) In A 

00 B 
(\M B 


() A ii). () B ^ . 

is suppl. in marg. before 0- 
. (^) B V^^i. 

(\) A j*-\. (H) B 


^\ j JV5 JV5 j\ 



( A ) B 


vlilj / \ ^ ^ Jy 

(1) B 
O 1 -) B 

\ J\3 


Jtif cd-iJ O^* 1 * i>* CyO. Vili- J-U j\ 

jjt ^ J\ 

(0 B 
() B om 
) B 

0) B 

,_^. W B om. J\5 

0) B V.. (V) B oU/\Y,. (A) B (ja t i . 
(") B J.J. 00 B \ J\i. (^) B li... 
(^) B \i. (W) B i. 



> o A j> ft* 

V. y*o j 
U\ (V 

l) J\i. \ jj* 

J jg&j JA5 



l JVu 


0) BjL^l (OB^l. ( f ) B JiJ\. < l ) B dJJi o^. W A j 
JjS\ cili for ;_, j dAli. 0) B cm. oU_l\ o . (^0 B om. In A 

is written over s)c- <A) B olu (V) B J- (( A 

) B J. (^OAJrfjl (^) B Je.j^. ( (i ) B J,. 

V fir- 

JU o5j 


i 1 


\ - 

0) AB ^,. 

) B oU* 

H B om. () B o 

0) Kor. 40, 62. (Y) B 

B ^. 

B om. . 

A om. ^^> ^3. 

(A) B ^U . 

A \. B . 



a> ,\ Ui Ul V. 





B ^\ &. (0 B U. (^) B Uj. ( l ) B oin. () B 

0) B 5jLi\. ( Y ) B 0/3. ( A ) B-ora. 

0) B ^. (\") B om. ^W^ j. (^) B jC^\ J. (^ r ) B ^ 
(^) B Crv.^- ( vt ) A gives ^U as a variant. 0) B 

W AB oU. ( w ) B om. ^J\ o^. o- 


i * 

JU J^ 

\ V. 

i c/. 
, ^i o/: \ r,*> yf\^ 

j> > ^ ^L 


ii; L, 

() A A. 0") AB tsy. W B om. C 1 ) A f\ . The passage 

beginning ^^J and ending ,v-LJ\ ^Jc * lV^ u>.>_j is suppl. in marg. A. 
() B jp. 0) B ^\ ij^Jo^., ( Y ) A om. "U^ ^. (A) B ,o\j. 

(^) B W. 00 B jo-M. (^) B A,jU (\0 B 5\jo. (\^) B om. 
\5. (^) B adds oi. 0) Kor. 19,25. (H) 

iA Jp 
J Ai, (5 Jl\ 

\ ^U, 



A J*4 



U. (0 B 

0) B <u^:. (Y) A 

8^.. 00 B om. (\ 

(^) Kor. 2, 262. A om. 1^. 

a^Ail dili 

. B om. ( A ) B adds 

^. 00 B 

i JA\ ^ dlli 




(*) B oiii. 
(i) B J^. 
0) B U. 
(^) B 

(0 B om. U\ ^Jc 
() A ^. (1) B 

(*) B Jc-^jt. (") A 

W A 

B om. 

(V) A 

(A) AB jy 
(0 B ,W:\ J 


U\ J y 


-s>^ r 

4fl\ J^-j Jc 


f 5y\p 

^l < 

\) B om. 


A f ^ (Y) A 

(1 ) B bVi. 

B ^. 00 B 



U c 



\ (ri) 


V J^d ** 


(n > 

0) B ^. (HBvUJc. 
0) B ^ J . ( Y ) B o-i 
^j. (^) B ^. 
(\) B jAj. (H) B ^^ 
(r-) A om. (H) B V5. 

( B 
. ( A ) B 

r>b . 

JB^. 0*0 B <Xf. 

) B ^\. ( n ) B tfj. 

B \. (^) B 

L; jl\ J J,*j 
>j > ^ 


Xto 1 - w 

U Af.l406 

t M\ >* C\ "> \ . v A 

\^,-\ m <** * i * \XJ< fl 1 7X^" \ 


B .lJYV ( f ) 35 3 ^ for V . >_,. (^) B om. 

(1) B om - (0) B adds 5 - (1) B adds ^ 



i^Ji\ ^y \i\J oi; Mai- 



(^) B adds Jc>_5j.t.. ( r ) The words from ^\ to * VJu!)\ are suppl. in 
marg. A. (?) A om. I 5 -) A cJW- B o^^- - (0 ) AB oy^^- 

0) B ^.J. (Y) A ^by. B oV^L (A) B ^J^. (^) B om. 

0-) Kor. 50, 34. (^) B io^il\. (\0 B \1. (^) B J3\. 

(^) B AUu. (\) Kor. 34, 3. (\1) B Jc. (\Y) A \3\. (^ A ) AB \^. . 

(^) A U. (r-) B om. 4xWi: "lk^ Jo\,. (r\) A<Ja^. 0"0 A om. 
A ut. (ri) B 4\ ^. 


i_^ 4JU.^4>.^ U*i> - 

4 Ac 

\i V Y > Vrt >\ 

tf j.\ u 


lyi^ ^ ^- ^ to ^ ^- 

b V^ 7 1]\ 



0) B Uc. (0 B v- W B A^-. (M B *1 () B AjjT. 

0) B <. (Y) B <u. ( A ) A AUi with >\iii in marg. as variant. 

B o^jp js- <u and so A in marg. 00 B 
Kor. 2, 2. m B \ i) B 

. ( u ) B adds 
(^) B 

-) B 

(r\) B 



\ ( ) \1 

j 1. Jlj\\ 

ly oLte-j v "-^Vi; ^ **ie A.;Vs dili ^P ^,0 V. UVs (^ 

) <ui\ w==- 5^ *Sj 

B om. 

() B 
(>) A 
(**) A 
< u ) A 

(0 AB (5iV W A 
B ojijii. (V) B C.\cjl. ( A ) B 
(") AB o^i^aui. ( ir ) AB 

^) AB \;\J. (^) B \^. ( A 

) A U. (f ) B .\;i. ( n ) B om. 



^VU 0\U\ V. diii 

(\) A om. (0 B 
0) B om. (V) B <Ju^. 

(^) B ,. (\r) B J. 

x\3 U 


(A) B 

B . 

B \ 


* ^i V. j> 

> J,\ s^Vi\ _,\ iiiLL i 


(\) B V^\. ( r ) B adds <w \ A^. (^) B om. c^Y\ O! . I 1 ) B Jjiil. 

() A j-b. 0) B om. ( v ) //^a, II, 269,28, has jj\. ( A ) A 

B app. 4J^ but the last letter is obliterated. 0) B om. A.. 00 

0)B J\5. OH A U (^) B \. (^) A <u^. 0) B 

(^) B 



, U 

j^io. (0 B I*. 

snppl. in A before J*\. 
from A$>^ to ^ J ;. 00 A 

0^) B ^y\. (\i) B \i\i. 

(\V) B adds lc\ 4a^. 

B *. ( l )Bom. 

(Y) B o\^. ( A ) B 

- (U) B cJ- 
(\) B Ui\. 



U^\ >\ 

() B 

0) B om. 
13 J di 
) B Ui. 


B om. 




(\0 A Afti^. B 
after ^. (\) A 

OA) A U%. B <% 

0) A 


( r ) B . m B fvt \. (*) B ora. 

B om. 0) A ^L JV W . (V) B J\5. 

\. ) B ^. (\\) A AU 

A V^. (^) In A V^lc is suppl. 

B om. ol* . 0V) B 

i U\ 






o 4\ 

js> Ub*- V v \ 

\ a J\5 

4j ^C lj < 

0) AB 

(^) B a , 
(Y) B 
00 B 

*? but A gives *i as a variant. ( r ) A om. ^>j]^\ 

- (^ A jp. () B ,,. 0) AB 

( A ) B om. (t) B V-U. ( B < . (^) B 

B iu. . B .>.. (^) A 

) B , 
. B 


t ^-1 ** 

\i\ Jy, ^ 4 ;\ 4B 
^ J\5 <,\ CA.\ 





^ U 4ii\ <** ( ^ ,v!ii\ ^ : 

i V;\ 

(>) B om. (0 B dili. ( f ) B \Jcj. (*) B U () B 

0) B app. Jj*. (V) B -jytj. (A) B j^ . (t) B 

(*) A J^.jS\. B om. (") A #.. 00 B ta\ for \ 
m B o\yU\,. ( ll > B om. a\ fj a i ti\ JU. 

-j 9j r 

*.\\ >x T-- <r > 
Vl uj9 -sb 

^ * 

i ^ ( } 

^^ ^ 

5\ ^>^ r V5 V^ j>\ d\ j ji \i JU 



lli * 


i J\ 


(^) B om. ( r ) B ^Ao with cu*- Ai written above. (^) A ^.a. 

(^) A om. oL V\ Afl> . () The words from JVij to US are suppl. in 

niarg. A. The copyist states that they were omitted in the original MS. 
A J\?. 0) A om. (V) B ,J,U\ o^- (A) B adds /^ j=- 

(i) A ^\. oo B <u\. on A 4- ^ ir ) B A*M. o^) B 

(^) A oAftU. (\) A Jc. 



\ .*>y\o> ^ J\s \ 
V\ U* 



J\5 eX. A 




A om. 

( ) B om. <al 
. (^) B 

0) B c \\. 



Jb AiV 

0) A \ 
0) B U^. 
A^\ <u>- J . 
0*) B om. 

J U\\. 

(0 B 
( Y ) B 


(^) A J 
( A ) A 
0\) B 

A -l\. 

B om. 


) B L 

. r 



* o " } ^ o ^ o . 

j 5 ^ ^^ 


. Af.l35a 

B om. (0 B J^. (^) A ^>=fj with ^.^ written above. B 

. I 1 ) 7/fyrf, II, 260, 22, has ^,y. () I/nja, ^\^. (1) B 
3_^V ( A )ABpA* a f.Jc.. (^)Bom. dill ^-j ^\ JV5. ) 
Kor. 39, 24. 00 B oi . (^) Kor. 22, 3G. B 

Kor. 4, 45. (\) B 



j ^ Sfi \S\ a^ 

- ^ ,5 

c O 

. V. 

4JJ\ J\i U. Jo-_, 

0) B oin. (0 B ^\ Jc^\ \^ J S. (^) Kor. 18, 47. (^) Kor. 2, 104. 

() A ^1^.^ * y*b. 0) Kor. 24, 39. ( Y ) B adds ex* <m\ J=>^. 

(A) B Ai. 0) Kor. 22, 45. 00 B om. c*- < n ) B ^\. 

(\0 A ^<L. (^) Kor. 22, 36. 0*0 B O f* Js>. (\) Kor. 2, 192. 

(H) B ^. (\ y ) Kor. 18, 47. ( u ) B ^. (\^) B ^. (r-) B \il, . 

(^)B^. ( rr )B t 5^\. (^)ABJ-Ju.. (^)Aom. (r 
(H) B dii. 





J fifc*^ }* J 


B U,Ju 
B om. 
B om. 

(OB oin. 

0)A v^V, 
00 Kor. 57, 21. 

B o 

B U 


(^) B 
() AB ^ 
as a variant, 



j 1 Ju^\ JU 


0) A 

(^) B 

AB Us. 



<W) B j. 

^-V- (1) B 

05. ( A ) A gives ; 

B om. (^) A 

B om. j, J\5. (^) A 
(^) B ^ 


> \2 

^ ^ 


4J\ AJ\ d 


(\) B om. 
0) B *J 
(\0 B om. 
(^ B Ai> 
OY) B 

(0 Kor. 3, 47. 
(Y) B 


(A) B 

B om. from 

to \c\ 

() A U. 

0) B dJ\j>. 

o for <\i\ JuP. 

(^) A om. 


iijl Ji \i Uj w ) J\ ? iij 

B jU-r,. (0 A r ^i)\. (?) A \il. ( l ) A it\ with 

as variant, () B U. 0) B jV.U.Ja; -~*},. See Yaqi it under 
i\,\;>iW. Other readings in J.R.A.K. for 1001, p. 724, note.". ( Y ) B ^-.t". 
( A ) B J J^,. C*) B _^. )Bom. (") A ^iM with j-\ as 

variant, (>0 A JUUV. (^)AiUc. (^) B j^\. ( ( ) B 
(") B U~. <> Y ) B V.. ( u ) B *U JJ. ( n > B ^Vi. 



JuaJJ, iAu-Yl J* V\ cO^> kloUoJ, 


\ ;\ silli 



i u 

) V 

( __ i 


(\) B iai.^. (r) 
0) A ,ji\. (Y) B 
00 A V< B C X 
^\ 4^,. 0^) B 

(^) A 

(^) B 

B adds 
0*0 A 

() B <5jy*. () B om. 
(A ) B A^U,. (^ B ^. 
l . 00 B om. g^l JU 

i. B oi\. 0) B oii. 

J -A, 


JVu Jt>J\ Jc Jj\ f 




0) B om. ( r ) B om. from o 
) A j>^. 0) B j^ JV5. 

0) B^^.\. 

B 45. (^) B om. 



to J_y,. (^) A 
(V) B adds &\}\. 


C 4 -) B y\^ 

.(A) A oj^V 

0\) B J 

0) AB ^ 

(^) B d\ 

*W> J {j3yA>-\ ^jZ>yA>- v_A^j J ^_Jb < 

^ r ) U ji 

gU\W J\5 

(V of- 


* ^^ ^*^ A ~ *^ ^ 


0) B -. (0 B ii\. (^) B Vii\. I 1 ) B om. 

() B om. 0) B ^ \. (Y) B J>V,. ( A ) B ik,. C 1 ) A 5^\ii. 

B ^\^ jt^. (\0 Kor. 57, 21. (^) B om. i\ J\. 00 Kor. 

27, 90. 0^) B tf. (\i) A U,. (\) B V (^) B 
OY) B adds 

, 1L 

0) A om. d 
) A ^u. B 
) B 
) B 

i\ \2 viL 

B adds 


j \) JV5 ti 

O) B om. 
00 B 

(^) B 

) B om. 

( Y ) A 
\) B j. 
B adds \iJu- 

ti\ pL V 
JJ *. 

B U fc \x- 
(A) B V;,> 
\0 A Jo 


So both MSS. 0" ) B om. /^C As <\ V- 




t i_V> j^ >. **t * 

s, J j- \i\ JiU 

\j \i iL- ^-VM, < ai\ 

o^V ^ dili ^ _,\ 

i-xi, >u, J>^i ^ f^^ (A) *; 

(\) B om. (0 B Jr>\^ U 1^. (?) A O^V,. B 

( l ) B ^. () B om. jj^\ AiiVj,,. 0) B om. <\i\ -u-j ^\ J\3. 

( Y ) B ^*c-. ( A ) Kor. 57, 14. 0) The passage beginning Ljj and 

ending laL-j o^ >J (P- ^" ^ ^> 1- !) is suppl. in marg. A. ( ^ ) A om. 

( u ) A J J\is. (\0 B ^L j, ^. 0?) B om. o\ ^. (\M A om. 

r. 25, 28. 

5^1 J\l 


^. 4fl\ 

O \li Jy; \ 

iU JU 

(\) B om. (0 B adds &\}\. (^) B A^L . W B oi*. ()Bj-\. 
0) A om. *j Jj Joj. ( Y ) A om. ( A ) B ^. C 1 ) B om. ly 

D\ ^c. (\-) B o-\9. (^) B J\SJ. (^) ^Mm, VI, 111, 1. Other 

references in JM.A.S. for 1901, p. 740, note 3. ^) A . (^) B V* . 
0) B i,. (H) B \ 

*1 jiU lli Jy., J\ j ayiU-U J\y 

\i\ 4., 





^-^- j ^\A9 J\3 



0) B ^. H B 

Kor. 26, 218. (Y) B om. 

) B V,jW. (M) B_^:. 

) B ^. (^) B adds <\i\ 
M-J. ( n ) B om. U 

><A\ JU 

\5i () B om. 

B V\. CO B k. 


) B j\5ji\. (\A) B om. 
-) B 

y JL 

* j J ^ u 


U Jc dlU 

- 4. .\ 4)1\ 

^) B om. (0 B J^. (^) B jj\. (i-) B l ( J\. () B ^ VA5^. 
A djo\ <uWj as variant. ( Y ) jl*~* V, in I/^/a, II, 259 penult. A in inarg. 
. ^3 tSA^- u* (A ) B J-i- .?- ^^ B J^ ^ *) B and A in marg. ^u*\ . 
) B om. 4\ <^ J ^\ j\5. 00 A diiJ^. B diiJ^. 0*) B y\5. 

o VJi\. 0) A ^.$\ ) with 4.J as a variant for j. B , 

B &>\. (\Y) B ^. (\ A ) B U>.(^) B 


* J\9 j^j \J^ ^ A.^S.; ^ f 1 - 

<J^ ^ ^J\ J\s 

Ju- A^ C^ 

J \j\ J\ 

r AA 

>* t3 *\ 

_^ V - V 

^ \ \ S V \ , \ \ . . t I I \ ( . 

ini, rp. ^-UwV\ ^y dJlO 

A u fl\*r <ui\ 



\) B 45^ ^\. (r) B v. (V) B om. (i) A \^\. B 

B ^^\i ^U. 0) B ^>;0. (Y) B om. <us \ ^-^ >^\ 

A .^. B ^. Of. Aiisdl, 375, 17. (^) A li. (1 ) B 
B U\\. 00 B \ and so A as a variant, 


>-> >-- 



ci\ l3>^ r ) ^ 


Jo ^ 

Aii^J.3 i 


0) B om. oUj s.j js-jj. (0 B AX-\ lfcJo\. (^) B y-V\ ^V, . 

(M B Jijji. () A _,. B om. 0) The passage beginning ^-_j and 

ending ^-ijjU i g suppl. in marg. A but several words have been cut off 
m binding. ( Y ) A ^j. ( A ) B app. gj&\. (^ A /^. The following 
word is almost entirely obliterated in A, and is written in B without dia 
critical points. ) A oj-^.j^- ( U ) B om - ^\ *3~j ^\- (^ r ) Ao^i.) 
and so app. B. (^) A OyU\. (^) B 

Jp ^ 




j>i5 *;v* 



ex, >A\ 

3c\ V\ di 

\ij^ JVs 



\i j^ i 

(^) B om. Jy, ^A\\ ^^c-. ( r ) B J=^\ ^^5. (V-) in B these verses 

are transposed. (M B !>,. () A jix, . A gives ,iL J as a variant 

in marg. 0) A JJL:. (Y) B ^JLj.. (A) B -i^W \, ^V,. 

(^) B >" fji jT^\\^. (I A JW!\. 0) B om. OH 

(^) B U \^ii. (\i) B l. (\) B adds . (H) B 

4tV^ / Ofj t JyO A.J^ U; 4 

VV La* 


4] JVo j^jj, ^3i\ ^ Li c- \j\ 

o^.i JS ^ JaS* 

t Al\ 


(^) B ^J. (0 Kor. 73, 4. (^) B J^. (i) A yUi. () B 
0) B v^^- (Y) B orn. A.V\\ ^j ^\ J\3. (A) A om. 

U. (^) B om. (^) B \^. (^) B om. from As to 




0) A ^,0,, ( r ) A . (^) 13 ^. (i) B 0111. () B 

0) AB ^\ . (V) BdiijjVC. (A) The passage beginning 

and ending dali AJW^* v (jVa is suppl. in marg. A. (^) A 

. (VO B oj^- (U ) A k^. (\0 A -Sj. (\^) AB 

B AoUi. (^) A ^Ji. (^) B iUld. ( w ) B 
A c\. (^) B 5L\. (r-) B -i^. 

U Y) 

\ ii, 


VuiV\ ^.j^ 4., J., 

L V, 

(\) B om. 
() B om. 
0) B 

. (0 A adds o\/V ( ^ B -^ 
B i_v (Y) B om - ^" ^- 

^ U;,j \c3 V\. (\0 B jTi j 
B A^i. 0*) B 4\ f ^Tj. O 
) B o/i .>. ( w ) Kor. 54, 17. 

Kor. 59, 21. (^) B <w \ i^ 
A \. (ft) B om. V^i A\\. (^) B 

) A om - 
Kor - 2, 166. 
0) B om. 

B om. 

Vul= Jo ,3 ujV. 

JU .;\ < 


* p 

a~L>> j> U 

^ ^! * ** vlilaij diAc 

V^ ^ 5U \J\ ^ J\5 *J\ \o 
J^J r^\ v-ix^: <-JC\- V .\ \jj_j 
U c-^tr- 5l.c> Jx .VJll \ -*J ^*9y. ) 

f u i 

r . 

p. 735, note 1. (rr) B ^^. (^) A JU. (ri) A U. (r) B 4 

0) B oin. ( r ) B ^p^. (?) A gives ^9^\ us a variant for O L J \\ . 

(*) A JVW^. () B diu~. 0) B J\ii. (V) A om. (A) B jl ^. 

(^) Kor. 3, 182. 00 B j. (\>) B o . (\0 K or. 17, 88. 

(^) B o-fc. (^) B 


JU o- jj\ on u J. ^ dUi >_, >o ) 

y\s a^T^ < c l 

J\y J^ >< A ) 

Jo ^.t -.^ ^_,V^\\ A, J\kS 

- f \ 

(*) B adds vie o>\ ^. (0 Kor. 5, 118. (f) B Jj-J\ ^.U o .. 

(M B dJli Ji.. () B^ 0) A^.J5. (V) B <!.. (A) B ^-. 
0) Kor. 47, 18. ) Instead of Aj J\ B has \i V. U\ ^ a A<\ \jl\5 

J5\ jit a jj\ dUjH iil J\i. () B om. (0 ]! ora. f . (> f ) B JW. 
(**) Kor. 8, 21. 0) Kor. 5, 86. 01) B \j_f- [. ^\ ^ ^ ^s-\ \J 
j/1 o . . (W) A 0111. ( u )Badcls\il W Illegible in B. (r-)Bom. 
from Ji.._, to oV._,. ( rl ) The name is doubtful. See .ZZMS. for 1901, 

S j a ,^! ^VT 


\ i* V;\ 

Js> S^ 

4 1^1 

J"" ^" I* 4 - ^ j 44J.\_^5 ^ j>-^- C-r 1\J \2 

^ L? 

(^) B om. 4U \ ^-^ ^i\ J\3 . (H u j^J . (V") Kor. 73, 4. (*) B ^ A^^. 
() Kor. 13, 28. ~ 0) Kor. 39, 24. 00 Kor. 22, 36. ( A ) A J^. 

0) Kor. 59, 21. 00 B <uj\ ixio- o . \cA,^I, Wi\c> o\J . 00 Kor. 17,84. 
00 B adds 0:-^ ^ JJ5 - W Kor. 39, 19. O 4 -) B ,5^. 
(^) B om. OY) Kor. 95, 1. B &\. (\*) B om. J_,\ Jil . 
C"0 B f ^J\ J c ^. (H) B J \S J . (T) Here A proceeds: Jc 

/I ^i^9 \y .Xo ^i\ ^^ U\ Jc ^V, Uiaj .^o^Ui Ai 
0"^) Ivor. 4, 45. 

** s" 

( ) B Jj; 

0) A 4^\. 
0*) B . 

>\ v^. 

(0 B ora. (^) B ^ 
) Kor. 57, 21. (A) B 



() B ^ . 

) B Vp . 

A o\., 



4fc\ Jp jjAxi N, 


>^ r^** ^Ir* ^^A 2 ^ 


i\ \? o _> 


^) B adds Jc\ A\\\J. (0 B om. 
B iuU. () B A^l-. 0) B Sj 

(A) B om. <&\ ^ J >ii\ 
. 01) B adds 

B J. (\i) A . B 

A ^W. O y ) B V 

s J? \. 

A ^ki . B ^o. ^>^k.. 

Jo.^ 5ki^. ( Y ) B adds 

B om. (\0 B om. 

(^ r ) A 
A ii\. B 


t d <3 

u- V<f L 



; ttt \ JU 

JJJJ, iaj, ^UJ, y 


1 ^ ki* 

^^ ^ 


B om. (0 B -. (^) B <u\ < 

A . B . ( Y ) Kor. 2, 225. 

W B ^j. () B 
B om. <w \ ^ 



0) B 

K oin. this and the next four verses. (0 A oJuJc. 

) B 

A ,-,*. 

1\.. ( u ) B om. kl <uj\ v 00 B om. 

-/ i> k_/ -^ v> r ^ 

<u)Wtf-. ~M \\3. (^) B Vft\^"\.. 0*0 A om. from <u.t. 5i to Vc Jc>\ 

./ Q lj V i^ _/ < 

or i\ ,j. dl\Vx> ^a but the passage has been suppl. in marg. Cf. Aghdni, IV 
21 foil . ) A -, J\ \\ ( . . ( n ) B \^ J,o . A ^i\9 j Jo . ( w ) A i ^U\ . 

(^) A om. ^) B adds _J\.b *4^ ,-). (^ ) B om. 

xo * x " < x / o " i Ax 1 * 

^. j:>\ o^4\j * &\ j ** *i5^\ J> 

^J^jd -U : r) J V/\ *U 



0) Both verses are cited in Lisdn 13, 127 penult., and the second verse 
ibid., 429, 16. (0 Lisdn has "^ . (^) B j..^ ^^1 . (^ This 

hemistich is partly obliterated in B. () B c^L . 0) B UJ <us\ a.^. 

(Y) B f/i^. ( A )A.J>t- (^B a . OOBJj^l (\\)B A A ^ J . 
(^) B : (3iO- (^) B>\, O 1 ) This verse is the seventh in A. 

A ^< B o-#?. (^) A <vi^*- with u^ written above. O" 1 ) A JVo 

A>\ corr. in marg. ( w ) A J^U. ( u ) A ki. ( n ) In B this and the 
following verse are transposed. ( r ) A JL*\ <j j.Uj. . ( r \ ) A J^.U . B J ^ . 


. ii CLs 



jc\ V. 

"*\ ^ rvi 

3 0) Af.l23a 

-"W \T\- 

U <r ^ UjH a^^ ^ Y > 4a\ l\ U ^ J 

,00 ^ 

(\) B iJbi\. (0 B VioY^. (^) B om. from ^Yl, to fy\ i\\j^. 

(M B om. ^\ <^j ^\ J\3 . () B j&\ ^. . 0) A ^. (Y) B om. 

(A) B om. jV^J J^*V 0) Kor> 30 14 } B i>JL> (U)B AA 

(\ r ) A om. (^) B adds jj^\ iiV, o . (^) B om. from ^ to A*. 

(\) B -^ _^. (H) B Jc A\i\ \ \i. OY) B Vu^o- 
(i A ) B I- ^V 


Uu~ li\ 1 dD- 

4. j^ d., jcd *.U 

\i\ ^ 


Ai \ 


(*) A -iUi Jp. < r ) B om. () B i. - B e . () A ^. 
0) B om. 4\1\ <j-j fp\ J\i. 00 Kor. 51,21. ( A ) Kor. 41, 53. 0) B > o . 
) B ./i J=.. (") B \;jU\j. (n A Jjt. Bjv forjl; jj. 

(?) B OvJV ( (l ) B ^. (*) A \jl\ o l ( n > B jSV. 

(W) A om. (U)B i^\J\j Sjy^\ OsiJiCu- 

\ Jj Jl\ J\5. (f-) Kor. 31,18. (H) 




>- J\S 


0) B om. (OA 
() B ^. 0) A J 

(A) B flistf. (^) B 
(^) B 

\. (*) B J\5 for Jy, O ^T. ( 
( Y ) A om. from sl,Vs J^c-^ to 3U 

AB J,U. (^) B 
. (^) A ^L,. B 



JVa \T^\ ^ji\ ^Ia> Jp JA\\ o 

L,\ JL J\5 

B k~s c--. (0 B -u*. (*) B om. 

as variant. () B ^. (^) B om. )i\ 
(A) B adds tf^U. (^) A AC^ . (^ ) B 

. (\0 B U\. (^) B 

B ora. A with 

\5. ( Y ) A\i. 
( u ) A om. 

>Vs t"Y. 


\ iT\ f uj\ 


j U 

\ i 

(\) B om. (0 B o 

^ ^J ^ J^ 0) B 
WBJLJU. 0) B Jd> 

00 B jiiVi. (^) A Jl. 
OY) B k. OA) A ^j 
^J\. ( r O B \. 

Oi JV5 
u ti j\i 

Oi J\5 jjj 



00 B om. te^b. (\\) B 

B ^W. 0) B N\it. (HJB^j 
) B \^. (r-)B ^. (r\) B 
B ^. (ft) A . 

B om. 

JVU c 

* U \ J>. ( 
\i\ li 





, _ >lt 


The words from <j_j to i-j.Wi\ ^j 
(^) A \j>. (M B adds 
( Y ) B J,. (A) AB AI L.. A gives 
(^) Kor. 6, 96. 0\) B J . 

0?) AB om. 

are snppl. in marg. A. (0 A 
i\. () B om. 0) B ^. 

-L. as a variant. (^) A 
B om. from J\i to J 


0) B om. (0 A A\J. B A\i\ ^ with ^J\ S suppl. in marg. after S. 

(^) B Js^JJ. (-) B J 
(A) B X V 9. 0) B 

(^) B J vi ^. (\H B om. 
(\) A ^^^ f j,l.. (H) A 
( u ) B om. from ^ Jc. to ^ 

^5. 0) A &jj. (Y) A om. 

( ) B y\5 for ^ <^- J ^\ J\5. 

0^) A \^. B \^. (^) B \. 
\V) B adds ^J. A) K or. 18, 1-2. 
( r> ) Kor. 31, 18. 

r~lV i CJ& 


_Ll!< r > 


. ^ J\5 

(\) AB db\3. (0 B om. (?) B Jc^js.. I 1 ) A om. () A A. 
0) A AjiUJ. ( v ) B JL^J. (A) B J5i. 0) B ^ J=>. ( ^ ) B d 

A om. from 
B om. 48 \ <- 
B A* for 

Kor. 35, 1, 

A om. 
(\) B om. 


j^ ju 





3 \o 

0) A 
0) A LL-. 

B ^u 

( A ) B 

AB oUu . 
0) B ^ ji\ 

B adds 

(0 B^. (^) B om. 
B om. from to J\b 

B adds <a\ dJu- J . (H) B J\SJ. (\ Y ) B om. 

. (^)* A -r i2tf. Cf. Kor. 45, 26. (r-) B JVi. 

fr) B 

) V. 
-\ V, J\ii <iJj 

w^ X, vU^ ^ >\ ^U X, ~^\ 

UJ\ ^ iSVili ^i\ JU X, y^ ^ JS-\ 

-Xis i_s\.ivH iil, 

J\ j 

tT **" 00 iUa?- C \ let U 

- O 
<J 1 


Vt 4.! 

(^) B om. ^ ^li . (0 B J^JP. W A \3. (^) A*p\. () B om. 
from ^_jj>o to ^\wj^\. The words *<J ^Jjj which are the last words in B 
fol. 62a are followed on fol. 62& by the words A> viii \p -^^^ ^i-H\ which occur 
in A on fol. 1096, 1. 13 = p. Ti^, I. ? supra. 0) The sentence W\ J\5_, 
*A begins in B on the last line of fol. 131a. The passage beginning V* \ u_j3u 
_-\> and ending ioVCU JW ^_j JuS is repeated in B on fol. 2426, 11. 13 
(Y) B om. (A) B app. A^\ j\. (^) B UV^\\ JW. ) A JL. 

0\) B \, (\0 

\ ^V" fit 

Jc ^ 

^ W 

u j^\ ^ o/ \ b 

^ oj^ ^^ 

^ ^5- 0) Ju\Af.ll9a 

(\) B om. (0 B ^. (?) B J\5. (i) A ^^ . () B Vij. 

0) A adds Ocj . (V) B O P. (A) B om. dJu^ f J ^. (^) B Aa\\=>(tc). 
00 B ^\j. (^) A Js. B app. ^Ju:. (\0 B \jtP. (^) B om. 
i^o^ iS^j .- ^ ) A V^LI Jus with V^.Joa written above as a variant. 

0) B app. o-X^i but the latter half of the word is almost illegible, 

\1 \>.\ 

_fJ\-\ Jl 

_iJi*\S. k AA 


\ V\ 


\ 15 ?- \ dik-\ 

J -VH 


J\ Ji, 

(\) B \. (H A di^,. (?) A ^j;. W B om. () B 

0) B app. oyj. ( Y ) B ^3. ( A ) A o^->-. ( n ) A 

(^ ) B r^jV^ which is also given by A as a variant. 0\) A 

00 Bdli\ \;J, d)L\. (^ AB ^. W B ^^. (\) A 
(H) B v. (\Y) B j^\ 48J,. (^) B 
(^) B (5\i\ instead of <&\ A.J-, 


i3 y 4jj\ co j 

&* J^J (1 

J\3 \y.Jt>- jL*C-j 

U . 

B om. (H B 

00 B 


dllc JUV1 ^ lilJU J\ - 




B \Jut_j. 

0) B J 

B ^\\y. 

) B om. 4 

(*) B om. from J^ to 

\. (V) B om. }^ 

00 B om. <,i j. 

diUl, p 

JV, di;\ ^ 






dil .j\ V.\ 




(0 A 

(V) B dJuJi. (A) B 

\. 00 B U di;\ 

B om. from \J to V. W B om. 

00 B 

B om. 
B dJb 

0>0 B J J\y. A ) B ^\ d 



U i 

ii)VJ\ J 

. U. \i oi^ 0) o 

.U I -V/\ ill : (V) 

J>\ > ^U iiJe i 

4\ I U\ W C *! 

iJ\ U 

0) B U(.. (I" 

() B adds J\5 ^ 


A om. 

B om. 

0) B 
0) A 

(^) B ^. (*) B JL^ J\. 

f. (Y) B adds C. 

00 B . 

B app. 

0) ^ ) C 


\i , 

di. J3 ^ i^ 

? di 






0) B om. (0 A 4c>^*.~~* with ^_& written above. () B 

iljTj. (*) A (j\cA.WU with o^a** as variant, B uv*i^U. () A Jic 
tJ but corr. above. ("^) A gives ^s- w as a variant. 00 B AJ . 

( A ) B om. 
(^) B 

(\ A ) B 



t> ._ ? . 

) It is doubtful whether B 

B J. 

B U JJ d,. 

j \ 

t oV,; V;\ \ ^\ ^ 

t U 

j)\ 4^ U Jc ^i ^Ji\ 4A1 AV/\ ^_lcJ J Jyj, 1^5o- C^>cC- 41) \ 

V\ J\ r- 

0) B y. (0 B om. (*) B ^jU^- ^ A U^. B >\ \c3 

\ \ J. () A . B . 0) B dJUu. (V) B -j. 


(\0 A om. 0^) B om. O ^A" O ^3 dlj\ \Ai. (\ l ) A U 

but VJc ^i- written above. ) B dJu,*J . ( n ) B jut. Y ) B 

Toy <Ui\ 

f \u 

A> V. \ iiLJU U \ &j&\ U 

i> d U V^ iS. c U V ^Urrt ei*, <\ ^ \ J\s 

) j^ a ? 

U J\ V^.U 
(v- ^ c 

) j\y 

* _^ j,\ J\5. (H AB JV^. (?) B v- ^) B ora. 
() The original reading of A seems to liave been \\^Jl\ ^.^^^ujii. ("^) B JV^. 
( Y ) B JA\. (A) B adds jJ^\ ua^. C 1 ) A \*. (\-) B om. from 

^\ to 4\ <^- J o^ t5 Ji jfX ^- (U) ^A- 00 A ^ 


P, V, vli; vL,^^ \i\ * OxUj, ^J^Vas JV\ ^JLs^ 1 _ - 


Jj U 

J dillc ilU J5J dl , \^j 

0) B om. (0 B app. yj . (^) A diVil. B U, . (M A_,yJ\. 

Bapp. ^,j^\. () A ^V^. B viAst^.. Perhaps f\ s . 0) B jJji\. 
( y ) A V^.. (A) A ^ U. (^) B om. from ^^ to yVs di^J . ) A 
oL V^. (") A^iUi. (\T) B ^jM 4\ j^ ^\ J\ <. These words, 

which occur in B on fol. 54a, last line, are followed by the verse UL^J 
{_ V*I? v ^ ; QJ ^\.^ (P- ril, 1. lAftipra). The remainder of B s text to 
the end of fol. 56a corresponds with the text of this edition from p. T , 
1.1 to p. for, 1.4. 0?) This is the beginning of fol. 5G& in B. 

0*0 B>. 0") A \jj. (H) AB ^. (W) A \^. (U) B 

adds <\. (H) B \. 

TOO flrlA-ik ^ ^ fjV*i\ J 

*v- l; ^uc * 

.^ f " c " ^ i * o -E" - ^ . > 

U ^J&*j , A_^\ -\ J5 ^j jj 


s - 

^- \ jU 

instead of Ofc 4\ ^. (0 B ^J. (^) B om. A\ is-j l 5j\ J J\ 
sJic. (^) B W-. A in marg. ^_^ai\ ^awai. J^Tj as a variant. () B om. 

tST S tf* * rf "^ 

(^) A. \.^\. B \.^.\. Cf. Massignon, Tawdsin, 162. V^; \ , orV^\, stands for V/^J \ or 
\f\. ( Y ) A V^U. B V^-U.. ( A ) B l^. (t) A VpJ^. B 
(^ ) B ^JAii. 0\) B VkU. (^ r ) AB o^y. (^) B om. from 
to ojU J>xii . (^) A jCU. 0) A V^Vuo. 


^ >/ O N \ . 

1 ^ ias " ^ (j,^ i 

^) B l"^ A.\_J. ( r ) B om. this and the following verse. (^) B om. 

So both MSS. () B U. C 1 ) Partly obliterated in B. ( Y ) B V^li. 

AB ^,1 (^) AB Vj jC. 00 B \. (\\) AB ^_^^. 

) A JU. (^) B om. dib Jut. OM B ^^. (\) B j,\t. 

) B ^-a.,. ( w ) A ^1 ^, vocalised by a later hand. A ) A ^jk^V.^. 
) B 1^ Uft.. ^0 B . 





0) AB r->. (0 AB Uyt*. (^) B 4j\ <^ J jxii^. 

() B om. 0) A j. (V) A l^. (A) B U. 

is the beginning of B fol. 52b. (\-) B ^. 00 A \3. 
(^) B ^c. (^) B ^,. () B f \. (H) A 

OA) A dio^,. (^) A 

(i) B \. 

This verse 

\0 B <,^. 

W) A V,,,. 


ii3 il^ o ,jj\ Jt t 








0) A vk. B 

(0 B r\t. 

() B \ii\,. C 1 ) Here B proceeds (fol. 5G6, 1): bc._, ^<i> jy\ o \ di 

(A fol. 115&, 5). The present passage is continued in B on fol. 241 ?;, 1. 
(V) B jjLSJJj for <a\ <^ j^\ J\5_,. ( A ) B j/i (^) B Jii, . (\ ) B o ^. 
(\\) B ^3\. (\0 A JLi. (\^) B ^\. (\i) B om. (\) B ^U\ 
^jJi ^ for Jip ^ f . (H) A ^.j. (\V) A B ^^ ^ ^\ \f 

<\, but corr. in marg. A. A ) B om. -uAtf <j , 

JVs *Jic ij\_/ U 

u>- j\ v^n ^;- ^ ^ . 

J\ V. 



0) B ^ AU, U 

( r ) A <u with V^ written above as a variant. (^) B o-A>^. C 1 ) The 
reading of B is doubtful as the beginning of the word is obliterated: the 
last three letters seem to be *Jr,. () B ^jb* *J>j uv^ Oi-^ 93 Alij _j.ft_j. 

0) A ^. (V) B JLIL. ( A ) P> C >. (^) B y-. ( ) Bom. 

(^) B adds Ov^\ Oi^ ft - (W) A j xl> B - l ~ A in marg. 

-^c Uj\5 !Lwbi\, (^) B adds G^, < 
A V\>. (H) AB VWj\. (\Y) A 


-^ t->j V\ 

j\ * j\ ^Ji^ ^\ i, 



0) B 

B , v 

. A p^. 

0) B ^jU. (V) Kor. 26, 62. 

(A) B ,^ l . (^) A Ju>^\. 00 B V^J^. 0\) A ^ \3Jl, 

ljut in niarg. UL and ^aj| as variants. (\ r ) B ^^. (^) B 

>. (\i) B adds Ci\. (\) B V^ ^Vi. (H) A 

jic o * 

^ ^ 

Af 1126 

W) * V 

0) B om. (0 B JJJ^I (^) B om. j\. (^ B om. c^ 

Xjt O! ^ () B <u, . 0) B jl. ( Y ) B om. ^c ^ J-^^ J^- 

( A ) A i5jVi^\ A c >. - ^^ Botl1 tlie text and tlie m eaning of this verse 

are uncertain. (^)B^. ( u ) B &\. (\H B_^. (^)ABU.. 
(^) The original reading in A seems to have been J\^J\. (^) B adds T^\. 
(^^BV^. (^)Bj3_,. (^)Adi^.Bd]Vl (^)B^. ( r )Here 
the text of B breaks off and proceeds u^^j J-aj j^L (B fol. 686, 1 = A fol. 
68&, 10). The present verse occurs in B on fol. 546, 1. ( ri O A ^>jj- 

^5^~Ji xij ,j\ y3 

^ . C 

U , 1J U 

U-"\ * > i 7 - 1 ^ 1 


> ocr 

> X1S \\ <* * T tf- ** 
( j*\ *c>j j~> Jc ^ 

^ ^ d t* 4 *^ 

>\ ->M 

* ^ 

0) AB ji!.. (0 B ^\. (^) A f. 
^U\ OyJ!\. 0) B om. (Y) A om. (A) B V<J. 

B _^\. 00 A ^ (J.LJ for J J,. (\\) A J^. 
(^) A J\. 

0*0 A 

(1) B om. this 



. om. 4 A*J . 

( n ) B Li>\ and om. from V^^ to uy~N- 
( rr ) B ^- ^ r ^ B om. from to 

^ ** 

* \<^ \" " > " * \<^ 

, __ y JuP. L.seP Oj-^9 * ^-ij^ x __ P 


(\) A dU\ Vyj. (0 A app. .iJ. (^) B J^\. ( l ) B ^ 

for O yi\ ^ji^. () B om. 0) B 1 ( Y ) A <^. ( A ) In A 

the first hemistich runs: <u?>\ *->y 3\&>\ djo. 0) B J-_^ JL\-jV\ cAa. 

00 A dl^. (\\) B 15 JL\. 00 B ^, J . 0^ A >J\. (i) A. 
(^) A ^\ for Caj\ ^. (^) B app. ^J^ . OY) A 

( U ) B 

4fl\ A^ 


^. ^, 

JVs <; 

U Aiil jyo i^\ Jcju-\ ^ Jo ^4 
\ Jji^ c^>-\ jA^ < SJa>- J 1 O"* ^*^ b 

B Ov . () A oin. ( B -. ( l ) B om. () The 

__ , 5 

passage beginning j>. \ ^\^ and ending ^J3 ^ A;\ occurs in A at the end 

of the chapter after the words ^_^\ <uA._j. 0) B ( _ r j L i\ (Ju^U). ( Y ) B 0111. 
4a\ 4.4-j ^\ J\5. ( A ) B V^J. 0) B ^V^. ( ^ )B om. from ^ 

to ^Y^. ( u ) B v iV^. (\H B adds c5j\Jl\. (^)A\3. *-) B om. 
(\) B adds 




J r 

^ ( u,\ A, u .jiipj (^ v u 

) B om. ( r ) A 

B +\. 0) B 

B O s.. 00 B <^. 
A . B ^- ^ 

. (^) B , 

(r\) B jjj\ ^J 

B c. (r) B 

. B 

V.V, < 

- V. Vp 

i ^ s - 

J\i Ji\J J 

J i 

n, < ^v\_,_, (A) .Jo a . di\ ,v.5_, ( dJVii_, 



^) Ai.U 1 ! 

A a U. B ^U. ( 
\^ for ^/IU. (r-) B 

^. (rr) B app . **.. 

(H) B . 

A om. ( l ) B 

^. (A) B dh^. 

. (^)SobothMSS. 


J uJy\3 G4j jO ^ < Aoo ^ , lo^iU tab. 



diAc A, jo\ U 

J iVj diy^ diV? 

(\) B A^. (0 B 0j ^JU. (^) B 0!*\5. () B J5. () A . 

B ^k. 0) A Oj ^. B ^\5i*. (Y) A om. ^ y-\. (A) A om. 

(^) A gives i^ di^ as variant. COB dLJ^H, . (\U B ji*) . 

00 B oy. 0V) B om. 0*0 B adds ^\ >\. o \. (\) B^l J Ao. 
j^\. OY) B 

, dl 


. (i) ^ CP^ A, dil 

diU* f ^ J dll^^^ 1 ) dkUU.Af.110a 

Vc Lie (di^U j^ cdiiL^ di. 9>*y ^ ^\ 0) 

P- \ 

(0 B J^^. ( r ) B v^J. (^) B ^vj-p. Here the text of B 

breaks off (fol. 239 a, last line). The following words (B fol. 239 6, 1) are 
i~.aJo Jo\.^ ci ^\j Ajti." y> , which occur in A on fol. 108?>, 2. The present 
passage is continued in B on fol. G2Z, 1. ( 1 ) B *,. () B om. 

0) B 5j U\. ( y ) B ^ . (A) B ^3. (^) A f U\. A Jc. 

(^) The words from ^i^ to ui\ are suppl. in marg. A. A o^J Ci)\^ . 
(\T) A adds JW. (^) A ^.Xo. ( U ) A dl-^^. B dilb^with 

the first // stroked through. 0) B ; \. ( n ) B U. Y ) B adds 
4\ Uo\. O A ) B app. 


pf Jp d 




i5\ Vc 


V, , 


(\) B JbJ^\. (0 This is the last word on B fol. 241a. Fol. 241^ be 

gins with the verse ^U J^ ^^ J>J \^. Vj which occurs in A at fol. 113?>, 5. 
(^) Here begins B fol. 2387;. A vfi, j^ . I 1 ) A dljTi \3\. () B adds 4 . 
C 1 ) B adds uj\ . ( Y ) B iuii\ . (A) B om. from \\*~ j^ to di! ^^V, . 
0)8^^. 00 A Uii-i. (^)A <;^. 00 B app. ^>,. 

(^) B om. 






0) B 
(I ) A 
(^) A 


(0 B Vc 
( y ) B 
v \) B A 
) A 
\A) A 

B om. (*) B 

( A ) B om. . 

00 B 




f t-j 

l^\ ^ 




oi U ^^ ^ < 

i^ks^ JW (5-X^ dUW J, Uc ^jy*^ 1 ) JW 


Jc v U (ji^ ,^-\ 

(0 Here B proceeds (fol. 238 b, 1): iLb- (dl, .j>.) di^ 
y jt. ^V^a^-VV These words occur in the following chapter 
\ jj-Xo J (A fol. 109a, 16). The present passage is continued on 
fol. 239 6, 1. (?) A -w- JLL, . I 1 ) A di\U . () B om. (^) B 
00 B VJfc. ( A ) B Vft,. (^) B a.U\. 00 B ja*j. 

with ^ as a variant, 00 B _,. (^) BdiJc. 0*0 AB 

0) B f y. (H) B JoJ^ ^Vf for o3c>, ciV OY) B 

(\A)- B i. (^) A \. (rO Bdii. 


g> U 


^\ O! -^Ji vJ\J iV - (V> ^ 

u <& } diii ^ AW 



\ B orn. 4a ^ J J5. (H A L,. () B om. M-V j 

l^L<\\. C 1 ) B om. () A 6j^\. 0) B om. Ja^ J\. ( Y ) B adds 

&\}\. (A) A V^-U,^V^. B Uw^r), (^) B ^j. (1 ) A J 

(^) B om. JW 4ii\ ^ \. (^ r ) A Jk*I. Cf. Kor. 81, 4. 0?) A J 

(^) B jUi\. (\) A ^Jc>V\. (H) A ^. OY) A ^V 

( 1A ) B om. ^_Ao. ( n ) Partly obliterated in B. ( r> ) A 

(r\) BdU,. 

\ i 



Jc 0\> . a ^Jt ijy JV5 *i\ >Y\ 

^^" ^ 

. li\ 

(\) B tfjj^. (H B ora. (^) B Ac\. (^ B \\ j3. () A 

0) A om. ^L! jT J^^. (Y) B Vv^j- ( A ) B j\. W A J. 

) A ) t \ ^. (^) A ^*\\ as variant. (\ r ) B ^. 0^) A 
(^) B 

v, iSi 

\ ^ u\ ^ v 

Ji.j dJLo "^ dko j ik. di-L 
i JP i-i-J, il\M\, i 


e i JLW I /) \ ^_-A-4\^ i A 


JJ ) 

di A 5^jll\ \ 


(^ B 

() B J\>. 
J\ii t,\^T. 

(0 B ^ (V) A AUJ^. W B Jp ^ J >. 

0) B om. (V) B ^ii\. (A) B ora. JU. (^ B om. 
(\) B \ ^. 0) AB dW. (\0 B om. from \j 

(^) B . (\i) B 


J\ io- 


J\ j/; ^j -$2\ ,>> 

^ \U- J \ 


0) B 
) B 
) B 
) B 

(0 B om. 
0) B ^ou- 

B t53 C A 

) B for A\i\ < 

. B 

o j\ t^ oV- V j 



V. din- xjj o4 \ t i\ 

U o-*. 


S . + x 

,#j \~*\ a U OVf Jj >-,*), Vv-J J^U V Af.l XJa 

Jj\ j u^ iJ\ 


^- . v tf i u ^ 

(t) A \f.i. ! > 

WMi.mi. \ 4^, rfW J\J. 

n W o; Jirl 4\ JL^.. 0-Mt 0>) it 4ii\i_,. OOis 

J) U,. (It) A jr^. (> I) >j. (11) J, ^. (\V, 

II ^. M> Al! V_,. (f-) A \i,j. (H) I! >%, (ff, A 

I! o,n. <ft) A ^^. (f, |( ,,,,. t# J.. (fl) |! ^ly 

A A\d\. (fA) ]( a for . 4i. (") A ,. B - 

J\ V. o> Jp 

J u^ U , j\^ 

*! o- 

cW J\ 


) Ju^\ J\ 

ji % Jl> J J^; U ,vOll II v ^ 

V\ villi oj 

v\ dlSi 

IJ 4 ^^. (0 B om. ( B U5\. () A om. () B j . 
0) Here B (fol. 1096, 1. 2) has A oVV^\\ ^ ^^ UW- o -o-\. These words 
occur near the end of the oVa\j3\^ oV,^ o\J\ ^V^" (A fol. 147&, 1. 2). The 
continuation of the present passage occurs in B 011 fol. 232a, 1. 6. ( Y ) B ^\ . 
(A) B V^ for I 0)B^J\5. 00 Bv^. (V^B^U.^. 
(^0 B iw^ifc . (^) A in marg. vju.LiKj as a variant. 0*-) A ^J,>o written 
above dVy . 0) A om. from J^ to (^)Bo^. (^ Y ) B ^1^. 
(^) A j\3*. B ^U. (H) 

J ^-jj 

0) B 0111. (H B ^u J\5_,.- (^) A^W. B ^.,5. W A V 

() B ^. 0) A *jj. B ^J- ( Y ) A o^-. ( A ) A ^U.. B 
0)B^. (^) B o^^. ( u )ABj\i.. (^) This passage occurs 

in B supra. See p. T^l, note V. (^) B o^> . (^) B ji^. 

(\) B (>vLai. (^) B _jLai. ( w ) B ^^. A ) A om. from 

^to LJ. ( n ) B 

m a^ J \s\ .Jl^ J.LU 


irt V ^ V. jU-Yl f y J\Sj < *^\\ 
^iil\ J J&W V. J U*V\ 

r \ 

J\5 c^\ (3 

U >i\ u-cH 4, ^ ^ V. 



- f y 

Uc u3\ U 

(\) A ^\. (H B ^ jU. 1 ^ ^W JV5. (^) B JL. W B om. 

() B ^j.)i. C 1 ) B app. JjjWj. ( Y ) Here B inserts the concluding 

words of this chapter from ^\ o-J^\ J dj^>- \* \ty to 

^\^. (A) B ^< NJ U ^J\ ^ J\5j A, Jc ujy-i, 

L/ ..\A <,. C 1 ) A -u^.. The reading of B is doubtful. (^ ) A l &\. 
A \. (\0 A . 


U\ i 

0) B 




B Ji\. 

B om. 

0) B 

(^) B 
(\\) B 




(0 B om. (0 A JL/Vj- ( ^ B ^ . W A T. () B 

0) B<^.. ( Y ) A J^V,. B ^^Vj. ( A ) BjiJ. C 1 ) B 0111. 
to ^\ Oy-. (^ ) B ...VsjJ. The word is partly obliterated. ( 
(\0 B . 

f kj\s.\ uJiUj, JJL\ 


l5\ V;\ 



JVd J.lj5\ J.J 



(\) B L) i^\ J\ JjJ\ Jyo^. (0 B om. W A 
() B cJLj. 0) A \i. B _,:>. ( v ) B adds 

A orig. 4^ but coir, by later hand. 0) A ^- 

(^) A ^3y i\. 00 A om. (\f) AB 

(\) Cf. Kor. 76, 1. (H) B il\jj. OY) B 

(^) A oYV B oL-V\. (r-) B 

(*) B J^JP. 
( A ) B om. 
) B 
\^) B 
A ) B 




^ f jxl\ v^Vi Jc ^ 

^i,J ( l\lal\ o^P 

J 4t^- i* oV 


J\ J 

dii J 

B om. (0 

0) B 

B o^t. ( l ) AB 

(Y) Kor - 35 29> 

B adds 

B has 



00 B 


B di^ for 

B om. 




Jc Ojijl\. JU ^ 

U,j oiJ\ c?^ e>*! jJVki r oiJ\ J 

* * 

411 \ ***j 


5 JU<> Ji\ ^ JL 

(\) B jVi. (0 B ^,. (^) A U with ^written above. B 

( l ) B ^j. () B om. 0) B . (Y) B ^^. (A) B ^ 

C) B adds lfj ^\. 00 Ai5Ji\ ^J\. 0\) B^yjiV,. (\0 A 
0*) B dL^-. (^) B i,l<r. (\) A jT (\1) B J^,. (^Y 
from fjt>j>\ to 




0) B jjj. (0 B ora. (0 A \jb\jiw *il. B appears to read Vk^j,^, but 
the word is indistinct. (0 B *Ju . () B ^^c^ ^L^oA. 0) B AiJiio 
^ A*J. (Y) B ^.AU. (A) B J.U.. (t) B ^.o. (\) Kor. 

05, 2. (^) A Ulj. (\ r ) B <ul^\ . 00 Kor. 30, 39. (\0 B adds 


^ Vs\ cj^U-k J,U\ Ji\ ^V rrt 


J\ ^j \ 

J\5 aW i-^^ 

JV.3 A]\^, J J^i J&j Ait JVaJ 4ll\ 


i J-* l di 

0) A ^^i. (OB om. (^) B V^. (V B Jji\ altered to j\5ji\. 

() B JJ. 0) AB ^^L-,. (V) B ^\ c*-\ j\. W B U ^ j. 
(^) B adds ^j\J\. ) A. Vk r . B W. 0*) A dlU. B diVsi. 

} ^ e ^* 

Of. p. \ A , 1. Y supra, where read dA.W instead of dilv- . (\ r ) B om. -/\ A; b . 
(^) A U\. Boi\. (^) A.B. (\) B D.c.4jj. 

J,\Lu ^v 


) Jo-J JU Z 

JU tfjtf U 

J JV; ^j 



( u > Jl\ JviP ^ 

0) B 

(0 B om. 

B om. J 

00 B adds dllU eu (Kor. 67, 1). ( u ) B om. 00 B J\5 

B V. 

B adds 

B jc. 01) B J\_i. 
fO B om. \i,. 

Jt* . 


B\ J...S. 

\ cJbU-J, J,U\ 




0) B Ckj\ instead of JW <w \ ^ 
B ~\. () B app. . 0) B om. 

42, 52. 0\) B ^j J\5. (\0 A 
(^) B U (^) A ^. B app. ^>. 
. (^) B om. (^) A 

(^) B ^ . 
(Y) B ^ 
00 Kor. 
) B Vi . 

(TO B ^. (r\) B om. 
J. ( ri )Bji9. 

0) B 

B oW" 


-^\ J\3 

i \a 

\S \JU i. 

-j f c ^:W-v^7 *Vu 



Vii.\\ ii 

JA u \J\ 

. (0 B UilL^. (^) B om. ( l ) B^\. ( )B ^. 
(V) B^uiiUw. ( A ) B ,^,l,V\^W-. C 1 ) Kor. 2 274. 

Vl <j t,^ 0j *iWui S. ( u ) B ^j. (\H B 

(^) B VoV\. (\) B om. from \3 to 4=> 

( w ) B B U. OA) B 

0) B JV^. 
00 B adds 
W B Ju 

\ (Y) 


UJ . 

JU U\ i.% V. 

o*j Jp o* 

^ ;(0 ^ e?kv ^ ^ 0) 

i - ^ Q 135" 

U) 4\ <*- < 


( J ) B \Jo\ . ( r ) B om. CO A Cn- ^ with ^^ in marg. as variant. 

() B om. V> ^. /^\. () B 4\. 0) B jT/i. ( Y ) A \i. 

(A) A V^V,. (^) B ^. 0.0 AB OJJ W. (^) A ^. 

(^) B 4.V*. 0^) B ^. (^) B y-. 0) B ^\. (H) A om. 
B proceeds : \i^\ ^ \iii\ \ii\i JA c53i\ ^ii\ ^* 45^ ^ii\ . 

n \ i i^vi j b\*\ uJ^k J>u\ v 

i o 

)^ Jp 

0) B om. JV^ ^^ ^j -fT ] \ JV5. ( r > B Ol . (^) B 3. (*) B om. 
() B iL^U. 0) B 4,1. ^. (V) A Y^Vj. W A ^y. 

0) A . (\0 B . (^) B om. from to JU. (\ r ) A c. 

(") B ,*>j>\. ( u ) B U ^ joy. j Jp. 0) Kor. 2, 196. 

( n ) Kor. 33, 41. A om. from V,Jo\ to ^j>-\ iT ^. (^ B 

A ) Kor. 2, 147. ( n ) A V.^Y^.9. ( r ) AB 

( rr ) B o^Y^. ( r ^) B^S\\,. ( rl ) B J^ ^ ( r ) AB 

(^) B 


0) B om. 
() AB . . 
00 B b c Y\. 
(^) B om. 




JVs \j 

(H A Jl. B jVt. (^) B 

0) B ^ . (Y) A ^. (A) B c, 

( u ) A om. but j\5 suppl. in marg. 




A \i 

nv ^.jff-y\ j k_>\*\ uJiU-ij JA-.U 

i.% v. 




* ) V. 4\ JU^ *\ uJu. JU fl J\ JW 4\ 

Otr^ ^ cP 

\ \ \U \\ "^ IV ) \ 

u^ (OJ^i O" t^"" tJ (3 L).^ (3^^ ^*^ > 5 A-J-A*)^ j.v.n ^JAf.OSi 

\ Jc U\ >\ 

0) A jVjLi^ with ( jViJi.\ in marg. as variant. (H B om. (^) A \j>. 
( i ) B adds tf^aU. () A V/^. 0) B JV^. (Y) B om. from ^^ to 
JJua^l 4\ <?-j v-jybc _^ t \. ( A ) B seems to have Aj>._^\ . The word is partially 
obliterated. 0) B Jj.oV\ &~ ^ p/^\ ^a-X A J_^\. (^) A A^. 

\ ) AB om. \ J^\^ . The words are snppl. in marg. A. r ) B o^-^ , but cf. 
Attar, Tadhkiratu 1-Awliyd, II, GO, 5. 0^) B J. I 11 ) B ^j . 



VJ ci 4 i 

j\ <3U)Af.98a 
l.t ^L 4inU V\ \&jvi* X? 4i*.k9 V\ \ 

^^o ^j? J=> 

0) B om. (r) B <ui\. (^) A app. ,5^. (*) B d)i o /i ^ 

,^. () A ^5\U*. 0) B ^\ ^^. (V) B app. 

(A) B tU^. (^) B j/\. 00 B 5 W ^J\. ( U ) B om. 

^j ^\ JVi. ( B J\5,. 0^) B adds ^\}\. (\ ) B JAJ\. 

>%.\j JAJi\ 

\i\ JU i 


f U > V. 

bljVii Sjl 

^ v __ 

4;^\ ^ 

&j Jlo 

j ~>.\ J\s (r > <j,U\ j 1:~ <,iU-< > \ A; \ 


( 1 ) AB j5^. () B adds ^U\\ ^. 0) B adds ^\ f. ( Y ) B O 

,_ ? U\ . ( A ) B ^^ \ . 0) A JjjU but corr. in marg. ( ^ ) B J 

(^Bl^. (^) B 

B JV5^ J ^Vo. (H) B ^. (\Y) B iU\. (\ A ) B 

B " (r>) A M. ( r \) B A*-. 

<B\ tf-j^ \ 
\i\i i 

B om. (0 B om. JU" iw^ <^ ! 1 \3. (^) B 

iJ *5ji ) 



JW Jj\ y.j r ^\ a . ^Ui\ j pliv JU /\ ^J 4. 

:Vj^ J Jj>l\ y> ,U\ ^ Jj\ J\ii 
V. \=~. L.l\ * a- * U TjSSW tij U 

JU ^ . *, jk: ^ J>J\j J>A\< U ) ^ dili 

V< t; ^-(^ JU 

411\ _^3 Zjjy. S>V\j U 

f * 


4Ji\ ^ ASa>- ^jVtoi >r 

0) B \JLi\. ( r ) B om. (^) Kor. 16, 55. (^ B j. () A \i\ 

\ ^ for f \^M. ^B^j, (Y)ABU. WB^^J^. 

) B JuUbj. (^ ) A om. A=3\-s- * U-j A-JuV* but the words are suppl. 

in marg. 0) B J^i\. 00 B o^.J> for JU ^\. ^) Kor. 

55, 26. 0*0 A om. from f to A.\a.- i.^> . B has ^\ <iaa. i^ ^_jVft>j> r but 

i, has been stroked out, (\) A U. ( n ) B 

-i, J ; u\ ^vs 

U 4g 



-l ^^ Ji 


,\ & 

jS\ JU 

0) B 
() B 
(A) B om. 

<) B om. () A ,^-_,. B v a> j. > H J- 

0) B JVs. ( Y ) B OBI. from ojj to ciVw" \ ti o^- 

4^ g^l J\j. C) B JU. (> ) B om. from jVi 

A_^ . (*0 AB jOu. (^) A jj,.^. (^) B *,. 
B \. (*V) B.,. (*A) B 





-Xla . 

j\ 3>* Cj GJ\ 3>* S J te ^3> f cf ^j A v ^ W 

\i ^V- 

(^) AB l 5Ji\. (0 B om. jV*i di]\ ^, g^ J\5. (^) Kor.3, 16. (*) B adds 
the remainder of the verse: ^Ajjj^\j* [V\] J\ 1 () B j^>_, JP <v!y. 
0) Kor. 2, 130. ( Y ) A ^^s, . In B the word is partly obliterated. 

(A) AB y. (^) B om. 00 B \ jVi\ ^3 U J\y. 0) B U. 

00 B om. from ^liV. to J^V\ J. (^) B is^i^ ^\ ^ J ^ J. 

(^) A ^ui^. (\) B dJLU<i. (H) AB JU. (\Y) B Cu- . 

or Aalio . ( ^) Obliterated in B. 0" ) B o.UV, . (r \ ) A ^ . 

r 1 1 <^v\ j fkj\*\ uJiUk J.U\ 

.3 jjXS j ^ ^Jj % 

> 4 

\ V,\ 


V\ *i\ - ,-^j -^ 

^ Jl\ 

\ _* ^, ^ 4\ 4^^ Ju/\ JVa 

f > U ( ir ) 

f<"J> J 


() Here B resumes (fol. 906,1.1). ( r ) B ,^>j. (^) B om. I 1 ) A 

o~ ^. () B ex, *$ J\S*. 0) B Jo. ( Y ) A j>\ Jo^. ( A ) B J\Si. 
(^) B adds ^ V\ <i\ ^ ^ j^i\ J\u. (1 ) B ^ |r. (\\) B ^~^j. 

00 B \jjb. (^) B ^.Ji*. (^) B ^J,;. 0) B ora. ^1 \\5 

j\o-,. (^) B r^,,. 


. (j,\Jt) 


j^>- ,3 

.J.i\\ V.I 

D V\ ^i-J 

i tl* ^ 

j is 

?^ J\3 


A. .\ 

r i . 

Jl. A-J\ 

.9*3 * 

f. 956 



J> J>. 

^u j* 

1 V\ 

i. -j\ .is IcAf.OSa 

i added in marg. ( r ) ^J. ( 


u c^S\\ ^V-5" r.A 

U vju, 


\ s 

j, IJ .U\ ay. Jf \ 

L ^-J\!U\ ^^ CL-.^ 5jJ> diij ^ ^^ J.^ ) ^_5jVl\ ijjVs 

UU1\ j3aJ\ \j\ lc-X 


V\ dll^ ^ ^ SJc .5 ^1 J, ^ 

4. ,\ JW 411 \ 
411 \ ^^j ^ljVv-Jl ^.j\ J JliJ I^MIVKU ^JC dJlX^jj ^J.; J\AJ.l\ ^i 

iLJb- jP Jx-j <0\S^l\ j Aly^Ju ^ .\i!l (i) Af.946 


Suppl. above. (0 V< (*) \i. W U\\. 

r . y 


U JrW <ui \ A.^ 

Li ^ J^, V. 




-^ c (J^ 1 

Jx, ^. 

Ail ^Vj 

Aftj A^>-j Ja5j (J,ViJ 

O vc y ^ V 

a: \ 

(\) A^-. ( r ) c^Jj^- 

() Snppl, in marg. C 1 ) 

in marg. (N ,iy 



U J- \ 

. JL\ 


(0 Kor. 11,121. (^) Suppl. in marg. (*) Text om, 






4tt\ ^Pj (5jVp^\ J& U 


Jo j ( j 

J l 




0) Text om. (0 


AAc VJl 

r . i 

j..j AJ u k-^Aii ujfc^n. ^ ji>\j 

-t Vv-,\ ^ V iKi l ^5 \ it U 

ju 4\ <^ 

.,i( l ) JU U 


0) <dV~J. (0 jL\ . (^) Suppl. above. (*) \j>. () Pj 

\ = 

. * 

U\ ^ f \S 
JuJ dJJ\ v-j-te U JVai 

4U \ A^J ( 

4il\ A^ 
1 \ 


411 \ 

~ 4,; o_ 

VA c^*^j i jj.. *^* j.* i- 


(0 \i. (^) Suppl. above. ( l ) So the MS. Perhaps 

p . 

r <ui\ A^J jV- o , ^ JU 


\ JuP 

J>\ U V\ 

0) Text om. 


r - r 

3o-\> V* Us Jc J v. jU 4. A dS/u A*y\ jU jOOj A.y\ di/uAf.916 

-* -X** 


r . i 


2 J\i *Ui i ^^ 


1 \ 4.^ j^\ J\3 

J u-j^ 



j -^ ^-^ cA y-* 5 ?" u^*J 




Text om 



^ vfi 

JVs 4J 

^ o-JO U 

TTj O 


j JL J, UU iJls \a 






iXl U 


(0 Suppl. in marg. 




Jo &i\ ^-XiP-U 4.Ac jxlc- 9 <^j J>j r^^>i 4il\ jW V. JU 

4)1\ AS- \ iJb U 

^ pj vfili. Vi /, \ 

<JV* Q OAf.90a 

*> , s* *, 

\i j. ^ ^ ,5 


, ,. X, 

U; jjr; a.* ^i 

JU ^ 4_J ^ 

o\ -\ . 

Lj, ^ JV5 4j\ (JU 4il\ 

>\ 1\ C i c^,to j \Vs 4,5 


i? di) d 

) Suppl. in marg. ( r ) ^il~* . (^) jVo. (M Suppl. above. 

Text om. ("^) ,\J^ 2 - } -. 



4\ia-J A! J\*J j\>- 0) JVl? di"3 
tt\ ^ 0> J\ 

t Ac\ JV*)" 

4il\ A^-j 

JO\ . JC>t ^ CLi ^30.\ JLJ 

P\J* V LTT ***J 






V* tLi diiaP- \ 

Snppl. above. () >U\. 



it* 4s.<. ( l .^ U .* 4JU- 

^.\ J^ ^ v^b 

li , _ ^iSo\ ^^." r 

4.1 UP- 4il>j U*S ^ ^ 

ii s j v\ 

0) 4A\. ( f ) ^.^- ^) V^-L--./^- (M Suppl. above. () The 

passage beginning Jy^ ^o <o\ and ending ^\ ^ ,,a>^ ,y- ^>._5 is suppl. 
in marg. ("^) .WU 



JS > 


>. ^ ju ^ j\ 


i- ,]c JUl dl\ .-, 

J> J u-jj 

Jc a *U Al^ H Jc ^U ^^ J\ Jo ^b 033 v^L^V\ Jo 


Text om. ( r ) ^Axi-^ app. altered into uA v *L~ . (^) ^\. 

4.p <jj 

V. ^ U\ ^j 

^1 JL?-\ V>\ 

J- - 


i J; 

" ~ 

J \ U 

\T JVs 


-Xa <U.C- i_j\ r 4 

\ ^ ^ J^ ^ 
Jc J : ^ >1\ Jo 


-5Co JU JVJ 




V\ j,> i 

A CU\ Ld 

^ 4.J vlj-it> 4.uJli3 Aio 

< \JA\\ 



* I 


\jj d-J 

dil <J 



* f ^!^ O^ - C -^ 

ci^ Jli 




Ji\ *.U vfllj JjVjj <u* JS l ia CU.U 4j Ju 

j 4j 

O 4j\ ,50 JL\ j.^ ^ ^ t vdj AJ A ^j 

VV** *^-:^j -^lj V* ^ (jWl^ JV; las v 

^;\ - I J JU 

, j^ U 

4cV^ <^Ac \ 

\j\ diJ i ^ 
dii J ^ A! 1 ^1 U V\ M ^ s^^ll JL ^ A^L; dlii <j\ 

t JU\ j*j A^U Ai. ^>l9 ^L 


( ) ^D \^i. (0 Some words seem to have been omitted here. 

So pointed in MS, 



ol> J .,i 


\ _ ,\ 


4J 9 

90iA) vlj 

A,JL\ Jc dili 


\ tuJ dili "JU A! 


J A. \J\> 



\ o 



, See Dozy, SuppUment aux dictionnaires ardbes under 

Jlo U\^ 






r (0 



^1 j 


0) ojJ 
in marg. 

\A\ tji v .3 ^j 

i \ 

^t. .^^ 

A,\\ UA j _ V. JT j ^c> 

i 4AO 4jJ> j tgij 

Jj*c*\ a! 


0) j. (0 Snppl. above. 

* V, 

> Af.Soa 

\ *i\ i<? 

o\ ^ f- ^ \ ^ ^ 

- f a A a^ V\ 

Ail\ 4^, (j^^^ ^i\ * U^J C-d J\5 

ti JVj dilj 



(5 Ji\ 4^aJ V\ di>u 

ojij\ij -O -V O^ 


Cf - 


* (3 -A 


JU 4.;\ jj 


>- Jp jjau* 


JU 4j 
t A VJ fc^ j^W \ ^ \i 

J\HJU\ oJ^v^ jWa?- vi-ij ^j 
A^J oj^.\ ^ ^ Jp dclr JcOj 
^t\ >y V. _^SJ Jb 


iJ JU \fj 

3 \j>\ 

J> $ 


^ Jp k 

(0 <, ^yu-. (^) Suppl. in marg. (M Kor. 26, 218. 

V\ A* V; U 

V;\ Vj\ 


*. ^Tj ^Ai. Jaisr 1 ^*- Oi 
- L5jVj^\\ 4fl\ JuP U (0) 

4i\ (J^VOjJ^ 4JG\ JuP V,\ C 

^ L^\ 05 Jr>, A! JV^ 
jAs \i V^kJ jU\\ J>J 

( r ) A corrector has indicated that the text should read: 

< f Uai\ ^ j f^T ^ jt V. 

$\ Jp P L 

f f 


jVc Jc^ JU 

j\ J, 

4il\ 4 

1 Ai 

\ j^J\ J\ > JUi 

written above. (0 Suppl. above, (^) In marg. .^>\ . 

> ^ v\ 

J> ^ c$^\ j^ai* a: -^^ < 
<\xlc i^L. i5 J^> _^3 i& Jo o^J 

J&.J \j^ JS l 
: ^.\ J\i < 
r Jo-Vi CU-JU- (Y) 


\J \J\ 4il\ 4^j t5jVo J _^\ 

( i.Y\ ilL lj Vxu.; j^i > 4A1\ 



In marg. v^3 . ^-,i_j above. () In marg. uy. 

(^) oJj added above. () Jb\x. *&- added in marg. (^) \\. 

( Y ) In marg. ... ( A ) Kor. 42, 28. 0) Kor. 34, 25. Kor. has 

v-sjj UJL^I -v=*=i ^ ^ (Jj/ corr - i n niarg. (^)\ corr. in marg. 

Snppl. above, ^) Suppl. in marg. (^) 3j\ added in rnarg. 





Vj ji\ J* J AJLV\ >\ 

4^j J^f\ Jp v i5j \ j\ L )iU\ jVS 

J ^ ^1 JL^\ Jy, dJJj> -JW ^ A A 4U 

Ic L 

0) <5-Xo. ( r ) 4.\Uj.j. (^) Kor. 3, 167. ^^^ written above 

(*) Suppl. above. () ^o in marg. before^-. C 1 ) Corr. to 

^^\. ( Y ) Suppl. in marg. ( A ) *L\Jai\ Jji added in marg. 

\ i 

J\3 Jyi 



s* .-** 

)c j if*) Us L\\ Uto ^ j^ J& 

ut ^ J.J J^i, Jji\ 



1*\\ ^ JiU- ^ JV^J. jVC^ A jVaJ < U]\ 4^J 4ii\ JuP ^ J^- 

.ilSal ^>-^ VfJ K s -x- Juo ^o V4> V^J So 


(^) The passage beginning (jo _ji and ending \\5 A^^ Af-i-^ ^ is suppl. 
in marg. (0 CA^-- (^) Suppl. in marg. (M Suppl. above. () \j> . 
0)dib x^, (Y) in marg. 




\ u 

5 V. 


^2. * 



0) In marg. ju j oo- (F) ^ added above ^^>^t- (i) Suppl. 
in marg. () Suppl. below. C 1 ) Suppl. above. ( Y ) ^W. ( A ) jt> 
added above. (^) \. v^ ) Jufc^, vocalised by a later hand. 


JAd\ J 


v,\ ; 



< J\5 \^\ di 

JL\ ^ iu- ^^.-^ O-jSS 4)1 \ 
4il\ A_ ^ 

>\ f lli V- l^^ J^ 

<-^-.^ (_> ^- ^ ^**J J^ Af.80tt 

^l J.V& S^Ull ( 


(^) Snppl. in marg. (H ^, added above. (^) Erased by a later 

hand. I 1 ) u^ViiJ, () ^ji\ added in marg. 

_-> - rl ^ 

j *^*\y* ^v, cpJM ^v^ \VA 


wr e>i 
V;\ ^ 

411 \ 

4ii\ 4.^, ^J^^ ^^ A 

s-^\ C\ ci JV5 A^? Oi ^j 

.V\ ^j\ , ^ cJ^ U 

>^ Uj* 4.. O JC>\3 Jj3 \3 

cud U 

0) Suppl. above. ( r ) Suppl. in marg. (^) U\. I 1 ) 

) JJJ. 0) Om. 



^ iw..^ - A! .VL 


l\ A.U 

A&^*J U ^Ac V^l. >\ t5^\ v__AM ArfU jj A^J^ AJ d-jVS r^ 
U vi-M^ dV*) 4il\ A.^j Ak^ii\ JuJ, ^. 

>. A 



\i. (0 Suppl. in marg. (^) o\^xi . ( l ) <uA> corr. in marg. 



(3 s 

Li- _ 


1 4_i V; U 


U <i 


^IcU iJ\Af.78& 

( Snppl. in marg. (^) ^-W. (^) a A,. () ^-W\ corr. 
in marg. (^) ^V,^ . (Y) Suppl. above. (A) ^jM o 

corr. in marg. 

i &** 

J\U\\ J\3 4J\ JU) 4il\ 4-**j 41} \ 




\ 5^ 

. o \ 

4il\ 4.^-j ^\ J\3 i 4^..ji d~ftO 4\iP ^O \ j\ ^iii\ 


(\) In marg. A.!*). ( r ) Oi.V w *L-. a corr. in marg. ^>^ corr. 

in raarg. (^-) Os^ * corr. in marg. () Snppl. in marg. 0) US 

written above. 




f \/\ 

J\J 4J\ (j,\Jt! 

Snppl. in marg. (^) The marginal version adds: i^i k (^^> iJ) o-o J 

0) Jc, but see mj 7 translation of the Kashf al-Mahjub, p. 27, where this 
saying is attributed to Shibli. ( Y ) o_^o. ( A ) Probably we should 

read 4*i ^y 43t oj ^ O^ ^^ A^*! ( ^ 


4)i\ ^ A*-, JQ V\ 

j ^tf> ^_x:0 Jc J> i\3 4.;U flfjtfej fa\j~\i 411 \ 

Gri-v, JU AJ\ 4ii\ **-j u^^\ v.^ 

^ ^> ti J^ j 

(^) L. (0 In marg. ]^^ V . (^) The passage beginning ^=- and ending 
\\3 \Tj\ A.i^ 4xiJ^Jj also occurs on the marg. of A fol. 75. See note 
1 on p. \"\1. (*) The marginal version has Lr ,U\ JV^ . () Om. in text, 

iaiVi- <J>\ Ovr*"V\^ C^ 

\ J 

\ diii J 


\i\ i\ Cii\ .i ( dlii ^ - V. 


0) Suppl. in marg. ( r ) In marg. VjJ^L 

written above. C 1 ) ^^V\ written above. () Kor. 39, 75. I 1 ) Orig. 

^-5 but corr. ( Y ) ,J^.o in marg. ( 


> (() \i\i 




JU.J, dlli tj i^-J\ ^ JV^A" o^ U i 

b \j i*> 43jVi\ ^ i.oyW j^\ j j^li^ <Ac iai- \i\ i 



r . 

(^) J^U. (0 ^J. (V) ^U. (^) j\ erased and ^\ suppl. 

in niarg. () In marg. 0-^.^5.9 as variant. ("^) Suppl. in niarg. 

(^0 ^L.i^\ .aVi^i corr. in marg. (^ 


U*}1 vj^>^ L^y* 1^ J f V *** V 

O^ (3^ ^ u - 

* V. cu5_jj\ (j ^U J i. j 

^. L 


r>\ >r J^\ J&tf JU ^^P- uJ^.U Jc ^H-^j Sj-JH ^\; J 

>\ ^ ^j \i ^\ ^ ^j (>j^ J^ ^j^ 



(\) In marg. J>. (0 U^. (^) jy. C 1 ) The orig. reading- 

was iLiVa. () . 

o~>- V. 

U* oVdl Joo\ \ a\ Ili J>\ * \ 


Ji i l^ 

^ l 
fls A^J 

in inarg. 0*0 The text has LjJai\ tfJjJ ^J (vocalised by a later hand). 

The story is told in the Tadh. al-Aivliyd, II, 149, 9 foil., where the Persian 
rendering is j^Jx; ^ J 3 ^ , if you had looked at ine. 

(^) BJU_/\. C") Suppl. in inarg. (^) Suppl. above. (^) Here is 

added in marg. a passage beginning ^U J^l ^ Hfc" 1 iu, \ j ^J^J^ J^ ancl 
ending jT \ ^5 *U ^ i.^4. Jt> c^>y JU ^_j\ iL"^ * *s-^ J^i which occurs 
in the text on p. \Y^, 1. \? (A fol. 77a, 1.8). () J erased before dlb . 

O) Orig. ^LiiiV, but corr. (V) ^ 3 ^. (A) ^- . (t) j\^ 0> 

Va corr. in marg. 


o-y J\3 4,i \ 



aJ\ L ^^.i c-Mfl-j t5-\j 0\^VU o^ * \\ (3 


(\) Ivor. 2, 119. ( r ) In marg. Lp. as variant. (*") UM . ( l ) JW . 

^Ai. 0) ^\U\. ( Y )jVf,,, (A) Suppl. in marg. 0)uvi>. 

) V^i. (\\) ^W. (\H Suppl. above. 0*) ^J\ Ut added 

nv t\ j v 

U ^^V^ *& & ^ 0^ j.a J\3 

i ,5 ji\ u 




V\ 4ii\ Ju^- 

- V\ J*J ) 
\ 4\ ^J AC> t 4 4 \o 

5jo. e- V\ < U> \ \ dil j J 

Ljl 4 _ Ac 

H ^ juv\ w x, ^ 

X, vJt J^ ]^ ^ 
J>- >?j > \ O^ ^ ^ 

(\) The orig. reading seems to have been ^J*. (0 ^cOj added in 

marg. (^) ^ ^L.) erased, and \c \^OM suppl. in marg. (*) ^Jj. 

-us 3\ >:> sA cJil ejV5 \Tl 

uJL\l\ JU- Ju, ex* J*i 
JSV, > o\ ^ 4- pU ^ 

i J\ 


\ (5 Jl\ 

is ju 


0) Suppl. in marg. C") Snppl. above. (^) In inarg. O^Uxll as 

variant, ( l ) Kor. 3, 91. () Kor. 22, 28. 0) jVi ^ added in marg. 

-> J- r\ 

p /:V^aJ\ jVW?\ cusj (j 4j 4^., V^ 


Jc ^jcL- *^y> \y*\ j\ y\ r ^\ J\ 






3* >z*sp U 4.;\ 4.Lv\ Ud\ * & S f JL i U r- 



The last two letters are suppl. above. ( r ) Snppl. in marg. 

li\ <;\ JU ^ JU 

Aaxi \j\ Jy, JU 4J\ 4A1\ 4.4^ 4il\ A,C- 

jTSu ^ gill yu f it \^ gill 

4il\ 4. U> 

S>U\ Jc 
V i3 

iAJj Jb ^ 

cc\ diii 

JU oUjV, 4j>^ 


^ r-*^>- C-bU 


0) Suppl. in marg. (0 ^ \ljJS, co^* i added in marg. (^) .vi\. 

) (j 1 !^^- ^ fj^ added in marg. 0) Suppl, above. 

p k$\ *~& 





i\ Jc 


(\) Suppl. in marg. ( 

corr, above. 0) Suppl. in marg. with * 

for ojj)a> . 

\a ^ 


V\ J\ \^ki, \ 

.Uj O^j ^ Cl^ 8 * 

A^l\ ^Ji\ dJJ-X3 o 

" ^ ^ ^^ 


(^) pJA. (0 Suppl. in marg. (V o ^ . ( l ) Suppl. above. 

() Kor. 39, 13. 0) In marg. ^J^ as a variant. ( v ) V^V^V* corr. 

in marg. (A) iL) ^p added in marg. 

i "\ \ i v -u V *w >* ^ 

ili Jj 

. oi^J fWW^ ur y\ J \ Jj \ a . Li isxJ\ 

.a.> U 


JU j 3>j 


A f. 71 ft 

<vj. ( r ) Of. Kor. 9, 60. (^) Suppl. in marg. I 1 ) Snppl. above. 



V. c * ^1 U J ~ & U 

Jb 0--U ^c, A* JA^aL 
.\^ diV^a A^a.9 ^ 4. ! 
ai?- JVis dUi 4i3 

\ J\5> t ^P\ pp^l *\^4? ^yi\ Jl>\ 

Jy ^ 

4\ Jy 


j \-s ~ 


\ii\u i^U 

Snppl. in marg. ) i.. () V^u*> . In marg. ^JJM . 

C 4 -) Kor. 9, GO. () J>y-U is stippl. in marg. after ^iii\ and J jC is 

written above it. 

1 \ 



45 Jl\ 

\ J 



- Jp tf 

V. VJ 

(^) Snppl. in marg. ( r ) Snppl. above. (^) cJ^al A written above. (^) *\^/V 
() A.Voi written above. 0) ^> written above. ( Y ) \ J=>\ but corr. above. 


\j\ \$ VAc 4il ^ 

il\ U A. 


_ , 

^ ^j 
V\ ^^^ J sVi V^ J,V\ 


aio- U i^ ^cl\ J JV3 4.O A.1U ^ 

\ j \ UU t UP di^J -x*j AJ\ A.U 

( v -) Snppl. in niarg. 
) In niarg. U\\. 

* V- J^b Vto -^^ ^ 

ci\ -tf 

<-V^ ^ 4ic>V\ (jAaJ d-Jt^j ill9 06 j 4.A& ^^.flC ] 4,1 

. 70a 



(\) B Lf ^\ J ^. (0 AB J>^ J^.. W AB J>L U,. (^ B om. 
from U\:\ ^j to ^\> J.^. () A J^, . (^) AB JW J^.. . 

( Y ) AB J^a.*. Here the text of B breaks off (fol. QQa, last line). The fol 
lowing words (fol. 69?>, 1. l) JVls 4\|T^ o^ occur in A fol. 32a, 1. 7, 
near the beginning of the chapter entitled p V.W^V\ 4:>_j_j *^^ L / 2 -t-^- s - : iJ ^r\ 
The portion of B corresponding to A fol. 69a, 1. 12 fol. 95&, 1. 8 is wanting. 
(A) In marg. Oy>JJuU ^j**). ?*$> CA A^ ^*j ^ Snppl. above. 

( ^ ) Snppl. in marg. 

t ^ ,_JUJJ\< 1 > J\j\3 

\ ^U i 

JU J^ ^J\ 

JUaJl 3 * \> iJ*\ \- 

^ r ) ^A\(^) 0j ^lf.69a 

JVu cdli j J Jjj 4i^_, 4 

ip ^Ju j (j.VJ <Dl\ ti\ -u iArf>_5 Jlo 

\ = 

with the verse ^\ W^ ^W ^J P U, jj_j.x,\ which occurs in A on fol. 114a, 
1. 8. The text of B ending on fol. 52a, last line, is continued without any 
lacuna on fol. 68ft, 1. 1. 0~^) A U*^j corr. above. 

(M B *,\*?\. (0 B om. (^) B j^Jo. I 1 ) A adds in marg. 

(0) B ^iJ\. 0) A adds in marg. s U\ J. ( Y ) B V-\. 
(^) B o^i- 00 B \3Vi. (^) A in marg. 

^V-^. (^) B o;. (\t) B, (\) B 

B 5 


V. S 



,U \j>\ o<0 

V^ 4.;\ ^ A.C- ^ J^^ C^" -^J ^ V&^L? 4i5j f &*A ^Af.686 

^9 c*^ \J\ 

0) B U*. (r) B 5 ^U\. (^) B om. (M B om. JV.J A\\ ^U O \. 

() B oj&\. (V B J=>_5^. ( Y ) A oU\ but o\J in raarg. as variant 
(A) B ^. (t) A AJ\. ) A om. 

00 B J^u-J ^V< (^) B ^.. (\i) B 

\ j,#A\ J^^ \3Vj ^ ^ f y t , -VV^ ^y. \i\j. 0) Here the text of 

B breaks off on the last line of fol. 52a==A fol. 6S&, 1. 10. Fol. 52b begins 


j\ dl)-&Af.G8a 

J j 

(^) B app. ^>jj.> or k-j 
( r ) o^- added in marg. A. 
in marg. _AA* ^ ^* ^ 
W B S^\. 00 B 5 

B adds 

but the middle letters are almost obliterated. 
) B ^9^ -o>. OH- (^ B ^. () A adds 
0) B S^V,. (V) B U*. ( A ) B om. 
(^)Suppl. above. 
(\M B om. ^ 


V. (>- 


(\) B 5^$J. 0") B il^U. (^) B^bl. (*) B J\5. () B om. 
0) B dij,. (Y) A . (A) B Jrjj JP. (^) B om. ^i\ J\5 

<d\\ <^j. (^ ) Suppl. in A by a later hand. B $for V* J. (^) B om. 
A\i\ ^^ j\^\. 00 B om. from o/^ to j\ &\. (^) B \j\j. 

( u ) A orig. ^^u,, altered to ^^aJL, . B __a u . (^) In marg. A J^ o . 

B AX. . ( w ) B om. from ^ to p.. OA) A <wi; J (^) B . 

Joo \J\ ^ 


, __ J*5j t Jiuli dill\ 4, Vs ij^ 


\i -X5 

J c 


(^) B om. (0 A 

passage runs thus: x 

B om. ^jJl\ ^. 0-) B 
dJi added in marg. A. 

0) B a ,. ( Y ) A 
. (\\) A om. 4 

In B this 


a s JjV\ cu5jJ\( A ) i^*c VI dili v X? 

Jy \i 

** ^ 


(^) A VftAjj.^ Avitli WjuJ^j written above. (0 B adds V/ t *^K>\^ and 

so A in marg. (^) B ^. ( l ) B \^.\. () B g\ diii ^ ^bV, J\5. 
C 1 ) In A j is given as a variant. ( Y ) B <j^ o^9ji\ for j:>. 5"iLaJ\ ^i_j. 

( A ) B om. from viJji\ to Jc jc i-yj^ *- (^) B app. ^Lus. ( l ) B 

0\)B^J.. 00 Bom. O^ 

(H) AB <u~. OY) B U\i. A ) B o^AJ\. (^) AB 

but A in marg. gives l^Jow^ as a variant. 


f \a J r U 

j j j * 

AU k < r > \ 

j-ay U A(S < c\X\ i2._j ^j ja>. 4__ij *^>-j- 4~i. . ( J~-*J >-V\.\ ^j 

A corrector has stroked out the words *3\ ^, in A and has written 
\ above. (0 B 0111. (^) A ^Jc>. ( l ) B U ^ . () B om. 

^J ^ J^- 0) B A 1 "- (Y) B ^V J 

B ,U >. (^) A -i;,. 00 B .W. 


Ci.\< v > A 
_y-^ V.;Jj (AJsul\ C "&\ \^;\ (A) Jy j 




, \ jt ^^v-o *j 

\\ il^ Jc 

0) B Us-V^. (0 B f \LiV\. (^) B r iU\ Jc. ( l ) Iii marg.A 

WA () B S\. (1) A adds in marg. ^ 

( y ) B om. ( A ) Kor. 04, 10. 0) B -gjf.. (MB 

(^) B om. diii j. (^ r ) Altered in A to J^. (^) B om. ^ ! \ 

4U\ <^. (^)By_5. (^) AB Ul (H) V^Vo added in marg. A. 

OY) B J^. OA) B 4 \ JuP^\^ Jj. (^) B c5j^ t5>U. 

(^") A adds in marg. j>A ^\ 4./>^\c> ^ .Vil ^> 0\ ci ^=>\ VI 


< AU 

\i\ 4*j 


Jl \i 


must read 
0) B \->V 

() B ^ ^ 


, ^ instead of \t ^. ( n ) B 

( r ) A ^, B dilj. . (^) A 

- ^^ A adds in mar g- j->^. a a - ^ Y ^ A in 

B ^. W B om. 00 B . rjj . (\\) B U*j . 

^i\, \f 0^) B J3l O 4 -) B ^U, ) B om. 

~M \Vi. (^) Altered in A to ojVo-^ by a later hand. 

, B Uii\. (A) B om. *^\ jA^,^ . (^) In marg. A 

( r -) B *. (r\) B 5 VU\. (rr) B 

B s 





^ ^o.^^ y\. ( n ) B f^. OY) B \3^. A ) B om. j^. 

0) B om. (0 A adiis in marg. ^U-^- (7) B ^^- (1) AB 

om. Suppl. in marg. A. () Written in A with tashdid. 0) B c^.V,. 

(V) A in marg. adds Oyu- . ( A ) B ^j. C 1 ) A Jr>\, . ) B ^ 

^ . 0) A \. (^) B (K) B (U) B 

B ^o. r A in marg. 

jij, but there is no indication of the place where these words should 
be inserted. Probably they are intended to follow \rj^.^ in which case w r e 



fi ULf \9 

\ J.^ ^ ^. ciW( U) 4U\ o^"\ 11 >.V\ 
VL\ ^^i 3/S"jt 
\ 4: sU J AU 

W 4fl\ 

V\ \p 

C* ^>\\ JO 

(^) B ij^Tj. ( r ) B icviac.. (^) This passage (which I must leave as it 
stands) occurs again in A fol. 84&, 1. G, where the text runs: jAs^ A.<? >j> ^fc? 
^j \f^j _^ Ail 4 4.J t5 J^ \ J*^ JL-* ( l ) A Ojij\j, B ojij^ . () A in 
marg. A\=ji\ ki. 0) B adds i\j>^\ ia-i J.^.. ( Y ) A in marg. ^x^, B 
^-y. ( A ) B pL. 0) B ^. ) A in marg. o~~>., B o-^>>-. 

(^)B ^. 0)Bj\5 

9jV\ j> j J^,JcAf.G4a 

o > 

_?- fVLj, <jT~ L? L> * 

4jiaj dJio J& ,ji-i 4.1 ^^j ^i AaViaj^ 3^v^y\ ^y^^ ^3 VA^ 

"* > * o >0 T" " " \" ^i," 

^ . **-a j - 9 j ^* k *" ^ 



C->j H c-ii^ c: -^yv^ <*} 

(A fol. 956, 1. 8). (\Y) The following text begins in B on fol. 43b, 1. 1. 

(> A ) B 

0) B diii^. (r) B >j js.. (^) Kor. G4, 16. (i) A Uj\ ^ 

() B ^ ^U. 0) Kor. 7,32. (V) B ^. ( A ) B om. 

0) B JAtt. 00 B om. jV*i 4\ <^j ^\ J\5. (^) Bdlli J 

(\0 B^. 0?) B^b. (^) B ^ii. 



t Awa 4. 

(^) B om. ^^ ^1 J\5. (0 A>c, B app. ^ . (^) B 
I 1 ) B V^j>. () B om. (^) B JuT, <^*-j. ( Y ) A adds AJ. 

(A) B V,. (t) B <*. ) B o> fr . (\\) B (\ r ) B \; 

(^) B ^. (^) After V 9 B has a word which looks like dl*. . (\) B 
( n ) Here B breaks off on the last line of fol. 90a. The next words J 
<\ 1^ VU (fol. 90&, 1. 1) occur near the end of the o^wi\ v_jb\ 

>\\ V 



A! AiO^i ^ A] A f. 636 
V- 4\ 

(\) B om. (0 B \^ViJu.\. (^) In A orig. ^^VV The word is partially 

obliterated in B. (*) B ^y^\. () B om. <a\ <^j g^\ jVd. 

0) B ,\. ( Y ) B jy. (A) B U. H) B UJ\. 00 B ^ 





< (T > < 
J ^.UJ, 



) ^ J^\ UV 





0) B 

B om. t 1 ) B 

jp. 4\. ( f ) B , v ^o for <UJ \ 
B, V: i\j5. 0) B ^V\. (Y B om. 

B ^. 00 B j^. (\\) B ^^i^. OT) B a. m B om. 
<V5-^ ^li\ J^. 0*0 A iL. with _XLw in marg. as variant. 0) B 




Vl 30\ V A i\^\ V^V^ ^ i. 4ii\ 

d\ V* t 

O*. O - 

(^) Kor. 59, 9. ( r ) Suppl. above. (^") Suppl. in marg. I 1 ) 
() ^- with _jV> written above. ("^) j>\. ( Y ) Here B resumes on 

fol. 87&, 1. 8. ( A ) B L*jd\. (^ B om. from ^\> to w\ s 

(\0 B . 0*) Kor. 66, 6. 00 B . (^) B om. 



\J\ V 




ji^ 4)1\ J^-j ^ Wj 

j ^*J JTU 







^ w.\ vjt 

. .-> . 

O*- ^ ^ O 

-^ vw U 

^ J^- li 


si ^ ix^ L? 


In marg. 

m < - 

r > <!_ji\ ju* ^ [jo. 

Jr jfl. ^ ^ villi [ 

&1 t u-^0 

> __ | 3 1 * 

^ Atf 

H) -Jl - s * * 

^A. J^^_ 

^ J\j -Lp 

^j ^ c^-^ ^A ViVj *l^ 
^ U 

- - \ 

-\ I U JU3 \f ji \^i\ r 4.u* \Jb c 

-^ oU *i^ 

<i ,<y r-i> .v.^ r- 

^) Suppl. in marg. (0 ^ (probably a misreading of ( ^.jJ=^ 

Suppl. above. (^ Kor. 74, 89. 




i u ^ (r) 

f. 61ft 

r>j J\5 

(\) jC corr. in marg. (0 Suppl. in marg. (^) In marg. J. 

(^) In marg. 6y. () Apparently altered to i>Vp. C 1 ) I have 

supplied these words which the sense of the passage seems to require. 
(V) Orig. A*j, but has been stroked through. (^) Kor. 45, 20. 


u A 

jy ^j O$ 

^ *J 

j i 

A\ lcM , Ai jo V* ^lu: <dc UT 4il\ iaLj i ^ VI 

iL o 

0) Suppl. above. (0 In marg. ^r^- ( ^ c-f (i) In 


ju ] 

111, ( 

i* 5\ J\i _, 





a , 


^ * jv, - .T^ Vu 4* 4tt\ ^L ! \ 


j j\~>Y\ u-^jo ujj i O&J 

marg. ^. (*) Suppl. in niarg. 

() The last letter has been erased. 0) In marg. <u jL- ( Y ) VJ 

(^) Suppl. above. 0) A. Jo . *) ^jj suppl. above. 


1\ ^L-j J\3 

y ^y J^ 315 \ 

XP- 4)J\ ^j j J J\ c 

> . .n . 

A.i\ 4.x L /, 4J\3 4iP <U)\ ,<>^, +\yp\ &\ CX^- _^j^ V-J^ l dI)3Af.59& 

>_.W J \ Jc JJj k^ O ^VU\ r C\ j ut 
^o ) U 4* \ " 

o , Ic. ? Jj a_JLj 4.^ 4)1 \ 

* J^J *^J ( (^ 

(^) _j suppl. below. (0 4\ added in marg. (^) \^-i.^>- corr. in marg. 
(*) vJ^j altered to ^J3j\j. (?) ^ . In marg. ^sJ. C 1 ) So above. The 
orig. reading seems to have been i \p\. ( Y ) J^^. Ibn Sa d, IV (1), 173, 20 

has y t J^^i o^v-^. ( A ) ^. C*) Altered to 

corr. to ^. (^) Suppl. in marg. O r ) 

-U? ^cM 


. ^ 

C\ 4\1\ t 


O \JL 


^ ^ <xP 4\i\ ^s>j Af.59a 
3 <-^ A\i\ 

Suppl. in marg. (0 In marg. ^ *\ 

u- L$>W- (^) Kor. 15, 43. ( l ) Suppl. above. 

J\3 ^j si? <UJ liW 411 

-i^> uj\ Jj^j o\j \j\ J& M^all JA\ ^ ^u^ <^. 4ii 

J^jJ > t5j V ^t ^ l. (1) J^i dlS 

^3 JU t^v 

10^ \j\j A-JiSj iL> 

/ ^rci^ -U^a.J AU> 


J\ r U= y. 

Kor. 2, 274. (0 Kor. 6, 52. (f) After ^^ in marg. 

5 J\ ^^ . (*) Kor. 18, 27. () Kor. 80, 1-2. (^) In 

marg. <Jo.\ ^ <uo\ ^Ic ^ W_/> ^ Y ^ ^ ri S- \f~h>- ^ Orig. 4/J^, 

but corr. by later hand. 0) Altered to ^J^\. ) _ / J\. ( u ) Suppl. 
in marg. (^0 Written above. (") u written above, 


/\ U 





JJT-J u^S A 

(0 Suppl. above. (^) ^_j\^\ jfi j written above. 

Suppl. in marg. 

\ ^ \ 

)> OVi 

i ** 

Jp L-3j 

l 4. \ 


VJ 4.J\ J\ij 

>^ V\ b-i 


(^) In raarg. ^V, . ( r ) Kor. 3,184. (?) Kor. 3, 132. (M \ 

() In marg. ^ diU> jp ^ J^L ,j^ *\ * <^\ ^j Jr 
0) Vki?. ( Y ) Kor. 33, 72. 

t*& 4\1\ 

< - -X.O 

A\l\ ^^"^ * 
. O^ 4\S\ 

^ A^U 

c IAC- J\3 J!AJ, 




In marg. Sj^-^\ P ^V\ vj . ( r ) Text om. (^) Inmarg. iA. 


f vC\ 

!^ U\\ 



5i \^:\ >\ <, j, 

- j\ 


J -A, 


(^) Marginal note: JcjlA Va^VL* ^A5 V/ <: 3c. *ji\ pyj_j iV\ O!A ^V^ V ^J& ,j\ 
^aVi^J. (0 Suppl. in marg. (^) Suppl. above. ( l ) Vj\. 

() Kor. 18, 64. 0) Kor. 18, 66. ( Y ) Suppl. above. ( A ) Suppl. 

in marg. 


r A 

ialc A9 


Vc ."\ 


\j IL> y>j *\ 


^5 ., 4, \ 4AP {J^^ V^ i*\ftU-Vlj 

J- \ 

j^^ui^ <iY\ da ^jy Jc ^\ ^ ^Oll gjJCj ^^M Jc - 

) Snppl. in marg. ( r ) In marg. uj\*. (^) Suppl. above. 

Kor. 2, 131, 

\ TV 



U J\i\ 

dl; - C 

4 4il 


\ 4^J 4AJ\ JuP ^ J^M, J\3 


(^) Altered to VU . ( r ) Suppl. in marg. (^) Text om. but cf. Qushayrl, 

1G9, 8. (*) ,yu written above. () A corrector has indicated that the reading 
should be &* J\. 0) See Tabari I, 3006, 1 foil. (V) In marg. SJ^u , 

ci\ *i 

t VSi\ V;\ jJ J 

After ^JLl in marg. \c JUi ^^ _. 

UA dlli _xxt. (r) Snppl. above. (^) In marg. j>^U. I 1 ) In 

marg. ^ . (o) Altered to CX,. (1) Suppl. in marg. (Y) . 

J ^) 

5 JU A;,\ J^ ^ 


i. 1 

V. ixu 

> \* 

Y\ i*u. ^-^-.^i 

Lp AaP 



j Jp 

(^) Suppl. in marg. 
by a later hand. 


J I t^\ Jji; ) ^iJ V, 

u 4.i\ 

j )Af.5 


but has been stroked through 

iJ^ JcO \i\ {}$ *& 4U\Af.54a 

., r lc CU ^ ^ CVi JT\ Ai\ [A^]^ 

4\ i-*C- l - V\ 

iP 4il 

(\) Suppl. in niarg. ( r )\AJo\. (^) Kor. 10, 107. ( i ) Kor. 2, 147. 

() Kor. 11, 8. 0) J^ but _5 has been erased. ( Y ) These verses 

occur in the Diwdn of Abu l- Atahiya (Beyrout, 1886), p. 274, 911. 
(A) \. (^) . (\0 Diwdn, t. 

J&j Vf 4,J\ 

^1 V. 4fl\ 


P 4jil 

Jp 5 


^- 4ii c i t 4il 

(^) Suppl. in marg. (0 Suppl. above. 

() In marg. J . 



tf Ji\ U*j 4\ 

U Jj\ <5y J 

J*\ J 

^^ si^s 4ii\ J^j oU Vx -X*) 
r*^ ^^ ^-V\ v_jVft>J Jc 


) ^ 4\ e^ 

Jy y-j < J\3 \fj\ il^ V, dil j>^ ^^ ^,U 

(\) 111 marg. Vp . ( r ) (5^-1 added in marg. (^) ^AW^ diii Vp . 

A corrector has stroked out the words 4^V\f* and has written <u/> above. 
C 1 ) Altered to \^? by later hand. () Suppl. above. (1) Suppl. in 

marg. ( Y ) ^ in marg. ( A ) Kor. 8, 12. 

f Oi 
l v 

f * 


ll (J^*-J oV V) <JVl 4^- 48 1 

li CP- 4\ c^> ^ ^ > (3 ^1^>>. I 

Jj\ 4\ ^ 

\J\ \ \ i-J-^ ^>^ ^>j V\ \ 

O C 


(^) t5i\x*. (0 Suppl. in marg. (^) In marg. o-sx^-i-. (*) Orig. jit- 
but corrected. () Kor. 3, 73. 0) ^\\ added in marg. ( Y ) cJ> 
corr. in marg. ( A ) Orig. ^.>-J^\^ but corrected. 

\ ^Vx<T ir. 

j <Acub A 
S^^S^ o/j^.\ ^J^ j 

0j? J ^ -"bc5V\ 

Cu au,i s 

\r jw 

0) Suppl. in marg. (^) Altered to oyt\iai\ by a later hand. 

) L-. (^) I cannot ascertain the correct form of this nisba: it 

might be either > or ^ 



S> iL U ^** *Lp 4\ 

4.-^ 4\ ( 

" ^^ 5r : 


) 4JU\ V^j 

Vi\ 1^ 


>*J uS1 <8 Jj-^) -r ^ _/^ J 

l \o 

) Jy C\J t J&j 

( \) Suppl. in marg. (0 Kor. 9, 101. (^) ^./l corr. by later hand. (*-) Owi^ 
() Kor. 56, 1011. (1) Kor. 9, 73. ( Y ) \j>. (A) Suppl. above. 

0) The penultimate letter of j\ is pointed in the text both as ^-> and Jj 

s " HjS ^ <> o- & ^^ *^j * -r < 

^ a).\ Ji_, < JU 4J1\ 

"^ J\i 

\ J^ 

[AJLH ? 


CS ol ^ ^-j < 
JU < JW ^\S vi V^ U 


l r Jlu U\ J 5D\ 

0) Kor. 4, 87. (r) ^\. (^) ^^. (i) Suppl. in marg. 

^*tfW- ^^ In mar S- 4^J3. ( Y ) Suppl. above, ( A ) ^ corr, in marg. 

\ \ v i *U < 

CPU ^ ^ jAii \TfUiJ 




(^) The original reading seems to have been d^*>..j . ( r ) Kor. 18, 6. 

W Suppl. in marg. (*) In marg. ^I\i- . () i..J^\ added in marg. 

C 1 ) jj. ( Y ) In marg. ^\. ( A ) Orig. Jjjj. u , but \* has been 

stroked through. (^) ^1 corr. in marg. 


I * Al - , I . .\\_..- I .1 , 
(**"* c<- J 


4. AM 

-^]^) J^ > A!! 

U i 

\ V- 


4 4^ = x^ t 

ob U= 

J *VH 


JU 4\ [Jp 

o \ ^K^VWi^ J villi Ji-j i ->^o ^ ^La y,3 J V1\ ^i 


(\) ^, suppl. in marg. after ^"j^U.. ( r ) Suppl. in marg. (^) In 

marg. ^c-. I 1 ) ^U ^\ added in marg. () In marg. V^C*. 

0) cU5\ written above as variant. 

\ \ o f4 c -s ji v j.^>- 

U *L? 
o\ jJ^ Ju* V;\ <J 

y <s 


ULj A^ ^, 

5 j\ 

\J\ V 



P 4JU 

\ JV^ r. 


\ - ^**^ ^ 4 -3 4jt^J, ^f U5^ vSJu Jl^ 

. i/ 9 * 

U, \jU 

0) Suppl. in marg. ( r ) In marg. ^^ ji . (^) Snppl. above. 

) In marg. 

\ \ 

^ Jy # 

k\ u ^LJ 



,;ic\ u ^ 

JU U j^. V-S y Vd Caj\ jW\ ov. ^ 

4il\ A.^l>- U^ cl\- 

\ VI ^.Ul JU\ 

0) c-Jo corr. in raarg. (0 4\*P\ suppl. in marg. after di!j>. 

) Kor. 47, 21. I 1 ) Kor. 20, 113. 

i /""^ [5 

a *1^> <uj\ 

J^\ oJ^f- J 


r i A. 

^ Uii ,do> 


J* ^ 

* ~~~ I I 

\Va .*\\ \\i " U 5i^ ^ 1 L.\\ -.U, :<i ".N ,.\\ *x^0) 


Kor. 96, 19. (H ^c- corr. in marg. (^) Snppl. in marg. 

written above instead of j. () In marg. i\). 0) In marg. 

(^) In marg. ^_^ftA, . 


^- j yi-aJ\ J.>\ oUafJUv. j v-iV, iSSI L-jViT" I \ 

., j^ jlj <3>t dij ;>i5\ ^ 3^ A? 3^ A 

u\ \*\>, ^ 
. SO jl <L. 


- 44,. 

0) Snppl. above. (0 Kor. 18, 17. (^) Orig. ^ but corr. by later 

hand. (*) Kor. 17, 1. () Kor. 4, 113. 0) \j^. snppl. above 

after \xL ( Y ) Kor. 52, 48. (A) Kor. 3, 200. 0) Kor. 39, 13. 

) wJb, corr. in marg. (\\) Kor. 16, 128. OO.jA=. (^ 



3 r 

dj (A ) o^i JiJ\ UD Jju OP JU. dius , 

JJ ^5 Jl 




o* oi 0i) 

(\) ^, but corr. above. ( r ) Suppl. in marg. (^) Kor. 37, 102. 

I 1 ) Kor. 93, 5. () Kor. 20, 119. I 1 ) Kor, 20, 120. ( Y ) Kor. 38, 24. 

Text has>i9. ( A ) Kor. 38, 33. 0) Kor. 9, 43. 00 Kor. 48, 2. 

(\\) JV^, but corr. by later hand. r ) Suppl. above. 0?) Kor. 4,08. 

(^) Kor. 48, 10. 0) Kor. 8, 17. ( n ) J^ suppl. in marg. after id. 

45*! o-- 



U \ 

r U (U) JU 


) Kor. 41, 53. (0 Snppl. in marg. (^) Kor. 20, 2627. (*) Kor. 94, 1. 
() The marginal note ends with two words which appear to be U* J ^ J . 
0) Kor. 26, 87. (Y) K or. 66, 8. (A) Ko r. 94, 6. 0) Kor. 6, 75. 

00 Kor. 7, 184 (quoted incorrectly). (U) Kor. 30, 7. Kor. has jj;^. 

00 Kor. 88, 17. (^) Kor. 25, 47. 0*0 Kor. 4, 124. 


- 4JVI ulUJ 




c Ja\ \ \1.\ 


y o - -.-"c ^" > ^ > * . % 

JCvP ^0 ^^^ ^P -^, f^^J a*^"J ^ 

0) _j, but corr. in marg. (0 Snppl. in marg. (^) Suppl. above. 

-) In marg. U_j. () C^ written above as variant. ("^) Kor. 12, 108. 

snppl. above. ( Y ) <u\\. (A) >>?. >*" ^ Kor. ^> ^8. 

\ * A 

(5 A\\ j 




Suppl. above. (0 In marg. 

Suppl. in marg. 

V (iij/\ J\ o\k 

Orig. ^j., but corr. by later hand. C") In marg. 

(*) Suppl. in marg. () Suppl. above. 0) The words AX,\ i*j have 

been altered to dx>\ ,-^j and i?-. has been added in marg. after <uj). 
( Y ) Text om. ( A ) o. suppl. above after 


\ j\ : 
>\ uu ; \, y\ 4 >\ 



v\ J ^ U* f U\ ^,\ Cl oji 4 

JP- j-^- A f. 

) kl^U. (0 Kor. 4, 84. (^) ^,>" . (*) Kor. 4, 85. 

In marg. S>J\. (^) 




u ic ju- \ dUi ^ yc [u ]^ * 

\ \f V\ 

Suppl. in niarg. (^) Orig. Ui but corr. by later hand. (^) In marg. 
. (*) Kor. 47, 26. () ,s. (" 


fe j4*M0 o-jt^j i L^tJUrfaSj^ AJ*Vl oV-aVlU 
i V.\ iou~ Jy* j\ i***" J^ 

;y ^<C o \ JU 4ii\ JL\ 

J^ > ^\ JL\ \ J 

i VJ 

ic J 

\ **~ f r J > O 

^ tf 


0) Suppl. in inarg. ( r ) After <u}\ the words jjii\ ^A* have been 

stroked out. (^) \i. (^-) viWi written above as variant. () In marg. 
. 0) In marg. J>. 004, ( A ) In marg. J, 

U L 

s " 

O-\ JU Ai\ 4.-, 4li\ t^ ^C* C* ^ ^ ^><>J <C- 

J o 

, J^ 


4il\ *- ^*-u-\5i dJlJL^^ ^Ato Vljc, J^L 4il\ 4,*j 

V, \ i.*c- J^i A,f a , Jx*e-\ ^ \, \ i--j 

j Sly 4~*i; Jc iiJ\ j.^ ^ 



) In marg. \Jj A, f \c> ^.Jo^. ( r ) In marg. 

Snppl. in marg. C*-) ^Ji^j. () Kor. 24, 53. C 1 ) Suppl. above. 


\ *V3\ U 

u s 


. r 

viA>l\ <u* J ^U\ JW ^ ^U U 


J u 

4il . 


iij jc- .jtU 3 <UJ 

J (jai^ i^ 

V. - jJl 

(\) Kor. 5, 26. (0 Kor. 21, 92. (?) Kor. 2, 38. (*) Kor. 59, 7. 

/0 ) Suppl. in marg. 

. \ 

A; 1 

JW J dJiii 4c>jj 1 J\iJ 4JU\ 

CbJO i 

\S\ Vj\ Ji*s JVs_, i^lll a^A ^ x, 

^) uv- -j written above as variant. (0 Snppl. in marg. () 
In marg. V^ diii ^i\. () Kor. 33, 41. 


\ . 

^ dL-i ^ V. 

, ^> \JAf.43 

0) In marg. \ ^. (0 Orig. ^^3 ^JlA diiis. The words ^ 

have been stroked through and ^Jii* has been altered to ^^jix9. 
(^) Suppl. above. (*) Here is a marginal variant, which has been 

partially destroyed by worms: it appears to be ^ . () US written above. 

1 Va i lU 

yhf,-,- 1 " 11 

f * 

o (Y) 



A.1 ^L, k 



\) In marg. ^.^. (r) After ,Vo in marg. A\i\ Jj>.... (^) \. 

Kor. 15, 98-99. () ^;K (1) Suppl. above. (Y) Kor. 68,1-4. 

>\ J *U 

J.C C~, 

J\ 6- 


L Aj -s.^ 
> ^^ J^ J V\ 

g- ^ 

i^iV. V\ u 

jr "Ic 

j -ub 

0) B *^A>. ( ) AB au~ . (") B ^. (t) B k\\. () B 41*1. 

c r 

0) B om. ( Y ) AB om. Suppl. in A. ( A ) B app. ^A, . 0) B^L. 

00 Here ends in B the uj\ J^- ^. P ^V\^ S^- V 1 ! ^Vx^ (B fol. 87&, 1. 7). 
The words ^^ ^ are followed immediately by the title of the next book 
viz., Vj.voi\ wj\^\ ^\. The omitted portion extends from A fol. 417;, 1. 15 
to A fol. G2a, last line. 0^) j.\ corr. in marg. 00 Suppl. in marg- 








i ji^ 

^ 1 ^ 

(^) B U. (H B __^. (^) B om. (*0 B c V*i. A adds 

in marg. ()Bj>^js^. 0)6^.. ( Y ) B Jc. ( A ) B 

(^) A 4^. (\ ) So pointed in A. (^) Kor. 33, 28. 00 B 



JU 4\ 5\ JV* *\ ^ ^ ^ ^() ^ 4^ ,\\ JV^) 

|>U*3j 4M\j r <"\ fcVj\J 4j,\ ^<UP ^J Jl^ ) t^^Jli ^oJ\ 

^ A W* OLT O^ Cnj klUS"- J^ ^ A*^ ^^ J>-j o^ ^ ^ (1) 



i^j Ci " 

j <\& Loll 


^*" *!> f 



AZO. ) B J^l*. (W) B 3 ^ ^\ t (\A) A yVL. (^) B \& . 

( r O A o \ with &j Y^ suppl. in marg. (r\) B 45^. (rr) B ^^1. 

(^) B ^4. ( r )B Jq>_5jt- 4U o -> U>.\ (5Ji\. (t)U suppl, in A. ( l ) Bom. 
^\\\ <u- J jli\ JVi. () B ^ JJ? . 0) B J. ( Y ) B om. (A) B \1* J, . 
(^ B Vi\*. (\ ) The words from ^^ to ^ ex^\ are suppl. in marg. A. 

0*) A om. (\H A ^c ^ji. (^) B ^.jj. (\i) B \^ for ^ 

^ SiJ-.^- The words la.9 ^, are suppl. in marg. A. 0) B di^j> ^ . 

(^) B ,U^,. O y ) B Ali. 

1 ( f^o 


\ Jy 


l, Vc O j. \ *\i;5V ? 

i j 

s u iiiiu? u ^ Ja^ v* 





B om. 

() B 
( A ) B 

> jt. (0 B o/i J>. (^) Kor. 33,49. 
^\ ^,Jo J. 0) B ^\. (V) B om. 

B <ui\. (^) In A ^ is suppl. after i . 
B app. - . 0^) B om. (^) B 

B C 
\) B 



^ V 1 

(\) B adds Jc 4\ j-o . (0 Kor. 59, 7. B ^ . (^) B om. (*) B adds 
;U us. f\f Uj. () B fVf for ^ ^. 0) B J^sJ. (V) Kor 59, 7. 
) Kor. 7, 158. 0) Kor. 24, 53. ) Kor. 24, 63. A ^V, \) B /3 J*; . 
B ou-Jli. (^) B a \;. (\i) B ^ <Jc ^J\ ^U ^\J\ J^. 

Kor. 3, 29. OT> B O ^. ( W ) B<&\ , . (\A) Kor. 33, 21. 

B Ai^i. ( r> ) Kor. 24, 55. C"\) Kor. 43, 42. (IT) B ^.\ . 


u ii^ p\ g\ 3^3 

f ,j\ tfjJS i^y*) 

*O^ ^ 

\ A A53 t^^ v* 

^ f 



b J f 4U>-j 4JJ^>^^ * 4,)\jt9^ <i^<>L *A^\2 ^ ^ 

\ v j\ * u 

t C 

(^) B ^io_j (j. (OB om. W B A)i\ J^-J. ( l ) B om. J\5 

*ii\ 4^j i\. () B o/i Jc>. 0) Kor. 7, 157. (Y) In A $ 

has been altered to j^\ and J\ suppl. in marg. before it. B om. J\ but 
has jijA. (A) B JW J\l. (^ Kor. 42, 5253. (\ ) Kor. 53, 3. 

(\\) Kor. 62, 2. (\0 B ^$2^ ^<)\. (^) B om. from ^ to 

(^) BA.V\. 0) Kor. 5, 71. (H) B om. Jc^ jp ^\ . (\Y) 

for N\ ,. (\A) B U. (^) Kor. 24, 53. 

j vr-V 15$ -.V^ ir 


\ VI ti v 




0) B JJj. (0 B jJ Aiy. (^) Kor. 2, 205. (*) B 

() B Jc.^ JP. 0) Kor. 5, 21. ( Y ) B adds Vli J, >io . ( A ) B om. 

W Kor. 27,34. 00 A V^Al, corr. by later hand. 00 B V ( J. 

00 B <C/L. (^) Kor. 27, 90. 0*0 Kor. 42, 28. (\) B 

OT> AB ^. (W) Kor. 47, 32. A) B \J*. 



A U JL V A) *; V\ JV; U j; ,\ 

. v\ 

^u 4J 5 J\a > 

f Jtij\ r Uj JW 

; U 3 s 

B om. ( r ) Kor. 26, 7880. (^) B ^.J^. (*) B om, from 

to t5Ji\^_5 o^s- ^ 0\. () B o ^. 0) A om. ^ ^. 

(V) B AsJSC . ( A ) A U _,. (^) Kor. 26, 83. 00 A &, . (\ \) B ^ jp. 
(\ r ) Kor. 13,28. 0?) B adds ^i\\ Ji^ -ui\^l V^. ( ll ) A om. 

0) Kor. 24, 30. (H) B u -^\. ( w ) B om. *x\ ^ ^\\. 

(\ A ) B J*) ^i. (^) Kor. 50, 3G. ( r ") B om. from J\\ _,\ to X^ . 

J JbJ> L- J 

* * 

J \k^\5 U; ^ 
5 U C 

- , ii\-- (f) \ ^ V.< T > f JB 



0) B om. A\i\ ^ >,Li\ jVi. (0 B YW. (^ B om. (^) AB 
() B JjJ. 0) Kor. 21,83. ( Y ) B jVJ. ( A ) Kor. 93, 6. 0) B o^^. 
(^) Kor. 18, 110. 0\) B ^lp^. 00 B J^ JP. (^) In A 

is written above as a variant. 0*0 B om. di\3 ^ . (\) B^. 

B jV3\ ^j. OY) Kor. 26, 89. A) The words from jl to 

are written in marg. B. 



\ v\ 


\ \ 

^ .\ 

i \i\ 

4S AS- 

ii. U, 



" <1 i; 

. jy .\ v u v j3\ 45- j\ -ji >( l > jg 

I dJJj JLX) oJ. ,5 Jl\ 

0) B ^ Jc>. (0 B L <: . (^) Kor. 20, 109. (*) B om. 

() B ,jVd. 0) In A_^b is written above as a variant. B ^A^. ( Y ) B ^-. 
( A ) AB <t -\. A in marg. \^\. (^) B ^. 00 B V^Jut. ) B 4. 
OH Kor. 2,1. 0^) A ^\J>. OM Bj. (\) B om. \ . 

^\i\ /vj ,j.x> * 


r \ 



JVvy r) j^v^ j^ ^ u 4\ Vc ujk J^ > 



*j iuu>. (A) iuM/\ ctJU V- V^U, 1 ^ V^VJ 

(0 B J^-Y^. (^) B U. (-) B om. JV^ 

B ^\. 0) B 4i/j. ( Y ) B U^. ^ A ) B om. 

, (^) A o\. 00 


ta C Y\ y " 


- : ^ g. 


\ j^f it 

U \ ^^ Jy ci\ pA, ^ > " 

ipwWl^ U *2i\ ^.J\ Jy j JjJkiJ^ *;uiaL-\Af.37a 

(\) Kor. 2, 30. ( r ) Kor. 3, 97. (?) B ^ J . (^ B ^\ . () Bom. 

from \js\ to J|y. 0) B om. ( Y ) AB J\5. ( A ) B \^. 

(^) B adds ^JP. (\0 B t5Ji\. (\0 B jU, ^U . (\ r ) Kor. 

4,68. 0?) B ? Ao. ( U )Bj>^>- (^) B adds j \,Jd:^ |T 

(H) B \ . (Y) B 1 J t.. 

(1A) B , v ^Vj_5 ^c . (^) A J\. The reading of B is doubtful. ( r> ) A om. 
from J3. to 

, ^ V- *r 

:;t c\>o> ^ 

^ -Jo.0) J\5 

o\U\ J5 c 

]> T \V- 

^b \.:UiAf.36& 

*&\ C 

r i> 

(^) AB om. from o* to uii . The words are suppl. in marg. A. ( r ) A om. 
^\ v-i-u. ^. (^) Kor. 76, 21. ( l ) B ^>y. ( ) Bjy,. 0) B om. 
\^U fj^i . ( Y ) B om. ^y, J . (A) B ^ ^ j.\\ . C 1 ) B ^J for 

0/3 Jc>. (^) Kor. 23, 64. 0\) B Ovj,. (^ r ) B om. o^^ u^- 

(^) A Coi\- ( ;i ) B ^ ^U. 0) Kor. 64, 16. (H) B ^. 

O v ) B om. J\ ^j iJ\ JVi. OA) B ^yi. (H) B \y\. (r-) B om. 



V,_, j^-rt \-. 

=>_j 3 s " * 


j V U S^ 

) B adds <w \. ( r ) Kor. 83, 24. (^) B ^ . (M B J\. 

B 0111. C 1 ) B L/i ^ . ( Y ) Kor. 83, 25. ( A ) B adds <uU=- ^ 

(^) B oin. from UL-&. ^ to pxjkl J^^ Cr 8 - ^ ^ Kor,. 83, 

27-28. 0\) B i5Ji\. (\r) B jfi. (^) B ^\ J*\ ^^i Jc. 

(\M B JaJj,. 0) B CfcU. (H) B ojSaJj. (\ Y ) B 

(\ A ) A V<- and so app. B. (^) B iaJLu.U. ( r O B app. 

( n ) B ^Jo\. ( rr ) Kor. 76,5. B ^ J&. ( r ^) Kor. 76,1718. 

( ri ) Kor. 76, 20. 



ic 3 cJ,W 

icW\ Ac 

J (5^j ^ V- viUi Ji-UaJ^ tj \i3Vl ^Jj 

^JL V^l\ V^ 4 
4-j j gfl U 



B 5 

A J^^ oJSi B has 
23,63. (\) B om. 
(^ A ) Kor. 83, 1819, 

Kor. 23,62. 

0) B o^ 
) B 


B ul. C) B om. 

(Y) B om. (A) B \<J. 

B JU 00 Inste ad of 

Jy . 

^) Badds A!!^> Jc> A\\. O 1 ) Kor. 
~0 B Jy. (\Y) K or. 56, 10-11. 
Kor. 83, 2223. ( r ~) B C^Ac but corr. above. 


r t 

V. ir- k A) U<- N V 5 V\ 

A f. 35& 


(\) B om. (0 AB <,. (^) Kor. 23, 60. (*0 B Us. () B o\ J^j. 

0) B J*i . ( Y ) Kor. 7,158. B \yj^. ( A ) B ki-J, . (^) B ^iV,. 

(\ OB 0/3 Jo. ) Kor. 23, 61. 00 B ^/ie. 0*) B iUs_k 

(\M B . (^) B adds Jt>, j*. ( n ) B Jc>^ JP. (\ Y ) B \^ iU. 
(^) B AX-. 


11 \ ^S A9j 4U\ 4^, fcrH JU ( 

O (3 J f 

> \ - - \\ 
W jv-J cj JU 

(\) B ^io^ J. (OB om. 4Ji\ <^ >^\ JV5. (^) B om. C 4 -) B app. J_j. 

() B ^J,^j. 0) Kor. 17, 59. " (V) Kor. 5, 39. (A) B o ^_, . 

(^) Kor. 23, 5758. ) B j>Vi^U. 0\) B ^\. (\ r ) B om. 

from J\l9 to ^y. 0^) Kor. 23,59. (^) B ^.^Vj. (\) B J^ jc>. 

(^) Kor. 20, G. OY) B JP. OA) B \\. (^) B 


o f *> f 

r. o ( j t- a 

^i\ >\ 1J \S 

> fv J\< n 

C (U 

0) B j. (OB Jt>. j. W Kor. 2, 2. (*) B ^ . () B ^ 
0) B ^u^\. ( Y ) B ^L. ( A ) B ojTj> Jc ^. 0) Kor. 10, 36. 

(\-) Kor. 10, 33. (H) B ora. 00 B Ji>jjs. u>\. 0^) B 

(^) Kor. 2, 2. (^) B <Ji\ 1 5^\. ( n ) Obliterated in B. ( w ) A^i 
The word is partly obliterated in B. A ) Kor. 31, 26. 0*0 AB 

(r-) B ^o^. 


JJL* <^ ^ Af.34 


U l\ ^ 

/\ .{^ y \^\ ^^ 


(\) B 1=U:^V\ ^U. ( r ) B om. from ^i J to ^,1 Ac\^. The words 

from ^i (j to Jo^\ ^ ^>j*- Vc are snppl. in marg. A. (^) B om \\3 

4\ A*-J ^ii\. ( 1 ) Suppl. in marg. A. () B \sJ^. ("^) B ^A} 4=>_,U 
(V) B om. (A) B Uc. (t) AB \5j? . 00 A js^ Jc>. 

(^) Kor. 26, 192-194. (\r) B c>u^ j, O U, ^JJil ^ o ^3 . 

(^) B ^. (^) B <uu~> A;V<^. (\) B J^ f Aiy. (\1) Kor. 

17, 84, OY) Kor. 39, 1. (\A) B proceeds: ^\ ^ ^k<J\ J,J * ^ 

S <0i\ ^ <5jtx-J viLV^ jij*i\. So A in marg. 01) Kor. 40, 1. 

0" ) A \ o- j. ( n ) A app. 5. ( rr ) B 

Jjto ^p j 

j 4 _ Aa __ _ 

\ ^ ,^SJ\ j^a." "\c.^ (S-^\ y>_j <Jai\ 

1^^ ^\ ^ ^U ^ Jc 

g\j\ ^.j ^=- A o \^iV, i J 

L U 

0) B ,jJ\. (0 B J\>_,. m B om. (I) A 

() Altered in A to ^il 0) B^jS\. (V) AB &". W B . 

0) B ((V )c. (*) B gy. (") Altered in A to -_J*~" 00 B 
4.;^aB-\. (^) A corrector of A has drawn his pen through dJJi. 

1 ) B J\li. 0) B r ^J. (H) Kor. 50, 36. OY) B . 
(^) Kor. 39, 19. (^) A 





\S\ y^ < rr > JVsj, <*"lXJ\ oU, o- \ J*C\ (n) Jte iiii\, 

^ ( ^ 9 3^5 ^ ^/\ tf^L. >< rf ) jvs_, <^J\ C.e 

O ^^ J 3>,\% <ro) JUfCi.\< r -> Cy( ri ) .^V^ 

(\) B om. (0 Kor. 3, 13. (?) B i,V\ oW ^ j^. (i) B ^W^ . 

() Kor. 31, 34. C 1 ) A has o^j j ( in which case the citation is 

from Kor. 5, 60) but ^^\j has been stroked out by a later hand and the 
words jfl Sy-^\j added in marg. Text as in B. (Y) Kor. 18, 107. 

( A ) Kor. 16, 99. 0) B iV\. (^) B om. .^ jc. <a\j. (\ \) Kor. 23, 13. 
(^) B \ ^ Oi J.\\ J\ii ^lo^. (^?) B ^*S_5. (\^) Bom. ^ jT^c.. 
(^) Kor. 23, 1011. (H) B ^ ^. ( w ) B ^\ JL^. (\A) A ^ f 
(^) A AJ\ii\. (r-) B om. (r\) Kor. 35.. 25. (IT) K or. 3, 16. 

0"?) Kor. 39, 12. (tt) B UU\. (^) Kor. 3, 5. B 


0) B J^jt. (0 B J. B j,J\. (1) B ,/ 

) B ^Wp. 0) B om. U^ ^\ J\5. TO B j^,;. (A) B 
. 0) B om. (OB\t. ("J 

0*) B yS^l. (^)B^J,. (r-)B>jjt. (H) Kor. 45, 22. 

(1"0 B JV5 V^j. (") Kor. 18, 27. (ri) B adds Uy ,^\ <g 3 . 

(r) Kor. 7,198. (") B adds OsUV/1 o s- >-]>- (rV) Kor. 3,12. 

(rA) B 


^ ol r) 



(rO A ^iy. (r^) Kor. 2, 1. (r*0 Kor. 2, 62. 

(^) Kor. 2, 38. (0 Kor. 2, 38. (?) Kor. 3, 169. I 1 ) Kor. 2, 145. 

() Kor. 2, 147. B J^iV,. 0) Kor. 5, 26. ( Y ) Kor. 5,93. ( A ) Kor. 
29,69. (^) B adds iVV (^ ) Kor. 27, 40. ( u ) A adds in marg. 

<a\ Jtu- J ^a;^ k^\, \jAftW_, ^Vfcj ^\ Oi^ O^ ( Kor - 8 > 73 )- 
(\ r ) Kor. 3, 140. Kor. has *^\j. 0?) Kor. 98,4. (^) B om. 

0) Kor. 33, 23. O 1 ) A adds in marg. <uj Jj~*^ \^^ ^y.^^ V^V. ^y^ 

\l f\^ \j>\ J^^ (Kor. 8, 24). (\Y) B l%l (\A) B adds 

(\t) Kor. 4, 79. B om. J5. ( r< ) Kor. 3, 12. B om. dlii. 

( r ^) B^\iU (rr) Kor. 6, 32. W Kor. 3, 182. (!"*) Kor. 42,19. 

( r ) Kor. 35, 6. (^) Kor. 45, 22. ( rv ) B om. the rest of the verse. 

( rA ) Kor. 79,37-38. (H) B ^^ ^ f \3u ^W & U^ ^^ J> ^ O U 

(Kor. 79, 39-41). 



J\ J&\ C\ rf ( A ) J\a 

S^VxsJi <u~ii wliich occur in the chapter entitled oU\^a\U *^o_^\ <j A\i \ ^nt 

(A fol. 63&, last line). The text of B resumes, without any lacuna, on fol. 69&, 1. 1. 

0) Kor. 27,60. ( r ) B J&. (?) Kor. 22,74. (*) B J^ . () B om. 

0) B o^. ( Y ) B ^\ oj^. J- (A) Kor - 35 > 29 - ( ^ B om - the rest 

of the verse. OOBj^u. (^) A Vik^>Vl. B VikoV\ 

0^) B J^j*. (\i) B ^ J\5. (^ ) B J. 

^ O^. ^U^V 0^) B l^j f. W B Ji-J\. A) Kor. 5, 52. 

B JfGj, and ^ has been suppl. in A. ( u ) Kor. 5, 53. ( r O B om. 

_5 Jiks. ( ri ) Here A inserts in marg. ^U\ V^. jU, ^\ sij\jV\ ^ *->Vj 


J^J > ^ ^ V 

\Si liSl \J\ uJ^ 3 JuJ\ 

4AJ,\ ^ J^ 4 

3 j\ 

CU f \s\ dili c (r) 


J u-ij , 

^ j r jv; 


(\) Kor. 26, 8889. ( r ) B om. from to A- ^Ji ^ *X>. (^) Kor 
37, 8182. (*) B om. () B /! yii\ ^ AjV^ 0) B app. AJ\. 

( Y ) B J^jc. Ali. ( A ) Suppl. in marg. A. B j\^\ o ^ .49. (^) A proceeds 
U Aii\^i> A9_5- In marg. A ^L ^\ jj ^ ^^ J^ ji^l f^ O 
fjfj&A gf ^^- Tex t as in B. 00 B ^ ( U ) Kor. 2,1 
B o^^. (^) B Juk. (U) Kor. 10,26. 0) B om. J 

)*\s*. (H) B io\>. OY) AB (5 3i\. OA) B ^5^. 

l is the last word in B, fol. 43a. Fol. 436 begins 9-y_j JV*iV\ ^ r/ 

< liu *\i\ 

^ 4 Jop- *;.\ 

Vc jjjL.ajH jt>j ~-r^>\>. f\r^ *>. Oi- 1 ^ 

S1 illW lljj; ro ^>t U j Jl5 << r ) 

ij>- jTcLji *J CaJ\ _oi\\> ff\t\ J*) U\ J\ 

jU. Jc ^ \j>l. f$\ ^ V^O) ju<) 4\ 
> Jy > \>\ oil dili J. yj*.J, 

j > (M) 

\ ^ < y, 


JJj Jp dl> 

(^) A U_,. (0 In marg. A ^^ &&]. (?) Kor. 16, 91. C 1 ) B 

() B ojTi Jc>. 0) B j^. In A the final alif has been supplied. 

(Y) Kor. 6,38. (A) Kor. 36,11. 0) Kor. 15,21. 00 B ^ 

(") B om. 00 B 01^ JD ^ ^.^ oJub J. ?) B J^ j 

( l ) B JV" 9 ^. ) Kor. 17, 9. (1 ~V> B -cU J ^1\\^ . Y) B 

^J. OA) Kor. 38, 28. 0^)B^\. 0"-) B 
( n ) Kor. 50, 36. 



^ c^ y (U) x? 

V) 4\ J\S aij L 

0) AB ^WU (0 B om. 

) A c^u^. () B 

^b ^ ^U 4a\ J\J J^JP 
Jj;\. 0) Kor. 3,5. 

) Kor. 54,5. 00 B . 

Kor. 4, 71. B has C^^ for Cr 

( Y ) Kor. 17,84. ( A ) Kor. 36,1. 

(^) AB jk. (^ r ) B ui 

2,1. (\) B adds 5 

V \ 



Js> A) OjW " 

Jl\ J 

JU <l\ ^U^ 

^) o^stil 0) : 


0) B ^. (0 B i^jUi. (^) B om. () B j>A9. () B j^\. 
0) B Jp ,j.c-. ( Y ) A ^Vo but ,j_^o written above as a variant. 

(A) Altered in A to OJ *$> which seems to be the reading of B. 0) B^J. 
00 B ^.^ Oi j}\ (j \^iB. 0\) B om. from <J^ to J^V\ ^ O ^W 

(\0 in marg. A^c>\. (^) B jU_, dl^b . (^) Kor. 15,75. 

(\) B om. from c**-^ to Ju\jT. ( n ) Kor. 51,20. ( w ) B V\. 

(^ A ) A ^U^,V\ with V^ as variant. 


U *Vki.U kJUS) 4\ 



\ A& Jp 


5 V. 

4fl ,v 

(^) B om. 4\ <^^ \ J\5. ( r ) B om. (^) B ^. I 1 ) B AJ\ 

AJ ^P. () A om. AjJ\ji\ ^Va\j but cJUU has been supplied by a later 

hand. 0) B ^j^k UV^. ( Y ) B oV^lV, . ( A ) B 4^1. 

C) B \. 00 B U. 0\) B 


& y\ JU 

/> Jl\ 

x5^ \i\i 

j^ > j^ \r\>-( y \^ r 

(\) B om. ( r ) B om. from ^ to A-^. (^) Kor. 7, 163. (V) B ^ 
yJ^ J*liU. () B ^JL. 0) A J^.. (V) A om. J^ snppl. 

in marg. (A) B ^^_,. 0) A ^ii\. The reading of B is doubtful. 

00 B U-,Y\^; (^) B <a\. (\0 B ^ ^. O^B^jp. 

(^) B ^j^U,. (\) B app. c-^llaUjb. (H) A ^U^J\. Y) B om. 
A in marg. ^L. A) ^ has been suppl. in A. (H) Kor. 57,3. 

( r O A adds in marg. SJubllVi J\o. (H) B j,\.^. 

t < 

. J 

s^ ^ 

1X5 c 


< jA\-ii,\ 

tt\ J\ ^ Ji\ **-, 

v. 4 


() B om. (0 B _,_,. W B om. JS\ **_, ^ii\ J\5. (1) Kor. 

50,36. () A jSiW. 0) Kor. 85,3. B JutVi. ( v ) B J\i. (A) B adds 
J^ after fo=._,\. 0) B a .. 00 B u _lc-. () B o^.,. 

(*0 B Jr>j _>t. W B om. from ^ to Jt>_, _jt.. (I *) B li. ") B ^_,. 
(I"*) B Jai. (IY) B om. Os- A > B 4*. t) B a^_j which 

is written in A as a variant. ( r ) B J\. ( ri ) B ijyi\. 

IV <4Ujl>Y\ JW 



< *\1\ V\ iV. X, 

0) This passage occurs in AB above (see note V on p. 11) and is also 
written on the margin of A in this place. I give the text according to A. 
(0 B om. W Kor. 13, 28. (*0 B J&. () A ^. 0) A om. 

from A^-J to A.9^iA ^ ^>fK^_j. The marginal version in A has iVo for i$-. 
(Y) B app. j\^\. ( A ) A om. from J\is to ^;\Ja^. (^) B _yb^. 

(\0 B om. 44^1 Jc. ( u ) A ^xL^ but \yt\j written above. (\0 B 

J\ \jLj. (^) B om. from Jc^ ji. to o>-^- ^^ Kor - 1( 5, 128. 

0) Kor. 2,148. B o \. (H) B J> j js- AJy. (^Y) Jn marg . A ^ 

U\. OA) B 

Jt -* 

iVl JU -A, 

sH j\ 


< ( > 4\1\ JU 

B om. (H B J13. () AB 3>. () A 3. () B \iU 

C 1 ) B J*^. f ( Y ) Here both A and B add the passage be 

ginning J\i^ji\ jc ^ l y~^\ Ju*j and ending AiWij .uj\ ^V>.\ ^.*>. ,JA which 

evidently belongs to the next chapter. It has been supplied in marg. A in 
its proper place by a corrector (see the following page, 1. \ to 1. ). Here 
the corrector has written in marg. A ex*j ^->U\ <3 W>^> JA^>> 
J=^ JP. 0) B om. tt\ <^- J j^\ J\5. 00 B 

(\\) Kor. 89,27. (\ r ) Kor. 13, 28. ( ^ Kor. 2, 262. 

10 i (j^y\ (j\> v-A, 

jV O A ^^ ^ a: 
\ CV\ 


(\) B om. (0 B A*. (^) B o>^i for cr^ O/i- C 1 ) B U 

l>Jo Jo\. The orig. reading of A was >j>\. () B \1 which also appears 

in A as a variant. 0) A iwajiU but ,_-J-0\ written above. ( Y ) A jfi 
but JS- written above. ( A ) B om. from Js*JV, to ^\y^\j. (^ AB U\. 
In A J.^\ is written above as a variant. 00 B ^C- . (^) B c5><al\ 

for 4\ <^-j. ^ r ) A had orig. ^\ <^\j but J has been stroked out. 

0*) B ^- ( U > B tfj>. (\) AB AJtf .. 




U< 0) 
V, 3 



ii\ lu\ 


JW ^rV 

4ttl Vl JU 4\ 

(\) B jjU. (0 B j\Li\. (^) B iJfi. (i) B ora. () A 
but written above. 0) B tf.\. ( Y ) B om. JU <\i\ 

( A ) B^ai\. (^) After ..^ B has a word which is partly obliterated: 

(?) U, . ) B ^. ((1 1 )) In A j is suppl. before i\. (> B Jj 
J,^l\\ and a corrector has restored this reading in A. ) B om. J\3 

(^) B W 


Is. \J>U 

J\5 yai, _ 

V. 9 


r \ 

(\) B Wji^ OjA. (0 A CrJij^. B app. CnOj... (^) B 

W B j^. () B ^^^1. 0) B J\5. (V) B om. (A) 

0) B . 00 B Jku. (\\) B V^. (\0 B lij^. 0*) A ^JU. 
0*) A adds tJiyi J\o jy^\ JWj but these words have been stroked out. 
0) B om. from ^l to JW A\i\ 4^,. ( n ) ^\ jWj in marg. A. 

OY) B oy^ J*V\. A ) Suppl. in marg. B. 1) A in marg. 

. ( r> ) B jc A!>\ \ . (^ ) B sjii, 

s " 


, vi j& 


^ " Ji5 
U 4)1\ oV 

, y 


B , 

(f) B 

M B \,. 

. (0 B U 

0) B a \ ifj. 

but ViJos- written above. 00 B <c;VJi. 

0^) A \i. Oi)A a l. 0) B 

* T-.^- (IY) B om. 

(*) B ^. () AB 

(A) AB |i. (1) A VJ 


{ y>. 

Wil\ JV 

marg. A 


OJ \ j\5j < 




0) B om. (0 AB ^^i. A in marg. J^lil (^) B ^j. (*0 Bom. 
O. o\5S. () B VUJ\. 0) B UU. (Y) B 1> (A) B ^\. 
0) B ^^j. 00 B om. w\ <*.j ^]\ J\5. (\\) B ^ VVj 

(\0 B W;\ JW. (^) B o/3 Jc>. (\i) Kor. 33,21. 0) Kor. 17,59. 
(^) Kor. 18, 110. ( W )B adds the remainder of the verse: \Jo\ C 


( * 


a.;\ Jo 


0) B om. ^\ 
(^ B diii. 
( A ) Kor. 3^169. 
for ^ ^T. 

j^\ J\J. (r) B U\ . W B om. UVs ^\ 

B om. 0) B eu~ ^ AJ^. ( Y ) B o 

C 1 ) Kor. 55,46. ) Kor. 24,37. ( u ) B 


J\B aU\ ^ J,l * \ <a\ -/> jrl oyj:\ \ . \f 

^\ ^ ^ (0 J 

Ai ( oleA/ C-VuaM 

4tti -> r 

^^ jl U 

JU V 5^00 ^ ^ yU\^> <JL\ U 

i.\\ \ 

^ Jo U&* ii-i\ oVa.^ ^ Jju\\ Jc 

(0 B om. (0 In B C=H\ follows ^^U (^) B om. <a\ ^ 

W B \)L. () A \i. 0) B C5 J.\\ jU\. ( Y ) Altered in A to 

5^jf. ( A ) B ^ <\i. (^) B J^ JP X 0-) li\ suppl. in 

marg. A after ^ J 3. (H ) B S^\ Jc(?) VuJ. ( ; r ) B ^si. 
0^) Altered in A to U. 

a-i ol 


(^) Kor. 3,29. B om. Jj. (0 Kor. 2,160. (^) Bj"^. (*) B om. 
() A om. .0) B ^. (Y) B %_, Jc>. (A) jVk.U\\ added in marg. A. 

0) B J-yjj. (^) B *- fx vi^ji. A in marg. <^ 

1 ) B <^^c> J>. (^ r ) A Oji-XoJ\ but corr. in marg. 



i \J>U 

A\ JW 

5 L- > > 

J\ ^ 

1-fy \i\ JV5 Sj^ U< 41 > JU ^ i^t? J\i 

Jii \ 

0) B ^. (r) B dUAi (^) B JU \s^^ jU V^.x T U. W B ^. 

() B om. 0) A ^J. (Y) B di^, \i Vs. ( A ) B om. ^s- 4\ 

,3=>_5. 0) A has ^\ as a variant. (^) B \y^5. 0\) AB ora. 

but snppl. in A. (\0 B J^\ 4^ ^. (^) B J\y. (^) B ^\. 

0) B ^Ji. (^BjVSj. OV) B om. ^\ *^ *^\ J\5. (\ A )BU\ O . 
( n ) B o/3 ^J. (") B ^^ *^- J jVi9 v,V\. ( n ) Kor.5,59. 

(rr) B ^l. 


\f -ii-^ jia 

> \ i-.^) V\ -^ ^ o V. 

0)BU. (0 B yy\. mB^\ki. W B MlX- ()Bom. 

0) B*^. < Y ) B cm. \ -_, ^li\ J\5. W B ./i ^J. C>) Kor. 
2,182. 00 B om. from J\i_, to A y ^\. () Kor. 50, 15. 00 Kor. 
56,84. Of) Kor. 17,59. O l ) B om. from Jlw^\ to ^y\ ^1. 

(*) The words ij_^3 f r suppl. in marg. A. 0"*) B 

0V) B J^V. A ) B ^. (^) B o-i^j- ( r > 

In marg. A J. ^\ is written over i *J\. 


; ^J u f G 

S\ jl J\i * 

V. a 

l ^U. o.U ji (*) 411 \ 

J\^. ^ dill, (^) . 45 j V. o Ua. JW;( A ) 41) \ 
JvL, J>! \ JV; \f 


JU ^\ ^ */> 

\3_, y \ O y V. 

0) Kor. 33,52. (0 JJ om. (^) Kor. 50,17. (M Kor. 9, 79. Kor. 

has f]^.j fa. () Kor. G4, 4. 0) om. ^ ^. (V) u ^ 

V^ J\5. W B ^ J>. (^) u ^. 0-) Be*- -!. 

(U) H V- (^ r ) Iii A a later hand has supplied ^,1 before C 

l. in A. 0) B adds: \^* Cc 

i) A ^. (\Y) ], ^. (\A) 

Ivor. 7,195, 

(4\\ U^_, \j>\ - 


\>\;i, A.UiJl, ,jL\ 


l jfcA J\f\ ^J 4B\ 

J\ >\ 

(\) B oin. ( r ) H 4 ej Ui.\. (^) Here B has the saying of 3\ii\ 

given above: "V^aAS\ j^^c ^^\ (j^- J*** V^jJ\ ^ jU5i\ J^j (with j^ for 
;>). B JV5 for J^. W B 4e>j\. () B ^^uj.. 0) A OJ ^JL^ ^^ 
but ur ~li\ erased and W ui\ written in marg. ( Y ) B o\-J>j . ( A ) Kor. 

5,119. 0) B om. *&. ^.o,,,. 00 B S_j. 0^) B O VJ. (^ r ) A AxoJ? . 
(^) A *W>. (^) BjfM. (^) B V<iAi^ J^V\ ^JL\. ( n ) B ^l, 
V\ iio, V\ W. (\V) B om. 4\ \ V^. (\ A ) B o\\. 


V* J 


0) B Jc>_j j.c.. (0 B e>o_j m\ V\ ojC ^ O^ 1 ^ B om> ^ B fe 

j^xi. () B Y^. 0) B ji-. (Y) B om. ^ ^j ^i\ J\5. 

( A ) B Ujjj. (^) B ^J. (\-) Kor. 5,119. (^) Kor. 9, 73. A has 

tj^.^,. (\0 B om. from Jj^j to ^l^^. (^) A (Sj^ but j>Vui\ 

written above. ON A ._j .^ but corr. in marg. 0) * l*aJ\ ^c ,Wj 
is suppl. in marg. A- (^) B .-j. 

yM Ai. vA, <j3\ .-AxT of 


>\ J- Ci, < ^. U 

i, < 5> v\, I; jl\ 

y ;-ji j\a 

\r ^ s \ 

A adds in marg. OSj\, 4\ Jl \UV\,. (0 B O J, . W AB 

j. .(*) B 5jJi\l. () A li. 0) B om. (V) B app. 

WBjoJl. 0) B JV.^-1. 00 B om.^U^l. 

(H) B om. KjJ j. (*0 B J=,_, jf. 4 . 0^) B ^,. 04 A^V 
(^) The passage beginning Vjjki\ u;jVf->\ ^ and ending 4^;V\ 3 in suppl. in 
marg. A. (^) A UU\ jJw.. ( 1Y ) B S^J. (U) A ^^J but 

corr. by a later hand. (11) B 








0) A corrector of A has indicated that this verse should follow the next 
one. (0 B uij_y. and so A in marg. (^) A in marg. *\pb\ &~*-j- 

(*) In marg. 
(V) B om. 

This hemistich in B runs: \jj& ^jj. J^yJJj ul/^ 
A Lryo. () A^JJ but corr. in marg. 0) B ^ . 

(A) B dJu Jl. (^) B ^V^. 00 B om. <ui\ <^ 

(\\) B Jc-^J^. 00 Kor. 5,26. 0*) Kor. 14,15. 

from Vs to =*^ 0) Kor. 14, 14. ( n ) Kor. 65, 3. 

-) B om. 


Kor. 26,217218. 


and so corr. in A. 

* UW _J V) t 7*. V-U <-_) W 


ii JU ^ JVi> 4B\ 

(j^-l^j ojV^X\ Jp jv^l ^ ti\J ( ^ 4li\ 


U J^ 

> Jp 

(^) B om. (0 B J\fc JV5. (^) B om. J\5i 

added in A by a later hand. () B ^j. 0) B >\}\. (V) B 
^Jc. ( A ) A \j> but corr. by a later hand. 0) B ^j-.^U instead of 

tt\ ^j. ( v< ) B ^. (^) A in marg. ^ Sc^. (\0 B ^\j 

(^) B diiJ^. (^) B i^. 0) B om. 
AB OvlJ\ A in mar S" ^^ (W) B 

JL> >! JVii J 
y, >- ,ui\ 

J\a j 

^.l\ r \i.A,\i. U* \ JJ JS U*j <^J\ 
Ijo ^^ ^ >-^ ^ 1 * 5 -^ ia**a;\ -V>-\ \j Gi dilc 

(\) B om. A\J\ Juf-^.\. (0 B om. (^) B \i^. (*) B 

() B /J\. 0) B Vilt.^. (V) SuppL in A. B \. W B 
(^ A Ov"oLai\ but corr. in marg. (^) B om. 

(^) Kor. 39, 13. 00 B adds: <u\^ o ^^ j^ J 

(^) B ^jt. 0*0 A U corr. in marg. B \^\ o . 

U Ati 



U -^ 



-*u3 Ju>yH JjU 


(0 B 

* <iU^. (^) B om. *>\ ^ 

- 0) B ^V^- ^ y ) B app. 
\. 0-) B om. (\\) B 

n marg. 




*j (? lli 

U JW^> 

Jjl O, 

J A > U i^o 


\jaJ\ ^ slij- aj\\ JVy ajj\ 

^&M i 

0) B om. (0 B u -^\. (^) B ^\. (*) B 

() A J^\4 altered to o^-W by a later hand. 0) B &\. ( Y ) B o ^ 
Instead of ^A*) ^VCj A in marg. has f Ju>j ^ Vj-^ji. ( A ) B \1^. 

(^) ^ sup-pi, in A. 00 B j. (^) These words are suppl. in A. 

00 B om. *&\ ^ L\\ J\i. (\^) B JC>JJP. 0*) B J^ JP J\5^. 

0) Kor. 2,274. 

u- <5 Jl\ Cj 

\ yJ \ J^ 

Af - 20& 

OiJ^ViH f A5 Jj\ y^ U 

4\ ^ 

o C- A.! 

U < 


i \r o) 

\ j^ il 
4,15 jte O \ JV^ Jjbjll 

(^) B Jj^- ( r ) B om. j* ^i om. in A, but suppl. in marg. 

(^} B om. 4\M ^ J\ J\S. () A iwi^^. 0) B jyj. (Y) V, 

suppl. in marg. A. ( A ) B j*\j\. (^) B 5^.^. (\) B i*^A*. 

0^) B A} <\i\ jUrf-k ojVjs-Vi. OH B Oi ^\\. (\V A tf,. (\i) A oJi2. 
(^) B J^. (H) B \j,V\. (W) A JftJ iV, but corr. in marg. 

v, jty jvs *\ A 


J^ (A) ^ ^ ^ 

t U 

0) B g di^ ^U\ ^1 ^L. (0 A o^; B o^ 1 ^ W B orn. 
W B ^l. () B fV7 y^!. 0) B & (Y) A ^W. (A) A Jo 

but J^ written above. 0) B \ J^ J\ij Juc U o\^ dJi ) B U-l V- . 
(^) A o-c- J\3. 00 B om. ti\ ^j j& j\ J\3. (^) B Jy* Jj. 

(^) B J\ii. 



U i 

i \i, 


** ^ J ^^ 

^) B om. 
B ^. 
B adds 

(0 A t/ ,V^\. (^) B 

0) B om. i^\ J\ii. 
. 00 B ^i^. 

(^) B Ji\. 

B oin. 

(V) A 

AB \i. 
B om. 


4.J. a.Xj 1 AlA ^-jJ I) 

(^) B ^\. (0 B om. (^) B o~^. (^ B V/ <: . () \f 

0) B J^^. (Y) B jWj, 4,\J. ( A ) B j^,.. (^) B om. from 

to i ;j x\\ ^c.. (^) B Ow^Uj. ( u ) B om. <ui\ & ^ . (^ r ) A 
corr. by later hand. 0^) B V. (^) B om. <&\ \s-j J^\ 

(\) A b. 



JU ^ 


. \ 

4 Ai 

B om. J\3_j _LS^, ^-s ^>j. ( r ) Kor. 37,164. (^) B om. I 1 ) A adds 

in marg. >J\ f li, f U^ p ju ^ ^\, J^_ JV^ o \ JV^\, f U\ 

j\cViaJ\ jJ.Aa.a- tj 4.;b\j^ e^AUa|. () B om. this heading and proceeds 

A 9A- but corr. in marg. 

B om. J5 <^;. A a>Jo jV^ J*-ti but in mar g- O^ 

ol (^ ) B 5 

11 <V^>^ oUA\ J v^A, 

f \U o 

() B om. ( B SJU. B SAa. 

( Y ) B i V^ v- (A) Qushayri, 4, 25, has CA~ 

B ^^^ . (^ ) B adds <;\ 4\ <^ . ( u ) A A\j.\\ with ^A V\ suppl. in marg. B 
t5^V,\ jjb\ji\ and in marg. ^Vo^. Qushayri (4, 25) (5 A \ y>^, but the edition 
containing the commentary of Zakariyya Ansdri (Cairo, 1290 A. H.), I, 45, 11 
marg. has <5A^yi>^\. (^) jj^J suppl. in A before ^*-_j . 
4ii\ *U \ A^^. ( u ) B om. A\i\ <a^ ^\ jVi. B 

(^) B JU, L". ( w ) B < ^o. " OA) Kor. 14, 17. 

<ui\ ^J- f J.VJJ\ Jy j ^l 

JJU ^ > ^\ 3 i ^j-^ > J^ >i\ V; 

> ^SCj V,\ ^ ^ JU 



0) A ^VxxJ. (0 B om. (?) B J_ji tf^UV. (^ B iai-j 

() B om. <ui \ 4^-j ^ ^ JV3j. 0) B iy-Uj, ( Y ) B lc\ 411^ *i 

( A ) A 5^l\ but corr. in marg. (^) B J\3. (^*) Kor. 51,56. ( n ) B 
00 B_1"A\. (\^) B A\.\\^. 

L ^* 

j\ Ac\ 


stl, JuJ\ U 


J ^ di;U jL 

u, UW f U 

J u 

o \ 


B om. 

(0 B 


B \1. 0) B viUi J B J\5. (Y) B 

B Ow. 00 B b. 

) B o 

(A) B om. 3 

s U 

k sii\ 5^ 5^V,ll <^o 1 yJA ^ ^ 

S^iL. AJjS ^ow iii i 4 
**-j \ JVs <^-ji5\i 

4f J_\^ o^ - 1 -" o 


Ui j*> . \i 

- r. 

0) A in inarg. o_j\i^\. (0 B ^ Jxx\\ . (^) A dJAjST. (*0 B om. 

() B has Uu\ instead of <Ji\ <^-,. 0) B om. Vc\ \\3. ( Y ) B t \sz~,\. 

J U -s 

( A ) B \ft \s\ . (^) B om. from A,V\ to ^ i>u^ (^ ) B UL^j . 

( u ) B om. A \^))aj. ( ir ) B ^.oiU f\^Vi- (^) B u^Lx 

0*0 B L J. (^) B <wb\ .t-K (^) B om. from o-si-^, to 



tt\ 4 

j^i yv, u yv; jL^v^ 

^-*^ O_T^ * *- f^ 1 (> -*^ * 

b ^ ^ >^ 

v\ i^\ O^ ^ ^^ v\ u 

B <Jr ai. (0 B V;\. (?) B <;Vto. C 1 ) B _,. () B om. 

^ suppl. in marg. A before ^^-Y^ . ^) B tiVjJj ^j^-e 

Here B has a lacuna extending to L U^j ci^^o exxt (j,-^^^ (p. ^A, 1. 1). 
Suppl. above, 00 A ^ VilK (^) A J 1 , V\. (\0 Suppl. in marg. 

V. *\i 




( B om. Kor. 20,109. B om. w 

I 5 -) B J^ JP. () B V U^ \k* o.. 0) A ^W). (Y) B 

jJai. (A)Bdiij^. 0) B VJ. (^) AB tfA ( u ) B *l s >\. 

(\0 B ojTi Jt>. (^) Kor. 2,256. 0*0 Instead of ^Jc ^- P ^J B 

has Uc H . (\) B om. ^\ U J. (^) B . () B o ^. 

(\A) B jjA* ^\ . (^) B 4j\:\ j- ( f ) A 

in marg. ( r ^) B om. 411 \ ^-j gj-ii\ J\3. 

(\) B &. (0 B om. (^) B Uu.\. (*) B ^ . () A ora. 

but suppl. above. ("^) B A). (^) A I^^JjUJi corr. to \Ji*JL 

(^) A dAiJu, after which \c. has been supplied by a later hand. 
0) B VA,,,, 0-) B 4ii\ JUP. ( u ) B ora. O^j cr 9 - ( ^ r) B ^j,. 

(\^) A om. from here to ^^.J^ (Jt^_? bllt tlie passage in supplied in marg. 
in two slightly different versions. (^) B 

i-Jai- ^ V^ AiiiA J LJ\ 

t i : U\ oJ 

^ > 0) 


, ._, 

5ji Jc ^j.. 

( J C \ 4\JJ, ,U. Vj< u > < 4V o*!- a- 


Jo- ^ jP ( ^ ^ Ji\ ija^ .* 4^J^ j)y\-j 4JuL AtoU-i U 

(\) B om. (0 B cx-^. (^) B Ju>.^\. () B i 
() B UV\. 0) B proceeds: ^\ Uo ^ j\ o^. (Y) B j>Jh. 

(A) B J^i\. C 1 ) B ui\ j>_^. (^) B i^. (\\) A om. but j\o 

written above. (^ r ) B app. o-L. (?--o). (^) B Ail. (^) B 

o-. 0) B W. (^) AB -- 


3 Jc 

" 5 

(OB tf^\)- (0 A uj^jiA but corr. in marg. (^) B _yt,_j. 

<3*^ t>* O^ o^** () -^ ^jj ^ B om< ^ B ^-^ ^ 

( A ) B om. A adds in marg. <uli^. 0) B ^ and so A in marg. 

00 A om. these words but they are suppl. in marg. 00 B <J 

00 A iTbut corr. in marg. 0?) B J.b. 0*0 B ^J 

0) A om. ^ &\ ( y*. 


r J J ^oo 

U Vw 

^ ~ 

L^- -7 

Jj ij^^l <-uJ ^\ ( ^ } V U ^\ 

it Si $ 

U j^-Xi. Jc Je-j^ 5 iLi- oj,-i=>_, 

U ^ ^/ v ) ^ii\ JV5 ^ <0 U\ j U 


(\) A adds in marg. Vi\ U J^. ( r ) In A the words Jy a , ^1 \J^ 

liave been erased and <vW~) ^ U J^J^ written in raarg. (^) B om. 

I 4 -) B cj-is^l. () The passage beginning ^.\ JVs^ and ending ^j> ^ju 

4. v .x\a>J (j,V>j <ui\ is wanting in the text of A but is suppl. in marg. 
0) B U^. ( Y ) B j^. (A) B ^\ f ^J, 4^ JaJ\/i ^ ^. 

(^) A in marg. Jo.. (\0 B Jj^. ( u ) B Jc>jjf-. O r ) Kor. 3,16. 
(\t) B >^ JP ^- (^) A \jji5. (\) B j^\ vi)!j\,. (^) So A, but 
is written above. Y ) B ^_j^\. A ) Here B proceeds: p\Vj 
( n ) B proceeds: /\ cu-.t. ^;\ 6 Vu>. 

1 1 

\j ij^jo.! 

.;U el*. 0^>* j oj-J Ji 

0) B i*^. (0 B vbJJ, ^ (^ A A & U. (M B 

() B JW. (^) B OJ A;_, A^V^. ( Y ) A |.U- In B the first letter is 

obliterated. Qushayrl (161, 22) has p\JL . ( A ) A <J corr. by a later hand. 

0) A ju*,.. (\0 B om. (\\) Kor. 7, 171. 00 B adds ^ o . 

^iji. (^) B om. 4\ ^>- J ^\ J\5. (\M B >^\. (\) B \i^. 

(^) B om. ^. Y ) B ^do_,. (\ A ) A adds in marg. yu ^ o * V^J. 

(^) B om. jb, . (r-) A jua, 



^\ ju 

^ O jki ^j ^ lie tf 4j\ 

B orn. ( r ) B JV5^. (?) B om. jCj ll.. (^) B proceeds: 

^\ tfj\ ^. So Quslmyri, 161, 17. () A ^\. (^) Here B proceeds: 

( A ) A J^W> 
. (^ r )B om. oJc, 
0*0 B U^^. 

Y ) A V/^9 erased: 
but corr. in marg. 

in marg. 

(Y) A 45^ but 

(\ )Bom. \. (^)A U\. 
(\?) _5 added by a later hand. 
(^) A J>^V\ but corr. in marg. 
B app. J.J ^. (^ A ) A 

written below. 




0) B om. (0 B JL^\ o o ^y-\ 5^. (^) B J^js-. (^ B proceeds : 
^ u^^ cAik*V ( ) A \^. 0)B iU. (V) After ^^ in 

marg. A ^ ^ >V\. (A) B V;^3 j5. (^) B j^\ . ) B J^ 

O. (\\) A x-^. (\0 B jUi 4u\. (^) A ^Aii. (\M B a*-. 

(\) B r U, . (^) B ijl J\ and so A in marg. (W) B V^. (^) B J 
. (^) Kor. 7,171. (r-) B om. 

^ O . . 

( r \) A ^V-^p. The words ^, y\5 j ^J\ ^\ j c ^A t -iV, are added in 
marg. A. (IT) B U.. (FV) A SO.. (^) B 

w TA 


&\ j>. \r^\ ^ 4 

< > - *u\ ^->Vo 



(\) B om. v ->o & f\L>j. (0 B c5^^. (^) B om. (^) B JV^. 
() B \. 0) B ^V^ ^. ( Y ) B \,J\ J.U. (A) B om. ^ *\,J>\ ^ 
^jV^. (^) B ^ t 5 JIJJ .. (\0 A Jy\ ^\ bat corr. in marg. 0\) B j 

Ju^\. (\0 B \ Ou^\ ui -i-ji O^ cP ^ A ^ 01) A ^^ 
but orig. ^o_,. (\) A adds ^ after dl*_,. ( n ) B Js^ j.t. Y ) B om. 
dii^i J\5j. OA) B Jx^. 


V, ^ 05 *> V 

J o^Vu, ^ ;uil\ 

**Y\ ^- <2^aJl ^irv* 

^ r V v ^V\ 7 c^N VI 

Jc i, r \ ^\^ r ) JV 

^ s- W 
tfV, ^ ^ V^ ^W\ Ja jj\ 


ii^i^ v*3^ J "r^ c fJ^ c - t " 



(\) B 0j ^U\. (0 B om. (^) B ^^^. (^ A in marg. U J . 

() A has A.l^ai\ \*\ ^ \jllj A.J_^ali\ but A.JU ^ is suppl. in marg. 0) BuU. 
( Y ) B j. (A) A om. ^ Vi/i ^0,5. (^) B ^U\ JU. ) B ^c>^. 
(^) B A^M. (^) A in marg. U. (^) A in marg. o!\a. (^) A in 

marg. dJuJj . (^) A in marg. AiLi~a . (^) A in marg. J,\ Js*^ r- 10 

( w ) B app. oW. 


L^\ \j\ V 4.4\> ( ^ 411 \ SJ\ ViJ 

<) 4fl\ 

(\) B ^^.. ( r ) B om. (^) A ^ but corr. in inarg. W AB ^V,^ . 
() Ivor. 59,8. 0) B om. ^Vo ^ . ^ Y ) B omits this quotation. 

( A ) Suppl. above. 0) Kor. 2,274. 00 Bom. J^ o*. -^^^ ^^ B om - 
Jc^js.. (\0 B ^. 0?) B j^o. (^) Instead of ^J^ jT, 

B lias <u\S and A in marg. <u\c>. (^) In A (jj-^-^ nas been written 

above o.. (H) B cj\>. ( W ) B o^>- A) 1J ^ U (n) B J^J- 
( r ) B ^SU. ( n ) B <C. (rr)uom.4s\ A^- *\ \5. ( r ^) B . 


P ^AJ XJ^aJl is 

>,ai\ ^ 4Jl\ ^ 

1 Jil_, <^. V. Jo 

aJ Jj A5i * 

0) B J. (0 B J\5 
4\ <^. 0) B om. 

00 B proceeds: ^\ J.J 



\ (n) 

(^) B . (*) B app. 
(V) B dJU. ( A ) B ^< 

A , vvA but corr. in inarg. 
) B J^ js. <UJ \. OY) 

B om. 



U ( 

\;>\ j\y\ Ui 

vo\ L Si 

B \t. (^) B U\ . (^) B proceeds: 

(\) B V&. ( r ) B om. (^) B.Jju . ( l ) A corrector lias 

written in marg. A L ^ . () B J\^W 0) B o^ Jc>. 

(V) Kor. 31, 19. ( A ) B S^\. W B JY*^ ^b. 00 Kor. 4, 85. 

0) B om. 4\ ^^ ijii\ J\5. (0 B JtW-. m B <, . (*) B om. 

B J= >\ k ioj\ k \ li,. 0) B U. (V) B iUU. 

B om. 


) B \i. 


B om. 

0V) B 


^V, < *Jj\ 


^i\ *\ ^ r \ 

3 0) *U <UJ\ jLa-j ** i,*^\ ^V.U Y\ y\S U ^^Af.106 

er " l 

^.l> ly.^a.1); ^\ ^JV^ 


JO 4-3 


Here B resumes (fol. 4?>, 1. 1). ( r ) B OA^ ^-\ ^iy V^ Jc\ ou^ 

J=> ^ ( ^ } B Oln - ^^ ^j- (i) B o^- (0) Bom - 

(1) B ^i" (Y) B &3J" (A) B om ^ ^J- 

Suppl. in marg. A. 00 A ^Vij. ( u ) B ^. (\ r ) B ^=> . 

) A j^ J^ A*- c. (^) B ,_9, (\) B ^s 

) B om. U 

*LP 4\ 


J\5 ^ 


(\) ol.V,^ jU-V\ (0 Kor. 5, 112. Kor. has 3\. (^) Suppl. 

in marg. C 4 -) ij\i\ written above. () In marg. A-V . ("^) v.^J 

(^) ^^9 suppl. in marg. before 

t* J^ 


Vl^ Jo 

o^ \T-Vi" 
dili J o ^ ^ 


i* L iW 

Volc\ f 


^) In marg. 
In marg. 

0) JA*. 

, which appears to be a variant of rj-U)\ . (0 
. I 1 ) So in marg. Text: ^. () Suppl. in marg. 

suppl. below, ( A ) x-\j corr. by later hand. 


05 \ L. >> ^ JV; 

A.L JO O \J 


^-^>\ di^ 


a . ic 

(^) Sup pi. above. C") Snppl. in marg. (^) Kor. 5, 71. (*) Snppl. 

above. () So in marg. Text: j-^UV. . 0) So in marg. Text: J\ii. 

(V) oj-iU. ( A ) So in marg. Text: *L\,. (V yyU, 

^\j&\ jTl j ^ i 


^o ^ 

d * ^ ^ d r ^ \ 

JuJ\ Jc u^fr J: ^- dJ_^ U ^J vdlj ^^ iiil\ V ^j J 

\ 3 

V\ \j U \ 

^o \ ^^ ^i jjto V^_\i>-j V^iAs j ^_/- A J r> t 3 "^ ti 


J U\ U* j^l yAk\\ VC\ 

Ac. J,\ (5^. ^VJ\ j^Tj ^Jcs J,> V!b 

r > r ^ [i-i^aji\ AC. ^ ^1 j,\ v\ (5^>i 

fJU*j <^yb *p J A.VJ^\ u-)j\3 Jt ci\jJ AU\ ^ r^ 1 ^ 

~ "i U A, 

0) So in rnarg. Text: ^.^.UA. (0 Suppl. above. (^) In marg. 

^ j5\. ( l ) Kor. 18,27. () t5^\y.j- (1 ) Suppl. in marg. 

( Y ) So in marg. Text: <uVO. (A ) Kor. 18,109. 0) Kor. 14,7. 
00 U uiV added. 

\ y 

V. t^ \> 

J ^- 

U la 

1 " n - x ""TVjjJl \o 

A f. 8& 


JL ^i 

0) Inserted below. (0 Suppl. above. (^) ^^-^V> added by later 

hand. W Snppl. in marg. () Kor. 9, 123. (^) d)\3 corr. above. 

Sl&- .y *-fyd\ O* fa <y ik ^ vV fM v> 1 1 

j\ o\ * 

a A 61 

(^) Suppl. in marg. (0 So in marg. Text: O^\j. (^) Suppl. in 

marg. Kor. 50, 36. (*-) Suppl. above. () Kor. 13, 28. 0) In marg. 

o-o I,. ( Y ) In marg. ^IV^. 

\ f i*i\ JA\ 


JiaJ\ ^i.^a.J. 

u^^j ^JjV^j ^j\j 4j^i\j>j A.l\jtL-\ ^J.Si 

^ ^^ ^ 8 ^^ * 

^) ^:^ snppl. in marg. after j^. (0 Corr. to &}J&$ by later hand. 

Suppl. above. (*) In marg. ^^ . () Text: V^^l W V/JjU 

-. 0) So in marg. Text: A^. ( Y ) ^^^iVj added by later hand. 


9 Jc- 4JX.LO *jlc j 
J^ ( >^ 0\j 

j ^ JW JJ3, 
oVj\^ J> J 

lS <j ^^ 5 ^3**** 1- - J ^ J \5 [viviV*^ " J ** > )-V5 oVa\JU 
^ 3c>\ JX.^ Jx>^\ oUc^ 5>v.l\ (j^>\^\^ 

J>j > 4a\ ^ A) ^3 U ^^ Jc O L :J 

Suppl. in marg. ( r ) So in marg. Text: 

\i y>- > ji [Jte]0> AJ> 
>\ JV; *,V 


i \ ^s^ x 


A f. 6& 

i^ * Jf>j > 4\ 

^ *i*w j i LTrJ *^ai!lj^ 

Suppl. in inarg. (0 So in marg. Text: 4>\->\ ^^>\s erased. ( 

inserted before Ujj\. () ^^ in marg. 0) Kor. 68,4. 

o in marg. Text: oVWuUo^, ( A ) So in marg. Text: \^Ai^. 


5 3 c. A ^ but corr. in marg. B S^ , 

B \\. () B om. 0) A ^j>_5 but corr. in marg. 

A *l*ll1 but corr. in marg. (^) B J,VjiJ <u^. (*) A in marg. 

tf- Here B has a considerable lacuna extending to the words \^J\ U-U 

V\ ^jr>\ J>\ ^\ J,\ (A fol. 10&, 1. 1). (^ ) i.iVo written above. 

Kor. 39,3. r ) Suppl. in marg. 0?) 

\ \ 



1 ^ V. o 

(^) \^.^ corr. in marg. ( r ) Here B resumes (fol. 36, 1. 1). (^) B ^. 
(M B oin. f) B om. V/. \ft!"j -^ ^. ^^ Suppl. in marg. A. 

( Y ) B om. ( A ) B 45Ji\. C 1 ) B om. ) B iJj-^ 

(^) B ^. OH B jUlj ^b. (^) B \ {. (^) B 

(\) B ^ji/i^, ( n ) B om. OY) B^J^^. OA) A 

but corr, in marg. 


<> JAxJV 3-^1 J^l? J>- 


i\ ^ \ JV5 

~ ^ ^ ^- x. ^ v-, -^ X - ^ A- f 5& 

- , ^ 

(^) In marg. .y^. ( r ) So in marg. Text: y v ^ . (^) Suppl. in 

marg. (*) V v t corr. above. ( J ) Text has w^W ^d^, but the word 

has been altered. The original reading appears to have been oV*J\,. 

lU3 J> j u-jV; 

_ki.l jO U^ 4^C> 

- f u\ 

l wu- 

4^j ^ /j V A f. 

" ^J ^-^ <u ^ U 

, , r 


0) Text: f \o. ( r ) Text: ^W. (^) ^,A\\. (*-) Qj . () In 

marg. ^>jj.^ . 0) In marg. ^ . ( Y ) Suppl. in marg. ( A ) Kor. 9, 123. 
0) Suppl. above. 


Vjj 5 bj^ u*5lafe\ 

.J\ ^U dl\j 

A _ * ** A 

c c-JS Af. 

*Ls ^- 

^o ^ 4, A JVL C^.-X/\ (f) 4l.\J i^Ja> Ju. 


"^ ^ V^ OVJi> ^p 3 *_j\j 

Jp \JuaJ Vs (i) ^ii 

(^ Kor. 2, 137. ( r ) O j^\ ^,\ written above the line, between 

and J\i. (^) Suppl. in marg. (^ So in marg. Text: ^ 

i L*. 

JW V :j 

tii J ~> 


V- U oU ^A^\ V. 

di) J 

(\) Kor. 59,7. ( r ) dJii o\ J)J . (t) ^^ suppl. above after oj\. 

( l ) ^ suppl. above. () VT suppl. above as variant of As\; . 

,^ sr JL 

i \ 




Jw ci\ 

(^) Kor. 58, 12. ( r ) Ivor. 40, 18. (^) Kor. 17, 22. ( l ) So in marg. 

Text : O^-* . 

" \\ \ * *\\ \ c. \ 



U dili ^-A) i\ \ 

f C\ 

^ > 




li \ 

0) In marg. 4?\j*j <dj- .* . ( r ) Jc. (^) Kor. 3,98. The remainder 

of the verse is added in marg. (*) Kor. 5, 3. 4,^1 has been supplied 

above after ^Lxi \ . () Kor. 3,16. C 1 ) So in marg. Text: Jc 

\ l A f. 26 



Ic ^ O 

So in marg. Text: o^.A^ . ( r ) So in marg. Text: U. (^) ji 

^. ( l ) Var. in marg. A^l. () Suppl. in marg. 0) Kor. 12, 52. 

Kor. has -\ <& \ 

1 _ 

j^ial^ Ua.j.\ ^o -X5^ U 

^j > 

0) So in marg. Text: a^Vf_j- ( r ) Suppl. in marg. H So above. 

I ext : ^\J . C 1 ) ^ in marg. () Kor. 57, 21. 0) Kor. 35, 29. 

00 The words <i&\ ^iV> cj^^V j>Vw c*j Jwali-a A**^ are 
after <J,2.. ( A ) Kor. 27, GO. 0) jU, 

j J 6 ^ Jp <irf^\ SlSU JiVi\V\^ isejj^a.*^ A f. 16 


_ Jc .. 

iaiJ Jc.& 

MC ^^.i 

(Li iJ 

. \o 

(^) JJi Aii^ ^i> and so always in A. B has U^ <^,^ 4\ ^.^ <^lc <ui\ Jo. 
( r ) B jVxi i\ . (^) The words ^ ^ ^.^ ^ ^ are obliterated in B. 

(^ Here the text of B breaks off, the remainder of the pag3 (f. 3a) having 
been torn away. Several folios are missing here. Fol. 3b begins with the 
words ^$1^ *(_- j> (j-a Cf^\ J^jf Jj W *i*^ 7>^J which occur in A on 
f. 56, 1. 7= p. M, 1. ^ in this edition. () Suppl. in marg. 

0) So in marg. Text: ^ 

V,.\ JU iUi 

U V 

j. VI 

0) This passage down to the words -C^Ji j\\ j\=> i$Ji\ 0- 1 ) is wanting 
in B. ( r ) Space left blank in A. CO Cr^jV, . (*) Perhaps 

should be read here, but \#M is distinctly written in the MS. () 

0) The text of B begins here (f. 3a). ( Y ) B V- . ( A ) A om. * U 

(^) B ^\^. 



<u Jl\ J laic 
\LaJ\ ti Uc ^ Ji 



i . r 

i . Y 

i I V v->UxV\ 

11 Y 


ir \ 


., Ki p^o jyi 

*\U\ u-J 


\ ti\ dlS j o\l\j 

^\ ii ^ 


c ^ ^p j J 

Ujx5\ J u ^_ r a^\ Jfc\ 


11*- ^J dio ,$, 



J^ \c* uJu?^ J 


^ T 



r. \ 


r \ \ 

n \ 






j\ 1 dilj 


\ 0. 



1 \ \ 

\ 1V 



J <V:^^ J^ J 


. o 





(3 u- 

(3 c->) 

\ \ 

C- A\i\ 


^. 4\1\ 










dili o 

dil j 


JW ^l 
JW ^ 













4.^ v \> 

M Aia ^_JU 



\ . 

\ \ 
\ V 



B? al-Sarraj, Abu Nasr 
189 The Kitab al-luma 1 

S3 fi ! l-Ts.sawwuf